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ay, 1979 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 


Published By 

Maurice K. Townsend, President 
John T. Lewis III, Vice President and Dean of Faculties 

Learning Resources Committee 
Chairman, Edwin M. Blue 

Mary E. Baxter Lenise E. Mason 

Charles Beard Edith H. Maxwel 

Thonnas A. Bryson III Jerome T. Mock 

Louis Carri Huey A. Owings 

Timothy Chowns Jo Ann Sanders 

Joseph Doldan Carole E. Scott 
George C. Mann 

Jimmy C. Stokes, Editor 

Martha Saunders, Associate Editor 

Betty S. Jobson, Assistant Editor 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for faculty 
research and to make available results of such activity. The Review, published 
annually, accepts original scholarly work and creative writing. West Georgia 
College assumes no responsibility for contributors' views. The style guide is 
Kate L. Turabian. A l\/lanual for Writers. Although the Review is primarily a 
medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major recitals 
and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted are not 
listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and appears in the 
issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all master's theses and 
educational specialist's projects written at West Georgia College are included 
as they are awarded. 



Volume XI May, 1979 




Metapsychiatry David J. Higgins 1 

Sincere Stylization: Byron and the Heroes of Childe Harold's 

Pilgrimage Mary Ferguson 1 

Calculation of Atmospheric Gas 

Lifetimes for Various Bodies in the Solar System Ben deMayo 19 

The Concept and Trend of Social Stratification Lee-jan Jan 26 

Par-A-Dise and Science Frank Sadler 38 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 44 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College 

Faculty as of January 1, 1979 65 

Copyright©1979, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 

by David J. Higgins* 

Metapsychiatry is a method of therapy which goes beyond what has 
hitherto been the limit of the psychiatric discipline. It not only makes use of 
but also advocates a philosophic position and a religious faith. The philosophy, 
a phenomenological method resulting in a scheme reminiscent of the Seven- 
teenth Century Spinoza, and the religious faith, a somewhat depersonalized 
Christianity, invite a critique which is unconcerned with the effectiveness of 
the therapy. 

Apparently the fruit of many years of practice as a psychiatrist, two books 
were published by Thomas Hora in 1977 as an elucidation of his appraoch. 
The first. Existential Metapsychiatry, is expository; the second, Dialogues in 
Metapsychiatry, reports conversations among the devotees — with Hora the 
main protagonist.! This paper will critique three themes from this rather ex- 
tensive matrix: the distinction between useful and invalid questions; the 
distinction between interpersonal action and omniaction; the meaning of 
person as it refers to God. The first theme is important for philosophy, the 
second for psychology and the third for religion. 


Metapsychiatry is a therapy which defines health as the realization of the 
good of God which is immediately present; all our problems are of our own 
making — most of them the result of self-confirmatory ideation and of dualistic 
and horizontal thinking. Realization is contrasted with mere experience: 
". . .we cannot experience reality, we only experience our thoughts about 
reality." (Metapsychiatry, p. 24) Experience is subjective, unreliable, sensory, 
emotional and intellectual. Realizations are spiritual. Realizations cannot be 
expressed as mere statements about the truth, such as "God is good." Rather, 
realizations are recognized when we reach the PAGL point, characterized by 
peace, assurance, gratitude and love — and by harmony, wisdom, joy, health 
and benevolence. (Metapsychiatry, p.p. 25, 175; Dialogues, p. 93) 

Realizing the good of God which is immediately present we become bene- 
ficial presences (not curious, influencing trespassers) manifesting spiritual love, 
which is a nonpersonal, unconditional benevolence. (Metapsychiatry, p. 17) 

'Associate Professor of Philosophy, West Georgia College 

^ Thomas Hora, Existent/a/ Metapsychiatry (New York: The Seabury Press, 
1977); Dialogues in Metapsychiatry (New York: The Seabury Press, 1977). 

Self-confirmatory ideation is exemplified in the religious fanatic, who is 
committed to his own ego and not to the quest for truth; in the natural man, 
who identifies with his body and its pleasures and pains; in a self-indulgent 
emphasis on how one feels; in a belief in personal ownership; in seeking to 
blame; in asking what to do about problems and how to do it (as if self were 
in control and not God); and in fear - a mental preoccupation verbalized as, 
"lam afraid." (Metapsychiatry, pp. 15, 110, 1 16; Dialogues, pp. 182, 184) 

Metapsychiatry shares with the stories of Zen and the abstractions of vari- 
ous idealisms a moderate success in forging a language which will communicate 
that which is beyond the horizontal and dualistic thinking which pervades 
culture and ordinary language. The dualism of self-other, of egoistic-altruistic 
- in general, the dualism of all forms of interaction is transcended by omni- 
action. Explanations in terms of cause-effect are replaced by realizations. A 
therapist is neither passive nor active, but reverent. Being arrogant-being a 
doormat is transcended in humility. Transcending the dualism of victim- 
victimizer is "the secret place of the most High." The combination of good- 
evil which appears in all material things is transcended in the good of God 
which is spiritual, unified and total. Freedom is neither dependent nor in- 
dependent As a final example, good students neither agree, nor disagree, nor 
daydream - they understand. (Dialogues, pp. 208, 164, 93, 192; Meta- 
psychiatry, pp. 27, 61, 122) 


Unenlightened man traps himself in fruitless activity by asking questions 
which are invalid; they are futile and they foil God since they do not let God 
do His work in our lives. The following are examples: What's wrong? How do 
you feel? Who is to blame? What should I do? How should I do it? Why? 
Why is he this way? 

The question about who is to blame for what happened is personalistic. 
"Nobody is really to blame. There is neither cause nor culprit." 

What should I do? and How should I do it? are invalid because man is not 
really an operator, nor is there any process of repair involved, nor is there an 
operation of fixing. 

The main difficulty with the question. Why? is that it derives from cause- 
effect thinking - a dualistic search after explanations - which interferes with 
realization. Further, to ask why is to seek for someone to blame, to seek the 
historical cause of the problem; even if we find it we still have the problem 
and furthermore may experience anger at the cause, say, at the parents of a 
troubled child, and that anger will prevent the peace and harmony of reali- 
zation. (Metapsychiatry, pp. 39, 81, 91, 197) 

Hora's use of the question Why? and its relation to cause-effect are typical 
of current usage. These meanings gained currency beginning about the time of 
Galileo with the rise of scientific method. But there is a more ancient signif- 
icance to Why?, deriving from the Greeks, especially Aristotle who regarded it 
as a seeking for the middle term in a demonstration. This usage pervaded the 

\/liddle Ages. Dante, for example, regarded questions as the initial impulse 
eading us to Truth — like a fox seeing its den from a distance we are led on 
ay wonder, as expressed in the question Why? until we reach the Truth be- 
/ond which no truth hath range. 2 

About any demonstration we can ask, "Why is the conclusion true?" The 
answer is, "because of the middle term. " If we continue the process in 
iuch wise as "Why should the middle term be accepted?" we engage in a 
leries of successive questions which finds its ultimate cause, or ground, in the 
■jrst cause which is the source of all truth, usually named God. 

That moderns are alienated from this process of development from an in- 
tial wonder to an ultimate knowledge of a first cause is apparent from the 
itrangeness which we experience when confronted with such deductive master- 
pieces as the Summa Theologica. In a sense Hora and Aquinas come to reali- 
sations virtually identical: an intelligent, loving source — the modern by deny- 
ng the relevance of the question Why?, the ancient by affirming it. 

Midway between Aquinas and Hora, Spinoza developed a system of geo- 
Tietrically rigid definitions and theorems beginning with the premise of a God 
vho is one, who emanates in two modes, body and idea, and who ultimately 
ecaptures human reality when it achieves the intellectual love of that orig- 
nary God. 3 The parallels with Hora are many, if unacknowledged. Their 
ihilosophical methods are definitely different. 

Hora's method is an outgrowth of the phenomenological tradition, espec- 
ally as it appears in Heidegger, to whom the debt is acknowledged. In accord 
with this method the two meaningful questions are. What is the meaning of 
:hat which appears to be? and What is that which really is? 

By means of the first question the person with a problem gets away from 
the level of phenomena and appearances — with its imaginings and its errors of 
thinking — and onto a level of understanding. For example, a couple had a 
Jog with a prolapse of the rectum which would disappear when the couple 
;eased fighting. To ask. Why does this happen? is fruitless. To ask. What is the 
Tieaning of what seems to be going on here? yields the answer that there seems 
to be discord in the house. Then "to the second intelligent question — What 
s really going on here? — the answer is love and harmony and peace and 
Tiutual regard, because in divine reality that is the status quo: peace, harmony, 
assurance, gratitude, and love. As the couple began to see their situation in 
the context of jointly participating in the good of God, the fights disappeared, 
the discord disappeared, and the dog was healed, (metapsychiatry, p. 133) 


Interpersonal action and reaction cause humans their most frequent and 
ntense problems. Countless methods have been proposed for alleviating these 

-Dante, La Divina Commedia (Milano: Ulrico Hoepli, 1955), Par. IV, 123-131. 
^Spinoza Selections, ed. John Wild (New York: Chirles Scribner's Sons), Ethic. 

distresses — all to no avail because they are all based on the faulty daalism 
that the self is distinct from others, and because they seek to heal by analysis 
in the dualistic terms of cause-effect. What is needed is the phenomenological 
method of asking the right questions and permitting the answer to realize itself. 

What we come to realize is that each of us shares in life as the leaves of the 
maple tree share in its life. Apart from the tree is death. Interaction between 
leaves as between humans is an illusion. Uniquely sharing in the life of the 
tree, uniquely sharing in the loving understanding of divine reality, each, 
whether leaf or human, realizes omniaction. 

Using another metaphor, unenlightened people interact like intertwining 
fingers; omniaction is represented by fingers pointed skyward approaching 
ever so close but not entangled. Control, dominance, influence, jealousy, am- 
bition and competition are all the consequences of error in thought. Inter- 
action appears to be; omniaction really is. (Metapsychiatry, p. 192; Dialogues, 
p. 211) 

What then about the apparent interaction of one ego with another: "Man 
has no ego either; God, Mind is his ego. Once we realize that there is no inter- 
action, then it becomes clear that infinite Mind is the ego of everyone; God is 
the 'I AM' of all of us, just as God is the same vital force pressing for mani- 
festation in every flower, plant, or other life form everywhere in the universe." 
Mora thus interprets the description God gave to Moses: "I am who am" 
translates as God is the only one who can say "I am." Whenever humans say 
it they are slipping into the error of self-confirmatory thinking, the beginning 
of the problems they set up for themselves. "Personhood is just an idea. If 
people have personal problems, then they have invented them." (Dialogues, p 
p. 211, 103) 

Inconsistency creeps into Hora's approach: whereas ego, personhood and 
self-confirmatory thinking are eschewed, yet a concept of self, of authentic 
self-hood, is made use of: "Existential psychotherapy endeavors to help man 
liberate himself from the confines of his social pretensions so that he may be- 
come what he truly is and what he always was — not another person but an- 
other self." (Metapsychiatry, pp. 54, 77, 102) 

If personhood is a social pretension and not real, then every person is a 
liar and a lie at the same time. Interpersonal relationships consist of two ficti- 
tious characters trying to interact with each other. "We can sit in amazement 
contemplating the multitudes of pepple investing time and energy using inter- 
personal transaction for therapeutic purposes. . . .Interpersonal relationships 
can only improve the pretense, not the health of the persons." 
(Metapsychiatry, pp: 90, 101) 

It is impossible here to illustrate the numerous cases presented in the texts. 
Generally speaking, the asking of the two meaningful questions leads to reali- 
zation which takes the place of the interpersonal problem. For example, "In 
a transference relationship, whether it is beneficial or harmful, there is only 
self and other, patient and therapist. . . .But in real life there is much more, 
there is also the dimension of the spirit, the transcendent, the third party call- 
ed GOD. That third party is present." (Metapsychiatry, p. 54) 

Before turning to the third section on the personality of God, it might be 
relevant to suggest that Hora could resolve the ambiguity about the self by 
asserting its fictional status — either on an empirical basis as did Hume, or as a 
corollary to a system of rational thinking as did Spinoza. 


Although Hora's metapsychiatry is sprinkled with quotations from the 
Bible, and although he grounds his existential realizations in Biblical truth, 
he claims that what he is doing is not strictly speaking religious. When a stu- 
dent asks if ail these religious statements have to be accepted, Hora answers 
that they are interested only in reality. 

What then about the God who is the third party in every apparent relation- 
ship? In many passages the nonpersonal character is posited. Since we are 
manifestations of Love-Intelligence, which is God, we are all capable of mani- 
festing spiritual love which is nonpersonal, unconditional benevolence. "God 
is not a person. What is God? God is an is." Again, this is Hora's interpre- 
tation of the napne, "I am who am," given to Moses. Humans are to trans- 
cend personalities: ". . .when we see each other, we are seeing individual 
manifestations of the great 'I AM."' And most ramifying, ". . .existence is a 
synonym for God." (Metapsychiatry, pp. 17, 85; Dialogues, pp. 17, 183) 

But consistency is obviated. On the one hand, Hora suggests that our con- 
cept of God may be either,!' a personal one or an impersonal one: so long as 
intelligence is seen as the source of evertthing that is being done right. And 
again, Jesus "was neither human nor God. He was just at an advanced state of 
spiritual consciousness. Being God is not real for man, being human is also 
not real. But being a spiritual consciousness — that's real. And that's what 
he was." (Metapsychiatry, p. 145; Dialogues, p. Ill) 

On the other hand Hora can ask, "Who is this person called Love-Intelli- 
gence?" This is quite ambiguous when juxtaposed with a passage referring to 
Jesus at the point in his life when he achieved at-one-ment with the source 
saying," "I and my Father are one' (John 10:30). 'I am in the Father, and the 
Father in me' (John 14:11). His personal sense of self has disappeared and 
from then on he lives an an emanation of Love-Intelligence. Those are the 
very passages referred to by those who like Athanasius believe in a distinction 
of persons within one God. (Metapsychiatry, pp. 58, 121) 

It would be impossible to fault the claim that God is unconditionally lov- 
ing intelligence; these attributes are as common in the traditional discussions 
as are those of pure act, supreme being or power. But to say that God is non- 
personal flaunts at least six centuries of early Christian attempts to delineate 
the three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The fact that different faiths 
and/or heresies define in different ways and either fight for or die for their re- 
spective claims would indicate that the persons are of considerable significance 
to those humans interested in transcendence. Perhaps psychological health can 
be achieved by realizing an impersonal loving intelligence, but if religious faith 
yields any truth — which it certainly does — then interest in the one truth 
would seem to require practitioners of metapsychiatry to recapitulate the 

early Christian discussions. Here again the parallels with the Jewish Spinoza 
continue - but Christian living which shares in the mysteries of Trinity and 
Incarnation is also realization. 



by Mary Ferguson* 

No other English poet is so neglected and pursued as George Gordon, sixth 
Lord Byron. Neglected in terms of his poetry, he is yet pursued relentlessly ' 
as a poet, as one whose life intermingles inextricably with his work. In both 
the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries few critics and fewer casual readers 
have expressed abiding interest in the stylistic material of Byronic poetry; 
however, almost everyone has been intrigued by the sweeping force of the 
Byronic personality. It is flatly impossible to imagine the work without the 
man. Diffused throughout the strained rhythms of his imperfect Romantic 
poetry, Byron and the multiple Byronic reflections of himself provide a seem- 
ingly inexhaustible source of interest to the rest of mankind. 

This particular interest in Byron has existed from the publication of his 
first real success, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Thrust with the Childe into fame, 
he appeared to the public as the perfect conception of a Romantic poet, stalk- 
ing the ideal along melancholy paths. This public notion of Byron as the ab- 
solute Romantic persisted throughout the nineteenth century, so that he eas- 
ily towered above Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, and Coleridge in society's 
imagination. Typically, William Makepeace Thackeray noted in 1846 that 
Byron was still considered a "public god."1 Dislodging a god is difficult, and 
when Matthew Arnold perceived Wordsworth to be a finer poet than Byron, 
he placed the author of The Prelude above the author of Childe Harold only 
after giving "the second ranking poet" markedly high praise. High praise 
seemed a small enough tribute to one thought to be the epitome of Romant- 

Avid critical and public admiration of Byron did not disappear in the 
twentieth century, but its focus, while still remaining on the man and his 
shadows, shifted to the poet in Don Juan rather than in Childe Harold. Grad- 
ually, it was realized that Byron did not epitomize Romanticism; rather, he 
epitomized its problems. In 1924 G.R. Elliott noted of Byron that the other 
Romantics "were penetrated by the Romantic mood, and he was cloaked in 
it."2 Foreshadowing the Weitschmerz and mal du siecle of Continental writ- 
ers in the next generation, Byron could not reconcile the real and ideal. No 

*lnstructor of English, West Georgia College 

^William Makepeace Thackery, quoted in Peter L.Thorsley, M., The Byronic 
Hero, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962) p. 15. 

2g.R. Elliott, "Bron and the Comic Spirit", /'MZ./A 39 (1924), 900. 

profound thinker, he yet knew and admitted the "toughness of facts" in real- 
ity. 3 Of all the problems associated with Romanticism, this admission of hard 
fact was perhaps the most difficult for the majority of Romantics to accept. 
For Byron, that acceptance ultimately meant that he had to live outside him- 
self as well as within. 

Within and without, his personality pervades his poetry, but often in num- 
erous disguises. The poetry itself, including Childe Harold, is often distressing 
in quality compared to its quantity. There is some truth in T.S. Eliot's sup- 
position that apparently Byron "never destroyed anything. "4 To destroy 
work so obviously containing parts of the self, however, would have been 
tantamount to destroying the self. Often flawed in the casing, the fragments 
of Byron nonetheless appeal to the reader in their own paradoxical vitality. 

That vitality issues from Byron the man, one who is many in his bits of 
comedy and tragedy, inertia and action, real and ideal. It is totally character- 
istic of Byron the man to joke about the anguish which produced the magni- 
ficence of Canto III in Childe Harold: "\ should, many a good day, have 
blown my brains out, but for the recollection that it would have given pleasure 
to my mother-in-law; and even then , if I could have been certain to haunt her 
— but I won't dwell upon these trifling family matters. "5 Of course, Byron 
meant his letters for publication. It must be realized, however, that the witty, 
public Byron is no more or less a pose than the private man. 

Yet it is equally characteristic of Byron to write in a thoroughly tragic 
style about the creation of the same canto: 

I am a lover of Nature and an admirer of Beauty. 
I can bear fatigue and welcome privation, and have 
seen some of the noblest views in the world. But 
in ail this — the recollections of bitterness, and 
more especially of recent and more home desolation, 
which must accompany me through life, have preyed 
the crashing of the Avalanche, nor the torrent, the 
mountain, the Glacier, the Forest, nor the Cloud, 
have for one moment lightened the weight upon my 
heart, nor enabled me to lose my own wretched 
identity in the majesty, and the power, and the 
Glory, around, above, and beneath me. 6 

^Hoxie N. Fairchild, The Romantic Quest (Mew York: Columbia University 
Press, 1931), pp. 362-363. Elsewhere in his book Fairchild makes a brilliant 
assessment of the essential Byron: "Too idealistic to refrain from blowing 
bubbles, and too realistic to refrain from pricking them" (p. 370). 
4t.S. Eliot, On Poetry and Poets (New York: Farrar, Straus, & Cudahy, 1957), 
p. 224. 

^George Gordon, Lord Byron, Works: Letters and Journals, ed. Rowland E. 
Prothero (London: John Murray, 1898-1901), IV, 49. Hereinafter cited as 
Letters and Journals. 
6Byron, Letters and Journals, III, 364. 


Written to his sister Augusta, this private passage suggests the maiancholy 
inherent in the poet, but it does not belie the epistolary humor. Rather, its 
elaborate style merely implies the breadth and variety of the verbal gestures 
to come from the mind of Byron. He was a psychological paradox, and so, a 
poetical mystery. 

To examine the paradox which is Byron, it is useful to examine the Byronic 
personalities in Childe Harold, originally published in three separate parts, 
Cantos i-ii (1812), III (1817), and IV (1818). Written between the crucial 
years of 1809 and 1817, the poem conveys much vital information about the 
boy poet maturing into the man. Jerome IVIcGann has suggested that "Byron 
composed the poem as a running record of his own life and thought in that 
period. "7 McGann's supposition is surely correct, but the implications of 
what lies behind the written record are vastly more important. 

Behind the melancholy and the struggle of Childe Harold \% the process of 
sincere stylization, a process unleashed by the poet's unconscious to bring 
forth his passive guilt into active sin. 8 The final, mature, moderate affirmation 
of the poem represents the success of this process: unconscious, passive guilt 
can only be used creatively in a limited fashion simply because it is not known; 
factual, active guilt can be used as a viable part of the creative process, and 
ultimately, of life itself. Indeed for the mature Byron, such conscious, active 
guilt has become not only viable but essential to both his art and his life. 

Sincere stylization is the process by which Byron's unconscious guilt sur- 
faces and becomes a part of his art. This process consists of the psychological 
pressures from childhood events which lead the poet to commit incest with his 
sister, to enter into a disastrous marriage, and finally, to exile himself from 
England. In the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, which is the record of 
Byron's feelings as well as his travels during the years of this psychological 
process, sincere stylization appears as the pivot around which a Byronic myth 
becomes a Byronic fact. Harold, the hero of the first two cantos of the poem, 
is a myth, a stylized personality who has consciously suffered what the real 
Byron has only unconsciously experienced: the guilt of active sin. Thus, the 

7 Jerome J. l\/IcGann,F/ery Dusf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), 
p. viii. 

8 In the context of this article, the terms"unconscious" and "passive" are 
inextricably linked as attributes of Byron's guilt before the process of sincere 
stylization occurs. Byron's Oedipal conflicts and sexual encounters with May 
Gray are prime causes of his unconscious guilt; however, he is unquestion- 
ably the passive figure in these childhood encounters. As sincere stylization 
occurs and Byron's guilt becomes conscious, he must break from this passivity 
and become an active figure in guilt. He does so by actively initiating the in- 
cest with Augusta. Thus, Byron's guilt as he writes Cantos I and II is both 
unconscious and passive, and is opposed to his conscious, active guilt in 
Cantos III and IV, written after the process of sincere stylization has 

hero of the first cantos is a stylization, but because the poet is actually suffer- 
ing deep guilt subconsciously, the hero is also, paradoxically, sincere. By the 
time Byron composes the last cantos of the poem, however, his own guilt has 
surfaced through psychological pressure and has emerged in the form of the 
incest. Therefore, Byron-Harold, the hero of the last cantos, is clearly sincere 
in his conscious suffering, clearly a product of the completed psychological 
process. The myth of the suffering sinner has become reality. 

That myth originated in Byron's infancy and childhood, which, remark- 
ably enough, could be studied as a textbook case for neurotic and Oedipal 
conflicts. Born into a family known for violence and insanity, Byron inherited 
his title from the "Wicked Lord" and was the scion of "Mad Jack." John 
Byron, an attractive wastrel, abandoned his wife and son when the baby was 
two and died when the boy was three. Even before the abandonment, John 
Byron had had as little as possible to do with son George, but somehow he 
had always retained the affection of his wife. Thus, Byron's earliest years fit 
perfectly into an Oedipal pattern, as the boy had virtually no father to imitate 
and yet did have a standing rival for his mother. 

That mother, Catherine Gordon Byron, alternated between spoiling her son 
and berating him for a physical deformity, a club foot which had afflicted him 
from birth. Aggressive and rather vulgar, she casually passed from fits of irri- 
tation to waves of affection. Byron recalled that when enraged with him, she 
would either mock his lame foot or shout, "Ah, you little dog, you are a Byron 
all over; you are as bad as your father!"9 Apparently, however, it was this 
likeness to his father which frequently caused his mother to follow her tan- 
trums with endearments, so that the emotional pattern of the boy's life was 
haphazard indeed. Gradually, perhaps in self-defense, he became narcissistic, 
in love with an image of himself, and eventually, in love with the person most 
reminiscent of himself — his only sister. 

Beyond the narcissism, however, beyond the Oedipal conflict, Byron's 
psyche was already turned toward the uncommon crime he would later com- 
mit and already bent into the unconscious and passive guilt which lay directly 
beneath sincere stylization. Long before the boy entered Harrow and adole- 
scence, he had already experienced a sexual affair which was markedly un- 
usual, almost as distinctive as incest. At the age of nine and perhaps before, 
Byron had been frequently sexually assaulted by his Calvinist nurse. May 
Gray. Recalling his childhood, the mature Byron noted, "My passions were 
developed very early — so early, that few people would believe me, if I were 
to state the period, and the facts which accompanied it."^0 Undoubtedly, 
this oblique reference is to May Gray, who was finally dismissed after the 
family lawyer discovered her actions. 

9 Byron on his mother, quoted in Leslie A. Marchand, Byron: A Biography 
(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957), I. 29. 

^0 Byron, Letters and Journals, V, 450. 


The importance of this relationship between Byron and his nurse cannot 
be overestimated. The ages of five and twelve bracket the latent stage in a 
child's psychological growth, but for Byron there was, in effect, little or no 
sexual latency. It was almost as if he were held prey to all the neurotic and 
Oedipal conflicts which should have lain dormant during a part of his boy- 
hood. Sexually, he was caught in the throes of the rivalry with his father for 
his mother's affection and in the midst of the narcissism which led him to an 
unnatural interest in his sister. Finally, he was suspended in a state of un- 
conscious guilt over his passive sexual involvement with May Gray. It was 
just this guilt, abetted by the other conflicts, which Byron had to bring to 
the surface in his life and in his peotry. It was just this guilt which led him to 
create the myth of Harold and to turn that myth into the reality of Byron. 

As an adult, Byron plunged into this process of change. In doing so, he ex- 
hibited a number of neurotic traits. Sexual seductiveness is probably his most 
noted, if not his most notable, characteristic. Between 1812 and 1815 the 
strikingly handsome lord committed incest with Augusta Leigh and had af- 
fairs with Caroline Lamb, Lady Oxford, and a rather large number of unident- 
ified admirers. At the same time he managed a platonic romance with Lady 
Webster and an erratic courtship of Annabella Milbanke. Yet this is the same 
Byron who, after marring Annabella, told her "with every appearance of 
aversion" how he hated sleeping in the same bed with a woman. 11 Clearly, 
Byron's sexual behavior included aberrations stemming from his childhood. 

Simultaneously, Byron displayed style in dress in his role as a Regency 
gentleman, and energy and forcefulness in his athletic feats, including his 
famous swim across the Hellespont. Compensating for his club foot with his 
elegant appearance and athletic demeanor, Byron conveyed a sense of hyper- 
masculinity to his public and quite possibly, to himself. That image of hyper- 
masculinity undoubtedly aided him in his romantic affairs, but it did not fully 
disguise his neuroses. 

During the year of Byron's marriage, traits of high emotionality, aggress- 
iveness, and narcissism dominated his personality. According to Abraham 
Zaieznik and David Moment, such traits force an individual "to move toward 
the source of instinctual danger, in counterphobic sense, instead of withdraw- 
ing. "12 They drive him, in other words, to the kind of seemingly senseless 
tragedy Byron sought in incest and a loveless marriage. The year 1815 was 
thus a crucial period for the poet, as it both directly followed his affair with 
Augusta and immediately preceded his self-imposed exile from England. In- 
deed, 1815 marked the beginning of Byron's conscious awareness of his own 
active guilt. Reacting from this new knowledge, he verbally abused both 
Augusta and Annabella in frequent drunken rages. His emotionality and ag- 

11 Edith Colburn Mayne, The Life and Letters of Anne Isabella, Lady Noel 
Byron, 2nd ed. (London: Constable, 1929), p. 161. 

12 Abraham Zaieznik and David Moment, Tfie Dynamics of Interpersonal 
Behavior (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964), p. 228. 


gressiveness tended, however, to proceed in particular against his wife. More 
and more, this emotionality was linked to Byron's narcissism, a self-love 
which far exceeded an appreciation of his own beauty. At its worst, this nar- 
cissism verged on the psychotic, so that the poet was totally unable to apprec- 
iate the value of other people. 

This combination of high emotionality and extreme narcissism produced a 
bizarre incident one night in this year. Byron lay in bed with his wife, who 
recalled the episode this way: 

Once between three and four A.M. he fancied a step on 
the stairs, and lay afraid to stir, suffering so much 
that I said I would get up and see. He let me, though 
I was within three or four months of my confinement — 
but I am convinced it was because he thought himself 
the only one against whom harm was intended. ^ 3 
The danger, of course, existed only within Byron's mind. Yet his treatment of 
his wife, like his habit of sleeping with a loaded pistol by his side, visibly indi- 
cated his paranoia as he struggled with conscious self-awareness. 

Myth had become reality for Lord Byron, but he had already publicized 
the myth in the highly stylized title character of Cantos I and II of the 1811 
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. As the hero in a poem, Harold can be called sin- 
cere in one overt sense, in his obvious similarities to his creator; however, it 
has long been a critical moot point as to whether or not Harold is sincere as an 
expression of his creator's real feelings. Melancholy and guiltridden, the early 
Harold is a black portrait of despair: 

And now Childe Harold was sore sick at heart. 
And from his fellow Bacchanals would flee; 
'Tis said, at times the sullen tear would start 
But Pride congealed the drop within his ee: 
Apart he stalked in joyless reverie. 
And from his native land resolved to go. 
And visit scorching climes beyond the sea; 
With pleasure drugged, he almost longed for woe. 
And e'en for change of scene would seek the shades below. (I, 6)14. 
As a young aristocrat on his first Grand Tour, Byron, for all his poses, simply 
had not led such a wasted life — not in 1809, when he started these verses 
merely for recreation. Consciously, actively, he had not sinned against him- 
self or others. 

Despite this conscious innocence, however, the Harold of l-II is sincere as a 
metaphor for Byron's guilt. Welling from the unconscious, the guilt is passive, 
the result of his having been sexually sinned against. Its presence in the un- 

13 Lady Byron, quoted in Mayne, p. 190. 

14 George Gordon, Lord Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, in Works: Poetry, 
ed. Earnest Hartley Coleridge, rev. ed. (London: John Murray, 1898-1904), 
II, 18-19. All further canto and stanza citations refer to volume II In this 


conscious forces Byron to create Harold as a myth of black guilt, but a myth 
which is ultimately sincere. Harold is the worst part of Byron, a part the rat- 
ional man cannot effectively use because he cannot rationally grasp it. He has 
not sinned, but he is guilty. 

With Byron as his narrator, Harold appears later in Canto I as a figure of 
Cain, a cursed sinner destined to wander without hope of comfort: 

Yet to the beauteous form he was not blind, 

Though now it moved him as it moves the wise? 

Not that Philosophy on such a mind 

E'er deigned to bend her chastely-awful eyes: 

But Passion raves herself to rest, or flies; 

And Vice, that digs her own voluptuous tomb. 

Had buried long his hopes, no more to rise: 

Pleasure's palled Victim! life-abhorring Gloom 

Wrote on his faded brow curst Cain's unresting doom. (I, 83) 
Here the connection between Harold and Byron grows somewhat stronger. 
The wanderer cursed with "Cain's unresting doom" is especially pertinent to 
Byron. May Gray had lectured him on the strict tenets of Calvinism, with its 
theory of pre-destination, during his childhood. With that upbringing and the 
remembrance of the passive sexual acts of that time, the emotional Byron 
could only have believed himself a kind of Cain, damned before he was born. 
Thus, he instinctively imbued Harold with that same damnation, a condem- 
nation the rational Byron would later set out to earn. 

While the reference to Cain in stanza 83 marks a definite link between the 
two Byronic heroes of Childe Harold, it does not, by any means, permanently 
solidify their relationship. Harold is still and will always be bound to the 
guilt of his own making, to the vice which has "buried long his hopes, no 
more to rise." Byron still remains consciously free of such vice. Just as im- 
portantly, he remains free to develop, while Harold is fixed in despair. Fasci- 
nated with the idea of Harold, Byron had to create him. No amount of fasci- 
nation, however, can save Harold from ultimately being what Kenneth Bruffee 
bluntly calls a "melodramatic showpiece. "15 His reputation as "Pleasure's 
called Victim" is simply too much to believe. It cannot long satisfy his creator. 
Even as early as Canto II, Byron has a tendency to forget Harold, and then 
remember him with a start: 

But where is Harold? shall I then forget 

To urge the gtoomy Wanderer O'er the wave? 

Little recked he of all that Men regret; 

No loved-one now in feigned lament could rave; 

No friend the parting hand extended gave, 

Ere the cold Stranger passed to other climes: 

But Harold felt not as in other times 

And left without a sigh the land of War and Crimes. (II, 16) 

15 Kenneth Bruffee, "The Synthetic Hero and the Narrative Structure of 
Childe Harold \\\, " Studies in English Literature, 6, (19661, 670. 


By admitting that he has almost forgotten the title personage of his poem, 
Byron vividly depicts the gulf between his creation and himself. They are 
subliminally linked inextricably, but on the surface they are only connected 
by similarities of appearance and their common resemblance to Cain. While 
both are young aristocrats traveling through war-torn Europe, there is not real, 
conscious relationship between poet and character. Andrew Rutherford has 
suggested that in these first cantos Byron and Harold "co-exist but do not in- 
teract. "16 Only mutual guilt will cause the two heroes to interact, and only 
through interaction will Byron be able to move past his childhood neuroses 
into new creativity. 

It is worth noting that the almost-forgotten Harold is precisely the same af- 
fected misanthrope who appeared in Canto I. Thus, it is appropriate that he 
be reintroduced with the words, "Little recked he of all that Men regret." Just 
as Harold recked little but sinful pleasure in the opening stanzas of Canto I, so 
now he counts on even less than that. Presumably, all that is left to him by 
now are his guilty memories, the specific details of which the reader never 
learns. This vagueness of detail accounts for the lack of dramatic tension in 
these cantos, which are, perhaps, finally best labelled as description. 17 
Harold's mysterious stagnation prevents them from being anything else. 

Nonetheless, the poem was a tremendous success. Having published it 
after returning to England in 181 1, Byron found his public in almost the en- 
tire country. Varying from restrained admiration to hysterical adulation, the 
public reaction lifted the young lord to his godlike status. Edward Bostetter 
has noted that the poem made its creator "overnight the expression of the 
English libido, so long repressed by religion, government, and war. "18 As the 
mythical expression of public desire, Childe Harold gave the jaded aristocracy 
a new glamor and meaning, gave the masses an escape from humdrum routine, 
and gave the Puritan middle class an evil (Meaning Byron) to be vicariously 
enjoyed and yet reformed. 

Temporarily delighting in this success, Byron raced through society, but 
the psychological guilt which was the basis of his melancholy revived within 
him and returned him to the process of sincere stylization. Having made his 
myth, Byron proceeded to live it out in truth. He committed incest with 
Augusta, entered into a catastrophic marriage with Annabella, and found him- 
self in a public disgrace which led to a permanent exile. Following these 
events was Canto III of Childe Harold, composed on Lake Geneva under 
Shelley's influence in 1816. Canto IV, with Byron himself as its sole source, 
followed in 1817. 

16 Andrew Rutherford, Byron: A Critical Study (Stanford: Stanford Uni- 
versity Press, 1961), p. 33. 

17 William H. Marshall, The Structure of Byron's Major Poems (Philadelphia: 
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962), p. 39. 

18 Edward E. Bostetter, The Romantic Ventriloquists (Seattle: University of 
Washington Press, 1963), P. 275. 


By the events leading to his exile fronn England, Byron is able to be with 
Harold as a figure of deserved guilt and anguish in Canto III. 

Yet must I think less wildly: — I have thought 

Too long and darkly, till my brain became. 

In its own eddy boiling and o'erwrought, 

A whirling gulf of phantasy and flame: 

And thus, untaught in youth my heart to tame, 

My springs of life were poisoned. Tis too late! 

Yet am I changed; though still enough the same 

In strength to bear what Time can not abate. 

And feed on bitter fruits without accusing Fate. (Ill, 7) 
The incestuous affair has justified Byron's guilt and completed his unconscious 
quest for an Oedipal relationship. The psychological trap sprung on him by 
his parents and May Gray has closed out any possibility of his being a good 
man in any accepted social sense; now he has made himself worthy of that 
trap. Bertrand Russell has observed this Byronic sense of worthiness in evil, 
of the pride of a man who fits himself into "the romantic style of Ghibelline 
Chiefs, cursed by God and Man as they trampled their way to splendid down- 
fall. "19 For Byron romantic evil is even more satisfying. Perfected in sin, he 
can now reach across his deliberate experience to create a fine quilt in Cantos 
III and IV. 

As he discovers this new knowledge of his own Romantic personality, Byron 
comes to realize that Harold has become a superfluous personage in what pur- 
ports to be his poem. With Byron consciously able to assume his burden of 
guilt, Harold has ceased to function as a figure of sublimation. Moreover, be- 
cause the sated Harold cannot effectively develop in any direction, he cannot 
come to serve Byron in some other capacity. Instead, he must be absorbed 
into the poet, who is ready to become the sole hero of the work. 

In the last stanza in which Harold is mentioned by name, he is a figure al- 
ready being absorbed into the greater personality of the poet; 

Thus Harold inly said, and passed along. 

Yet not insensible to all which here 

Awoke the jocund birds to early song 

In glens which might have made even exile dear: 

Though on his brow were graven lines austere. 

And tranquil sterness, which had ta'en the place 

Of feelings fierier far but less severe — 

Joy was not always absent from his face. 

But o'er it in such scenes would steal with transient trace. (Ill, 52) 

This "Harold" who experiences, however briefly, a kind of tranquility and 

joy is obviously not the stagnant and melancholy Harold of the first cantos. 

19 Bertrand Russell, "Byron," A History of Western Philosophy (New York: 
Simon and Schuster, 1945), rpt. in Paul West, ed., Byron: A Collection of 
Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963), p. 153. 


Rather, what the poet here calls "Harold" is clearly a description of the mat- 
ture Byron himself, a man "not insensible to all which here/Awoke the jocund 
birds to early song." It is impossible to conceive of the original Harold as being 
sensitive to the jocund songs of birds. The character, in everything but name, 
has become absorbed into the creator. 

Further proof of this absorption appears in the next several stanzas, ending 
with a reference to the dearest of "Harold's" loves, a love "Which unto his 
was bound by stronger ties/Than the church links withal" (III, 55). This re- 
ference to ties beyond those of marriage suggests the bonds of blood, the 
bonds between Byron and Augusta. At the time Canto III was being written, 
Byron still considered Augusta his dearest love, and so the Byron-Harold of 
stanza 55 does everything but mention her by name. Following this stanza, 
there is a break in the action of the poem in the form of a song about the 
Rhine. Following that song, there is no further mention of Childe Harold by 
name in the poem. In every way, poet and pilgrim are one. 

Finally knowing his guilt, Byron is able to live with it in Canto IV, if not 
to absolve it in any peom. Similarly, he learns to live without a reconciliation 
between the real and the ideal. .Essentially, this process of living, of endur- 
ing becomes a value in itself, an affirmation out of negation. 20 jhe effort of 
the pilgrimage itself is a positive fact in both senses of the adjective. The ef- 
fort is difficult, but in his new conscious honesty, Byron will admit no easy 
answers in a world of fact. 

Early in this last canto, he squarely admits his responsibility for his actions: 

My name from out the temple where the dead 

Are honoured by the Nations — let it be — 

And light the Laurels on a loftier head! 

And be the Spartan's epitaph on me — 

"Sparta hath many a worthier son than he." 

Meantime I seek no sympathies, nor need — 

The thorns which I have reaped are of the tree 

I planted, — they have torn me, — and I bleed: 

I should have known what fruit would spring from such a seed. (IV, 10) 
Actually, Byron is not as responsible for his sins as he declares himself to be. 
Quite possibly, he should have known "what fruit would spring from such a 
seed," but the planting of that incestuous seed was at least partially caused 
by psychological pressures of which he consciously knew nothing. The pro- 
cess of sincere stylization hinges on that unconsciousness. Nevertheless, it is 
encouraging that Byron can now bear his guilt without flinching. It Is a sign 
of his full maturity. 

In this maturity Byron slowly realizes the factual values for which he is 
searching. One of these values is endurance, the ability to live life as what Mc- 
Gann calls a string of "consecutive vital particularities"'21 Byron learns this 
value by observing the harsh reality of nature (a part of nature not often seen 
by Romantics): 

20 McGann, p. 38. 

21 McGann, p. 38. 


Existence may be borne, and the deep root 

Of life and sufferance make its firm abode 

In bare and desolated bosoms: mute 

The camel labours with the heaviest load, 

And the wolf dies in silence, — not bestowed 

In vain should such example be; if they. 

Things of ignoble or of savage mood. 

Endure and shrink not, we of nobler clay 

May temper it to bear, — it is but for a day. (IV, 21) 
As the camel and the wolf bear their burdens, so man, the creation of "nobler 
clay," must bear his. Most of existence will be thus burdensome, but at times 
there will be those vital particularities, moments of personal energy, and these 
are life. Made worthy by the effort of endurance, such particularities flashed 
before Byron in occasional moments with Augusta at their family home in 
Newstead, with his later love Teresa Guiccioli in Italy, and even with his best 
friend John Cam Hobhouse in Greece. Those moments could not be taken 

The other value which Byron finds in this canto is the ability to reason. At 
this time, Byron is alone. Left to himself and to his personal, now rational 
responsibility for his sins, he yet finds a moderate optimism in this respon- 
sibility of reason: 

Yet let us ponder boldly — 'tis a base 

Abandonment of reason to resign 

Our right of thought — our last and only place 

Of refuge; this, at least, shall still be mine: 

Though from our birth the Faculty divine 

Is chained and tortured — cabined, cribbed, confined. 

And bred in darkness, lest the Truth should shine 

Too brightly on the unprepared mind. 

The beam pours in — for Time and Skill will couch the blind. (IV, 127) 
It is as if in disillusionment, Byron has found self-confidence. 22 The right of 
reason and understanding is his now as it never was in the earlier cantos. "The 
beam pours in," and he can reason his way to ever increasing knowledge of 
himself and his world. With this sureness of increasing knowledge and the 
ability to endure the sorrow as well as the joy in life, Byron is now possessed 
of two worthwhile values, neither of which conflicts with the reality of facts. 
Endurance is real, and so is the ability to reason. Together, they have given 
Byron a sense of restrained optimism. 

That sense of optimism is, as McGann suggests, celebrated in the address to 
the ocean in the closing stanzas of the poem. 23 Byron has loved the ocean, 
and on its waves he has experienced some of those energetic moments which 

22 Bostetter, p. 277. 

23 McGann, p. 136. 

24 Thorslev, p. 16. 


are life. Moreover, he now regards the ocean as the epitome of endurance, as 
something which persists through good and evil alike: 

Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean — roll! 

Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain; 

Man marks the earth with ruin — his control 

Stops with the shore; — upon the watery plain 

The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain 

A shadow of man's ravage, save his own, 

When, for a moment, like a drop of rain, 

He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan — 

Without a grave — unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown. (IV, 179) 
If Byron murmurs, "The wrecks are all thy deed" in stanza 179, he also cries, 
"And I have loved thee, Ocean" in 184. His point is that the sea, the "deep 
and dark blue Ocean," will endure, whatever its momentary traits may be. At 
times it appears as ruinous to man; at times it seems delightful to him. Always, 
however, it persists, and in the very fact of persistence is Byron's reason for 
celebration. Like the waves of the ocean, he, too, may keep moving. From 
the open, poetical anguish of Childe Harold he will move to open, poetical 
comedy in Don Juan, so that the end here is also a beginning. 

The Romantic age was the last great age of heroes, of Washington, Welling- 
ton, Nelson, and Napoleon, of men who became myths while they yet lived. 24 
Lord Byron was one of those heroes, a man who worked legends of himself 
into his poetry and so became inextricable from his art. Childe Harold con- 
tarns a number of these poetic legends, Byronic heroes revolving about the 
process of sincere stylization, myths and facts intermingling in a slow straight- 
ening of confusion into order. Separately and even together, these Byronic 
personalities provided the poet with no panacea for his psychological and art- 
istic problems, but they did appear to him as pieces of endurance in a world 
of hard fact. By frequently extending and refining these reflections of him- 
self, Byron was able to continue his pilgrimage in life with some affirmation 
long after he realized he would find no final answer to existence. That he en- 
dured at all with such knowledge was a real and uplifting triumph. The tri- 
umph was small but it was real, and to Byron, reality was ever most important. 




by Ben deMayo* 

INTRODUCTION — In our solar system, one can find a wide range of atmos- 
pheres surrounding the planets and their satellites. The formation, develop- 
ment, and stability of these atmospheres is of great interest to astronomers, 
meterologists, atmospheric physicists, and biologists. In this study, a simple 
model was used to investigate the effects on the atmospheres of real and hy- 
pothetical celestial objects of the mass of particular gas molecules and of the 
object's mass, radius and solar distance. 

METHOD — Several factors affect the retention of a gas molecule by a planet 
or satellite. The effectiveness of this retention can be characterized by a time 
t necessary for 1/e or 36.8% of the gas to escape from the atmosphere of the 
planet. Unless there is a large replenishing source on the planet, t must be 
greater than several hundred thousand years for the gas to be a stable con- 
stituent of the planet's atmosphere. 

Dole! gives an expression for the escape time t, after Jeans^ and Jones3, as 

t= [v/2g2R] exp (3gRv2) 

Where v is the rms speed of the gas molecule, g is the acceleration of gravity on 
the planet, and R is the planetary radius. Note that 


where G is the universal gravitation constant and M is the planet's mass. Let 
us assume as f first approximation and v is related to the temperature as 
v= [SkT/m]'/^ 

where k is Boltzmann's constant, T is the absolute temperature of the gas, and 
m is the mass of the gas molecule. Note that the illuminance reaching the 
planet is4 

EC<= L/r2 

where L is the luminosity of the planet's star and r is the distance between the 
planet and star; from the sun, L - 1. If we assume that I is proportional to 

*Associate Professor of Physics, West Georgia College 

1 Dole, S. H., Habitable Planets for Man, 2nd ed. American Elsevier Press, 
New York, 1979, p. 34. 

2 Jeans, J.H., The Dynamical Theory of Gases. Cambridge University Press, 
London, 1916. 

3 Jones, J.E., Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 22, 535 

4 Dole, op. cit. p. 64. 


E, and that T for the Earth's upper atmosphere is around 2000ok5, we can 
combine these to obtain a reasonably accurate expression for t in terms of the 
planet's mass, solar distance, and radius, and the molecule-^ mass: 

t=[288.223[- [R/r\/m[3 • [1/m2[ ■ exp (3.755Mr2/m/R) - 17.273 

25)Y (1) 

where r is given in A.U., M and R are in terms of the Earth's mass and rad- 
ius, and m is in amu. 

The expression for t can now be used to do the following: 
1) for several gases of interest, evaluate t for the planets and satellites of the 
solar system, 2) "Move" the Earth about in the solar system to determine the 
effect on t of distance from the sun, and 3) find the limits on planetary radius 
and mass at different distances from the sun for a "habitable atmosphere". 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION - First, let us see what the expression (1) for 
the escape time t yields for the present situation for planets and satellites. 
Table 1 and Figure 1 show these results for the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, 
and Mars; the moon; the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and Titan, which is a 
satellite of Saturn. For the Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and 
Neptune), the values for t are greater than 10^00 years for all gases. The 
planetary parameters of Pluto are too uncertain for a meaningful calculatioa 
Note the following: 1) Both the moon and Mercury have little or no at- 
mosphere, for different reasons — Mercury because of its closeness to the sun 
and the moon because of its small mass. 2) The gases of Mars' and Venus' at- 
mospheres are shown to have similar escape times, even though we know that 
the atmospheres are vastly different. This emphasizes that other factors be- 
sides those given in expression (1) are important in the escape of a gas from a 
planet's atmosphere. One of these factors is the condensation of the gas on 
the planet; a low surface temperature is the primary factor here. Mars' sur- 
face temperature is cold enough to condense not only H2O, but also C02- 
Venus, on the other hand, has a surface temperature of over 700° F due to its 
runaway greenhouse effect. 3) Venus and Earth have very different escape 
times, even though their similarity of mass, radius, and distance from the sun 
might at first glance suggest otherwise. 4) The high escape times of the Gali- 
lean satellites and Titan may be misleading because of condensation effects. 
However, it is known that Titan has an atmosphere denser than that of Mars6. 
Furthermore, Ganymded and lo are also thought to possess atmospheres. 7 5) 

5 Dole, op. cit. p. 36. 

6 Hunten, D.M., "Titan's Atmosphere and Surface", CM. Ponnamperuma, 
ed. In Chemical Evolution of the Giant Planets. Academic Press, New York, 
1976, pp. 27-45. 

7 Carlson, R.W., 1976. "Atmospheres of Outer Planet Satellites". E.W. 
Greenstadt, M. Dryer, and D.S. Intriligator, eds. In Exploration of the Outer 
Solar System. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 
1976, pp. 85-112. 


The large t values for the Jovian planets reflect their large masses. A snow- 
ball effect could initially have led to this as the giant planets accumulated hy- 
drogen, became more massive, and accumulated more hydrogen. 6) More de- 
tailed calculations have been reported^ that take into consideration such 
things as the nature of the atmosphere, charge exchange, and solar wind, when 
these are adequately known. Nevertheless the present models, agrees fairly 
well with them and is more useful in situations where all of the necessary 
imput factors are not well known. 

One question that can be investigated easily with the present model is, 
"What would be the effect on Earth's atmosphere if it were located at a diff- 
erent distance from the sun than it is now?" Figure 2 shows the results of 
such a calculation. We can see that Earth would have a denser atmosphere 
than Mercury, Venus, or Mars if it were located at their positions, mainly be- 
cause of its larger mass. 

Another question that can be investigated is one of the minimum mass of 
an object necessary to hold appreciable amounts of water ( and thus be 
"habitable"). Let us take a value of t = 1022y for H2O, which is close to the 
value of t = 2.7 X 1022y for H2O on Earth. Also let us choose the density 
range of the planet to be between 0.6 g/cm3 (the lowest of any celestial ob- 
ject is the 0.7 g/cm^ of Saturn) and 7 g/cm^ (the density of pure iron is 7.8 
g/cm3). For comparison. Earth's density is 5.5 g/cm^. Figure 3 shows that 
the Galilean satellites. Titan, and Earth all have the potential of accumulat- 
ing "habitable" amounts of water in their atmospheres; Callisto, Europa, and 
lo all havemust densities above 0.6 g/cm3 to do so. An object of Earth's mass 
could be located up to 1.4 A.U. or as close as 0.95 A.U. from the sun for the 
minimum or maximum densities, respectively, and still have t = 1022y. At 
0.5 A.U., the maximum density object would be 7 times Earth's mass; the 
minimum density object would be 23 times Earth's mass. For 5 A.U., on the 
other hand, the object would be 0.006 times Earth's mass and 0.02 times 
Earth's mass for the maximum and minimum density cases. 
SUMMARY — An expression for the escape time of a gas from a planet or 
satellite has been derived and used to investigate 1) present planetary at- 
mospheres, 2) the atmosphere of an earthsized planet at various distances 
from the sun, and 3) the mass limits of objects in the solar system with 
possible water retaining atmospheres. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The author would like to thank Herman W. Boyd 
and Eric V. Eslinger for critically reviewing the manuscript. This study was 
done as part of the author's participation in a short-course entitled "Origins of 
Life", directed by Dr. CM. Ponnamperuma, and sponsored by the National 
Science Foundation and the American Association for the Advancement of 

8 Papagiannis, M.D., Space Physics and Space Astronomy. Gordon and Breach, 
New York, 1972, p. 14. 

Hunten, D.M. and Donahue, T.M., Annual Review of Earth and Planetary 
Science 4, 265-292 (1976). 












1— t 





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ape time of gas molecules for various bodies in the solar system (vertical lines) and for 
Srth" at different solar distances (curves). 

log,ol Escape Time (yj } 


— i 1 — 

Minimum mass to retain water (t - lO-^-^y) vs. solar distance. Solid Imes: maximu 
density - 7 g/cm3. Earth density = 5.5 g/cm^, and minimum density = 0.6 g/cm3. 
Also shown are various celestial objects. 

og,o ( Escape Time (y)) 









MARS ^0 







Distance from Sun (A. U.) 




by Lee-jan Jan* 


Stratification, one of the universal social phenomena, has been defined in 
various ways by many sociologists. A review of some of the definitions will 
help us gain an understanding of stratification. Stratification, as viewed by 
Parsons, is "the ranking of units in a social system in accordance with the 
standards of the common value system. "1 Bernard Barber thinks that strati- 
fication is the differentiated structure and dynamic system of human society, 
in which differentiated activities and roles are valued in different degrees. The 
existence of this phenomenon is based on two conditions: first, men try to 
achieve their goals in society and in the search find that each man is a means 
to other men's ends; they value each other as agents of their goals. Second, 
men, for integrative purposes, agree on a common value. 2 Smelser thinks that 
stratification refers simply to the differential distribution of sanctions in a set 
of social structures, and the units can be roles, organizations, individual per- 
sons and classes. 3 Tumin thinks that for practical purposes, stratification and 
inequality are synonymous, and stratification essentially refers to the arrange 
ment of social groups or society into a hierarchy of positions that are un- 
equal with regard to power, property, social evaluation, or psychic satis- 
faction. 4 Tumin also pointed out five important attributes of stratification: 
they are social, ancient, ubiquitous, diverse in form, and consequential. For 
Sorokin, stratification means the differentiation of a given population into 
hierarchically superposed classes. Its basis and very essence consists of an 
unequal distribution of rights and privileges, duties, and responsibilities, soc- 
ial values and privations, and social power and influence among the members 

^Assistant Professor of Sociology, West Georgia College 

1 Lewis Coser and Bernard Rosenberg, eds., Sociological Theory: A Book of 
Readings (New York: Macillan Company, 1969), p. 427 

2 Bernard Barber, Social Stratification: A Comparative Analysis of Structure 
and Progress (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1957), pp.1-2. 

3 Neil J. Smelser and Seymour Martin Lipset, Social Structure and Mobility 
in Economic Development (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1968), pp. 

^ Melvin M. Tumin, Social Stratification: The Forms and Functions of til- 
equality (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967), p. 12. 


of a society. St atification is a permanent characteristic of any organized soc- 
ial group, but its concrete forms are different and numerous. 5 

From reviewing the different definitions, we may summarize and say that 
stratification is an ancient, ubiquitous, consequential phenomenon. It is a 
hierarchical arrangement of different social positions in a social structure; 
the different positions are evaluated, and the sanctions are distributed ac- 
cording to a common value system in a particular society at a particular time. 

By this we mean that although the phenomenon of social stratification is 
ancient and ubiquitous, the concrete forms of this hierarchical arrangement, 
the common value system, the criteria people use to evaluate the different 
positions, may vary from time to time and also from society to society. To- 
day we can see that the trend of modernization is to bring all the different 
originally isolated societies together and form a world community. This trend 
may decrease the differences of the criteria which are used among different 
societies. And there is a possibility of forming a common value system ona 
common value system on a world scope. 

We need to note here that although we agree with Tumin that inequality 
and stratification in their practical use may be synonymous, for analytic pur- 
poses the term inequality has a hint of moral judgment, and the term strati- 
fication is more value free. We would also look at stratification as consequent- 
ial rather than, as Barber indicated, serving a function for people to achieve 
their goals, because we feel his statement is too functionally tinted, and is in- 
appropriate for a definition. 


The definition of stratification gives us a rough outline of what it is, but 
leaves us many problems for further examination. To be examined in this 
section are its antiquity and ubiquity areas. What are its various forms; what 
are those criteria that have been used in stratifying people of a society; what 
are their implications and consequences? 

Lenski traced society in its various forms from early primitive, such as a 
hunting and gathering society, to a simple horticultural society, through the 
advanced horticultural societies, agrarian society to industrial societies. He 
pointed out that the fact of inequality (stratification) is as old as the human 
species, and there was no known society which had ever had a completely 
egalitarian system. Since the phenomenon is that old, the thought and dis- 
cussion concerning it must not be a new subject either. Therefore tracing 
back to its early emergence may shed some light for the present develop- 

The earliest record we can find are those Hebrew prophets around 800 B. 
C, such as Amos and Micah, who in their writings denounced the rich and 
and powerful. Hindu priests around 200 B.C. wrote to support the existing 

5 Pitirim Sorokin, Social and Cultural Mobility /'Glencoe, III.: Free Press, 
1959), p. 11. 


inequality in their society. According to Lenski, the different ideas concern- 
ing stratification can be grouped into two categories: one is those who sup- 
port the status quo, viewing the existing distribution of rewards as just and 
inevitable, and the other is those who denounce and criticize the existing un- 
equal distribution of rewards and think the system is unjust and unnecessary. 
The former, as represented by those Hindu priests, Lenski refers to as an ex- 
ample of the conservative thesis; and the latter, as represented by the Hebrew 
prophets, Lenski refers to as the radical antithesis. 6 Although there have 
been many variations, these two main currents flow from the very ancient age 
down to the present. Not until recently do we begin to see a tendency of 
these two currents to flow into each other and become one. 

In the Greek era Aristotle stood on the conservative side and defended the 
basic institutions which undergirded the social stratification, and he claimed 
that some men are by nature free, and some others by nature slaves. There- 
fore slavery is both expedient and right. At the same time Phaleas and Plato, 
on the other side, attacked the existing social stratification. Phaleas advocated 
the redistribution of land on an egalitarian basis, and Plato proposed his idea 
for communal ownership of all forms of property in The Republic J But 
clearly we can see that their main concern of equality was only material pos- 
sessions. So the criterion they thought was unjust for stratification was only 
economic factors, precisely property. Philosophers in the Greek era did not 
consider people being stratified by power, honor or prestige as unjust, or they 
just did not see it, because they were so indocrinated by the institutions of 
that time. Another criticism of both the conservative thesis and the radical 
antithesis is the philosophers saw the stratification system in a society either 
as just or unjust, and defended or attacked it, but they did not go further to 
analyze it to see the causes, consequences or implications of it. 

Early Christianity was not really concerned about inequality per se. How- 
ever, the work of John of Salisbury, an English bishop of the twelfth century, 
made a great step forward in the conservative thesis. John developed, in great 
detail, the organismic analogy. He thought that society was like the human 
body, each part of which has its own function in maintaining the whole sy- 
stem. Although the parts are functionally differentiated, they are united by 
ties of mutual dependence. 8 The theory began to probe into the causes, con- 
sequences, and implications of stratification. 

Machiavelli, at the time of the Renaissance, asked who is fit to rule. He 
proposed an open society notion because he considered that one of the con- 
sequences of a closed stratified society could be the loss of talent by not giv- 

6 Gerhard E. Lensk], Power and Privilege: A Theory of Social Stratification 
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), pp. 3-5. 
1 1bid., p. 6 
8 Ibid., p. 8 

•m 28 

ing people an£)pportunity. But he thought that inequality in a society should 
be considered legitimate and desirable, as long as there has been equality of op- 
portunity to become unequal. This notion of equality of opportunity is 
commonly advocated today. 9 

Thomas Hobbes, on the other side, advocated a fundamental equality a- 
mong all men. The thought that the equality must take the place of inequality 
in the new criteria of power and privilege. Hobbes introduced the new crit- 
eria in stratification and his thought has influenced the 17th and 18th century 
radical egalitarianism.10 

Since the English revolution of 1648, radical egalitarianists have made tre- 
mendous advances as they directed their attention toward political equality, 
and achieved a degree of intellectual sophistication, maturity and respecta- 
bility comparable to that achieved earlier by the conservative thesis. The 
most prominent ones were Locke and Rousseau as they popularized the the- 
ory that sovereignty ultimately resides in the people as a whole, not the 
king.1 1 

In the 19th century Karl Marx declared that the history of all hitherto ex- 
isting societies is the history of class struggle. Marx saw the classes developed 
on the basis of the different positions or roles which individuals fulfill in the 
productive scheme of society. Marx categorized them mainly as the owner of 
the means of production, the bourgeois, and the workers. For Marx, the con- 
flict between the bourgeois and the workers was mainly over the economic 
factors. 12 

Weber, although he followed Marx and recognized the significance of the 
economic aspects of stratification, added to the economic dimension of strat- 
ification two other dimensions, power and prestige. Weber saw property, 
power and prestige as three separate but interacting bases on which hierarchies 
are created in a society. 1 3 

Before we turn to the contemporary theories, there are still two conser- 
vative theorists in this period whom we need to mention, William Graham 
Sumner and Gaetano Mosca. Sumner was a Social Darwinist. He described 
the class system of society as being essentially a measure of the social worth 
of men, which in turn was basically a measure of native ability. Although he 
admitted that some inequality in a stratification system may have resulted 
from chance or luck, he thought those occurences were not significant. 
Mosca's argument for the existing system is that human societies can never 
function without political organization and political organization necessarily 

9 Tumin, Social Stratification, p. 3 
^Q/bid, p. 3. 

1 1 Lenski, Power and Privilege, P. 11 . 

12 Tumin, Social Stratification, pp. 4-7. 


involves inequalities in power, so that there are ruler and ruled, and inequality 
is inevitableJ4 

In contennporary sociology, a big step was made by American sociologists 
as they launched the empirical study of stratification. An example can be 
seen in Robert Lynd's study of Middletown. Lynd analyzed a typical Ameri- 
can community, in terms of the impact of economic power on the political, 
social, educational, and religious institutions of the community J 5 

W. Lloyd Warner's study of Yankee City is a series of studies of the social 
structure and function of a northeastern community. Warner's emphasis in 
the study of stratification is on reputation and prestige. He relied more on 
subjective criteria, to see how the members of a community view their sit- 
uation, than on the objective differences between them, such as income. 
Warner also tried to develop a standard index of status characteristics based 
on such criteria as education, residence, income, and family background. 16 

C. Wright Mills in The Power Elite argued that power is the key concept 
in social relations and that effective power, at least in American society, de- 
rives from advantageous economic positions. Mills thought that the economic 
elite, military eleite, and power elites make a special privileged elite group who 
see themselves differently from the other social classes, and the power elites 
exert influences on policy making. ^^ 

In this era we think the main progress in the study of stratification includes, 
first, in methodology, the beginnings of empirical research; second, the broad- 
ening of stratification criteria. The theorists no longer rely on only one of the 
measures, such as the objective indices of income and education, or the sub- 
jective indices as imputed honor or prestige, but adopt both measures. Third, 
a beginning of notice of the issue of mobility was made and concern expressed 
about it be inquiry as to whether America is still a land of opportunity. 

Except for the progress the sociologists made in methodology and practical 
issues, on the conceptual level we may say the study of stratification still 
follows the two main streams, the conservative thesis and the radical antithesis. 
Functional theory, which follows the conservative thesis, sees society as an 
organism; stratification as a functional necessity in maintaining the society; 
and stability and order as normal, conflict and disorder as deviant phenomena. 
It is represented by W. Lloyd Warner, Talcott Parsons, and Kingsley Davis. 
Conflict theory, which follows the radical antithesis, sees stratification as a 
major source of continuing conflict in a society, and conflict as inherent, 
natural and predicatable in social organization. It is represented by Robert 
Lynd, C. Wright Mills, Lewis Coser, and Rolf Dahrendorf. 

Parsons thinks that there is a consensus on a set of common values in every 

14 Lensk\, Power and Privilege, p. 13 
"•5 Tumin, Soc/a/ Stratification, p. 8. 

^7 /bid, p. 9. 


society, although in different societies they may weigh the values differently. 
There is also a functional differentiation of roles. The system of stratification 
in a society is an expression of the value system of that society. The differ- 
ential distribution of rewards depends upon the society's set of common val- 
ues, which serves as a standard measurement, and the person's qualities, per- 
formance and possessions, or the functional importance of his position. Since 
men are different in qualities, performance, and possessions and the roles or 
different in importance, stratification is therefore natural and inequality is ine- 
vitable. ^ 8 

Davis \nSome Principles of Stratification states that stratification is a funct- 
ional necessity of a society. For the benefit of the whole society, it is necess- 
ary to motivate the proper persons to the proper positions. Therefore for the 
more capable persons, to take the positions which have the greatest import- 
ance for the society and require the greatest training or talent, and to per- 
form their duties, the rewards have to be different. 19 

The conflict theorists do not agree with the functional analysis of strati- 
fication. Lewis Coser argues that the social conflict by itself is a function in 
helping to establish unity or to reestablish unity and cohesion. Tumin criti- 
cises Davis as attempting to defend the status quo. David Lockwood criticises 
Parsons' equilibrium model by pointing out that first, the existence of a nor- 
mative order mirrors the continual potentiality of conflict; second, there are 
varying degrees of acceptance of, or alienation from the dominant values; 
third, there is a division of interest resulting from differential access to scare 
resources; fourth, the stability and instability mean the success or failure of 
the normative order in regulating conflict of interest; fifth, to understand why 
behavior patterns persist or change, we need to understand not only the nor- 
mative structuring of motive but also structuring in substratum. 20 

Ralph Dahrendorf's criticism says functional framework lost the problem- 
consciousness, which is not only a means to avoid ideological biases, but also 
an indispensable condition of progress in any discipline of human inquiry. 
He thinks that functional analysis is an Utopian approach because: first, in 
functionalists' analysis of society the change is absent, and they take the soc- 
iety as in its final state. They did not recognize the unending flow of the 
historical process. Second, functionalists believe in the existence of universal 
consensus on prevailing values and institutional arrangements; everything has 
a function to preserve the society, and the structure is perfect for its function. 

18 Alvin Boskoff, Theory in American Sociology: Major Sources and Appli- 
cations (New York: Thomas Crowell Company, 1969), p. 220 Lenski, Power 
and Privilege, p. 16. 

19 Reinhard Bendix and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds.. Class, Status, and 
Power: Social Stratification in Comparative Perspective (New York: The 
Free Press, 1966), pp. 47-48 

20 D. Lockwood, "Some Remarks on the Social System," British Journal of 
Sociology, 7:134-146, June, 1956. 


They neglected the structurally generated conflict. Third, all the processes go- 
ing on in Utopian societies follow recurrent patterns and occur within and as 
part of the design of the whole. They affirm and sustain status quo. Even the 
moving equilibrium is still the organism type, while what is going on is only 
metabolism. There will be no change of the society as a whole. Fourth, the 
approach can be applied only to a self-sufficient, internally consistent society 
which is isolated from other communities. 21 

Dahrendorf presents a conflict approach to the analysis of society in which: 
first, the society is constantly changing. Second, social conflict is ubiquitous; 
it may be unpleasant and disturbing, but it is indispensable to our understand- 
ing or social problems. Third, societies are held together not by consensus but 
by constraints, not only by agreement but by coercion, and values are en- 
forced. Constraints generate conflict, and conflict generates change. 22 

The main criticism conflict theorists give to functional theorists fs that 
they did not take change and conflict into consideration. However, we know 
the harmony and the stability of social structure is one side of the fact, and 
the conflict and change of social structure is the other side of the fact; stabi- 
lity is necessary to the social structure; change is also necessary to the social 
structure. We may say both theories are correct, but both theories are imcon> 
plete; as Dahrendorf pointed out, society is Janus-headed and the two faces 
have to be described by different theories. The two theories are actually com- 
plementary, not contradictory. The two theories each have their crucial fun- 
ction for the society. As we can see, the conflict theory is more idealistic; it 
is critical of the existing system and leads to change. The functional theory is 
more pragmatic, emphasizing the preservation of order and leading to stabi- 
lity. So we can assume that without the conflict theory, human society will 
tend toward anarchy or chaos. 

The two theories of stratification have gone a long way, and both in the 
course of history have gained maturity. Their concepts have come from a 
simple notion of the phenomenon of inequality to the inquiry of its causes, 
consequences, and the development of systematic theories to explain the 
phenomenon. The criteria the theorists used to measure the inequality or an- 
alyze the stratification have been broadened from only objective indices, such 
property, to the use of both objective and subjective indices. They also im- 
proved in their methodology by using empirical research methods. Although 
we see that both theories have gained maturity, that does not mean that we 
think that they are perfect, nor do we think they explain the whole fact. As 
society changes, they still fall short in explaining the new phenomena. As 
John A. Jackson pointed out, they are inappropirate for the analysis of the 
competing interests of power elites in a situation where access to power is not 
necessarily dependent upon either the ownership of property or the value of 

21 Coserand Rosenberg, Socio/ogica/ Theory, p. 222. 

22 /bid. 


the performance of needed tasks for the society. 23 There are still other pro- 
blems such as the measurement of mobility which need further development, 
as well as speculation on the indications of which direction we are going, in- 
creasing or decreasing equality. 

The biggest weakness in both theories, as Lenski pointed out, is their tend- 
ency to make social analysis subservient to moral judgment, thus often leading 
to the formulation of hypotheses which do not lend themselves to empirical 
proof or disproof. Besides, we think this moral judgment concerning the 
question of justice should be considered irrevelent to a scientific analysis of 
the social fact. 

After we have examined both the strengths and weaknesses of these two 
theories, it is natural to search for an alternative which will combine the 
strength of both theories and eliminate their weaknesses. Actually, we can see 
a trend of synthesis is already emerging. Bernard Barber pointed out that 
functional theory, although it looks at stratification from a functional point 
of view, functional theory does not mean that it has to be conservative, de- 
fensive of the status quo, or against change. If just describes one aspect of 
stratification. 24 

Sorokin's work Social Mobility is considered by Lenski probably the first 
extensive and systematic treatment of social stratification in a synthetic man- 
ner, because Sorokin combined and blended elements of both traditions. 25 

Stanislaw Ossowski, in his treatment of class structure, sought to demon- 
strate that both theories are fundamentally correct, and human societies are 
far more complex than either theory can deal with fully. 26 

Pierre L. Van Den Berghe also spelled out that the time has named for the 
conflict theory to criticize the functional theory as not taking change into 
account, and that societies are never perfectly integrated, or not every ele- 
ment of a social system is functional or essential. Now is the time to move 
toward a synthesis. 27 

Lenski is the most enthusiastic sociologist in the development of a syn- 
thetic theory. He thought that the movement of synthesis has been more by 
drift than design and a design will help to speed the process. He pointed out 

23 J. A. Jackson, e6., Social Stratification (Cambridge: University Press, 1968), 
p. 3. 

24- Bernard Earner, "Structural-Functional Analysis: Some Problems and Mis- 
understandings, "American Sociological Review, 21:129-135, April 1956. 
25 \_ensk\, Power and Privilege, p. 18. 
26/6/cy., p. 19. 

27 Pierre L. Vanden Berghe, "Dialectic and Functionalism: Toward a Syn- 
thesis," in Demerath and Peterson, System, Change and Conflict (New York: 
Free Press, 1967). 


that in the process of synthesis, there are two ways to involve the reform- 
ulation of problems and concepts. The first is the technique of transforming 
categorical concepts into variable concepts. Categorical concepts limit one to 
think in what degree a given phenomenon is present. The second technique is 
to break down compound concepts into their constituent elements. Because 
many traditional concepts used to describe systems of stratification subsume 
a variety of loosely related variables, he believes that by using these two tech- 
niques there will be an increase in agreement in areas of controversy. 28 

Lenski postulated eight controversies between conflict and functional the- 
ories. They are the controversies over the nature of man, the nature of society, 
the degree to which systems of inequality are maintained by coercion, the de- 
gree to which inequality generates conflict, the means by which rights and 
privileges are acquired, the regarding of inequality as inevitable, the nature of 
the state and of law, and the regarding of the concept of class as essentially a 
heuristic device calling attention to aggregations of people with certain com- 
mon characteristics. Lenski analyzed his theory according to the above eight 
controversial areas and claimed his theory is "an extremely complex mixture 
of elements from these two older traditions, yet at the same time unique and 
different. "29 

Lenski's theory mainly stems from his principles of the distribution of 
goods and services. The two principles are: first, in primitive or technologi- 
cally lagging societies, there are no surplus goods or services; the distribution 
is according to need. Second, in more advanced societies there are surplus 
goods and services, the distribution of these surplus goods and services de- 
pends upon power. Privileges are the possession or control of the surplus 
goods and services. Thus classes emerge mainly because of surplus goods and 

Although there are theorists who are very optimistic with regard to the dir- 
ection of a synthesis, such as Lenski, there are doubts among other theorists. 
For example, Dahrendorf thinks that the society is Janus-headed; the two 
faces have to be described by two theories, and since the two theories are 
complementary, a synthesis is not necessary. 30 Erik Allardt wonders whether 
a synthesis is possible. He thinks it mainly depends upon what interpretations 
one has for a theory. He distinguishes theories into two categories. One is 
the propositional theory, and the other is the dimensionalistic theory. He 
thinks a synthesis is possible for the propositional theory, but not for the di- 
mensionalistic theory. Lenski belongs to the former and Dahrendorf belongs 
to the latter.31 

Regardless of the doubts about the necessity and possibility for a syn- 
thetic theory, we are glad to see, for the first time in the history of stratifi- 

28 Lenski, Power and Privilege, p. 20. 
"^^ Ibid., pp. 441-443. 

30 Coser and Rosenberg, Sociological Theory, p. 222. 

31 Jackson, Social Stratification, p. 15. 


cation study, a new dimension is introduced. We believe the pursuit of the 
truth is not limited to one way or the other. The more directions from which 
we approach the truth, the faster we will get to the core. At the same time 
the more ways we look at a fact, the more comprehensive we gain about it, 
the less biased we will be. 


As we have reviewed the theories, the debate on whether stratification is 
just or unjust, is necessary or unneccessary, is functional or disfunctional, 
stabilized the society or prevented it from progressing, we feel the debate is 
too morally loaded. A synthesis theory has emerged and an attempt made to 
get away from this debate, by looking at the fact as it is, wjth an analytical 
approach (i.e. Lenski). We agree with this approach and want to supplement 
it with some hypotheses which we derived in the process of reviewing the de- 

We are curious about which direction we are going, whether we are moving 
toward a society with increasing or decreasing equality. As history shows, we 
are moving from a stratification system of caste, to estate, then to class. Class 
allows more vertical mobility, which means that we are moving toward a soc- 
iety with more equality. We can also prove that movement by pointing out 
that slavery no longer exists in our society. But another question is how far 
we have gone. As we know there are still societies with caste residuals in some 
nations, and there are still queens, kings, and nobility. 

The ultimate question will be whether we will ever reach complete equal- 
ity. The question can be answered only by separating subjective and objective 
criteria, following Lenski's second technique of breaking down the component 

We think by objective criteria we are moving toward more equality; the op- 
portunity for education, and for higher income, is increasingly available to the 
whole population. But by subjective criteria, such as power, prestige, and 
privilege, we are not getting any closer to equality, in fact, perhaps farther 
from it. As we can see jn a leader of one of the bigger nations, the honor, 
privilege, and power he enjoys, and the number of people he influences, is far 
above the leaders in the history of any known society, while at the same time 
an ordinary person remains the same in this respect. We may look at the soc- 
ieties another way. The general living standard of the whole society has been 
brought up, even the lower class enjoys some luxuries which many years ago 
only the upper class could enjoy. But the social distance between classes re- 
mains or increases. 

To get equality we may assume that there must be some conditions. First, 
every man must be self-sufficient; no one would need any one else, then no 
one person could have any authority over any other; no one would have to 
submit to any one else for any reason. Therefore there would be complete 
equality. This type of society could happen only before history, but we would 
not call it society. Second, for every man to be self-sufficient, the technology 
must be very simple, or none. Otherwise one just cannot be self-sufficient. If 


the society is more technologically advanced, thus the less chance for a per- 
son to be self-sufficient, and the nnore highly it is differentiated, the nnore 
elaborate stratification it needs. That is the direction our society is going. We 
can try to view all the differentiation of objective criteria among different 
professions. But as long as we cannot completely coordinate horizontally be- 
tween professions, we cannot break down the hierarchy; then the difference 
of subjective criteria among different people will still remain. 

IVIodern societies, as we mentioned in our first section, through advanced 
techniques of transportation and communication, is in the trend of forming a 
great community of world scope. As we see in history, society changes, and 
the criteria for stratification also change. Different societies have different 
emphases on stratification, and as these societies unite to form larger societies, 
first will come the absorption, adaptation and integration of different value 
systems. A new value system will be generated, and new criteria will emerge. 
Even if we gain equality for what criteria we have today, when the new crit- 
eria evolve, there will still be more equality for us to pursue. If the world be- 
comes one society with uniform common values, competition will become 
even stiff er, for everyone will be competing for the same goals. Once that 
goal is achieved, greater prestige and power will be associated with it, and this 
will widen the social distance, and create more inequality. The increasing dis- 
crepancy between subjective and objective criteria will increase the tension of 
status inconsistency. 

In the following, we want to introduce two models to explain our hy- 
pothesis. As we indicated, inequality can be explained only by separating ob- 
jective and subjective criteria. Here we want to adopt the concept from funct- 
ional theory that structure does persist, and the concept from conflict theory 
that structure of society does change. 

If we consider individual and stratum mobility, assume the effect is a posi- 
tive upward movement, and use objective criteria, then we can say the soci- 
ety will move upward as a whole. If we use subjective criteria, however, the 
relative distinctions between the classes remain. They exhibit no change of 
class proportion. See Chart I for illustration. This observation applies only 
to short-term societal movement. By this we mean the structure or the shape 
of the society remains the same. 

If we assume the human effort in seeking equality does have influence on 
the evolution of the society over a long period of time, we should see not 
only the simple upward movement as indicated in Chart I, but also a change in 
the structure and shape of the whole society, as indicated in Chart II. We sup- 
pose that "a" is pre-history, in which there was not much interaction be- 
tween people, and everybody was nearly self-sufficient; there was no stratifi- 
cation, and people were living on the same level, and the society was two- 
dimensional Area, "b" symoblizes the period after interaction has taken place, 
and some people from organizations, and hierarchy results. The lower class is 
the largest, and the society has a pyramid shape. The process of reforming their 
society, and helping the people in the lower class, results in a diamond-shaped 
society, "c"; the middle class is the largest. Efforts to eliminate the lower 



Level of 
of Living 













Note: U=upper class; M=middle class; L=lower class 


evels of 





-> Future 

Note: the pyramid and diamond shapes should be viewed as three dimentional. 
The line should be viewed as two dimentional. 

class results in another pyramid shape, "d", but this lowest class is a level 
higher than "b"'s lowest class. We can see that the evolution takes place re- 
sulting in alternations between the pyramid and diamond shapes ("e",and 
"f"), with the lowest class of each new group still higher than the last time the 
society had that shape. "G"can happen only if all professions are made equal, 
with everyone on the horizontal level, with no vertical distinctions. But the 
direction of the development of society is toward more and more stratification, 
and unless we can break down this process, "g"remaines only an unachievable 

According to the hypothesis we proposed, someday we may get equality 
in objective criteria, but for subjective criteria, equality will serve as a stimulus 
for us to strive forward, but will remain an unattainable goal. 


by Frank Sadler* 

One of the more interesting and, perhaps, significant details of Kurt 
Vonnegut, Jr.'s "book of lies," Cat's Cradle, is its structural use of the prin- 
ciple of the "liar's paradox" — "Nothing in this book is true. "1 This prin- 
ciple has its source in logic and its solution in modern mathematics. John 
Somer in his article "Geodesic Vonnegut; Or, If Buckminster Fuller Wrote 
Novels" argues "Vonnegut's singular response to modern science required him 
to introduce revolutionary techniques into the spatial-form tradition" of the 
novel in order to defend himself from the "terrors that post-Einsteinian 
science has created. "2 No one would seriously question Vonnegut's fiction 
for a lack of revolutionary character or technique. However, Somer's dis- 
cussion of Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five in terms of the 
structural principles of Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome may be mislead- 
ing and inappropriate. Instead, the significance of Vonnegut's Cat's Craaie 
may be better understood in light of a pair of dice and the "liar's paradox." 

In Cat's Cradle the prefatory statement "Nothing in this book is true" is 
known in logic as the "liar's paradox" and was first formulated by the ancient 
Greeks, though no one seems to have been able to resolve this paradox until 
the end of the last century when a fundamental re-examination of the found- 
ations of logic and mathematics began. Howard DeLong is an essay in the 
March 1971 issue of Scientific American on "Unsolved Problems In Arith- 
metic" points out "There are arithmetic problems that a child of ten can 
understand but that have nevertheless remained unsolved for tens, hundreds 
and even thousands of years. "3 Likewise, in literature there exists a set of 
problems we all seem to understand but for which no apparent solution has 
been found. Nevertheless, a solution to the "liar's paradox" does exist, and a 
solution to Vonnegut's literary paradox is possible. 

In logic the "liar's paradox" belongs to the theory of types or to that area 
of mathematics known as set theory. Anatol Rapoport is an essay on "What 
Is Semantics" explains in The Use and Misuse of Language that if we draw a 

^Department of English, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee. 

1 Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Cat's Cradle (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 

2 John Somer, "Geodesic Vonnegut: Or, If Buckminster Fuller Wrote Novels," 
in The Vonnegut Statement, ed. Jerome Linkowitz and John Somer (New 
York: Del Publishing Co., Inc.) p. 237. 

3 Howard DeLong, "Unsolved Problems in Arithmetic," in Scientific Ameri- 
can (March, 1971), p. 50. 


square and write within it "Every statement in this square is false," then, we 
have a paradox.^ Rapoport continues, "Suppose the statement is true. Then, 
since it is the only statement in the square, it must be false. On the other 
hand, suppose it is false. Then, there must be true statements in the square. 
But again it is the only one; so it must be true" (p. 19). The same line 
of argument may be advanced for Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle since the statement 
"Nothing in this book is true," and others like it in the novel, is contained 
by the novel. Rapoport observes, in discussing the "liar's paradox," that 
"Since progress in mathematics depends on its complete internal consistency, 
it was necessary to re-examine the logical foundations of mathematics. One 
of the results of this re-examination is the theory of types. The theory rests 
on the principle that 'a class cannot be a member of itself.' That is, if you 
make a statement about all statements (and isn't that what Vonnegut has 
done?) of a certain class, the statement you have made cannot be considered 
to be in that class. This was the principle violated in the paradox just de- 
scribed" (p. 19i. And this is the principle violated in Cats Cradle. 

It would be easy to discuss Cats Cradle as a type of sophisticated "liar's 
paradox," if it only contained one statement like Rapoport's example. But, 
Cat's Cradle contains not one but thousands of sentences "within the square" 
which comprise a class or set we call the novel. Further, all fiction, from one 
point of view, presents a set of lies, that is, untruths which are imaginatively 
invented or fabricated for the purpose of presenting reality. H. Bruce Franklin 
in Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century sug- 
gests that science fiction "seeks to describe present reality in terms of a cred- 
ible hypothetical invention — past, present, or, most usually, future — extra- 
polated from that reality. "5 To this we may add that science fiction, because 
it attempts to "describe present reality in terms of a credible hypothetical in- 
vention. . .extrapolated from that reality," is a more demanding fiction than 
that of the mainstream novel. It is a more demanding fiction since it purports 
to abstract its principles from science itself and not the world of reality as the 
philosopher perceives it, the world of "light and color, of blue skies and green 
leaves, of sighing wind. . .the world in which finite man is incarcerated by his 
essential nature. "6 In identifying the "four theoretical modes" of fiction 
(the other three are "realistic fiction," "historical fiction," and "fantasy"), 
Franklin assumes that the purpose of fiction is to "describe present reality" 
(pp. 3-4). In The Rhetoric of Fiction, Wayne C. Booth writes "A dialectical 
history of modern criticism could be written in terms of the warfare between 

4 Anatol Rapoport, "What is Semantics?" in The Use and Misuse of Language, 
ed. S. 1. Hayakawa (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, lnc.,1962), p. 19. 

5 H. Bruce Franklin, Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nine- 
teenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), p. 3. 

6 Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Einstein (New York: Bantam Books, 
1973), p. 114. 


those who think of fiction as something that must be above all real. , .and 
those who asl< that it be pure — even if the search for artistic purity should 
lead to unreality and a "dehumanization of art."7 Booth's formulation of the 
conflict between what is "real" and what is "pure," however, is dependent in 
the final analysis on how we perceive and understand our relation to nature. 
In the view of modern science, and the incorporation of that view into the 
structure of the modern novel, this problem between what is "real" and what 
is "pure" becomes entirely academic and, depending upon one's point of view, 
may disappear entirely. Science fiction and, specifically. Cat's Crad/e.tio not 
lend themselves to a representational theory of art. The reason for this is 
simple enough. Science fiction makes the claim to treat a non-existent reality, 
an imaginative reality which may have its origins in our own reality but which 
because it extrapolates a future not yet existent cannot represent our reality 
but only its own. In other words, to borrow a phrase from Alain Robbe- 
Grillet, the novel "constitutes reality" and what "it explores is itself."8 And, 
this is exactly what Cat's Cradle does since it attempts to describe present 
reality in terms of what is implicit in the "liar's paradox." Reality, as such, 
in modern science and the novel ceases to be a meaningful concept in such 
works as Cats Cradle since the structure of the novel is no longer based on 
the world of the senses but rather resides in the principles of logic and math- 
ematics. And the world of mathematics exists in terms of nothing more than 
a set of abstract principles, in a word, conventions. These principles or con- 
cepts are empty, that is, they contain nothing and are contained by nothing. 
The title to the novel itself, Cat's Cradle, suggests that this is the case since 
a "cat's cradle" is nothing more than a children's game in which two players 
alternatively stretch a looped string over their fingers in order to produce dif- 
ferent designs. The emphasis is on design and not substance for there is no 
substance other than the delightful design formed by the game. Somer's com- 
parison of the structure of Cat's Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five to the struct- 
ural principles of Fuller's geodesic dome unfortunately give rise to the twin 
concepts of "interiority" and containment," that is, the space a geodesic 
dome spans becomes confused with the principles which give rise to it. For 
polygons are plane figures which have several angles and sides. They contain 
nothing and their interlocking relationship is entirely dependent upon the 
function of their angles. In the particular case of Cat's Cradle the arrange- 
ment, for instance, of chapters, is not a result of space, though initially their 
order conveys that impression, but rather on the relationship of one principle 
or concept to another in an interlocking pattern (design) of reciprocal functions. 

The solution, therefore, to Vonnegut's literary paradox resides in recognizing 
that the basic supposition of Cat's Cradle is radically different from those of 

7 Wayne C. Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction (Chicago: The University of 
Chicago Press, 1967), p. 38. 

8 Alain Robbe-Grillet, For a New Novel: Essays on Fiction, Trans. Richard 
Howard (New York: Grove Press, 1965), p. 161. 


the traditional novel with its emphasis on the "human" rather than the 
"scientific" element in man. What is being suggested is that a fundamental 
shift has occurred in the art of the science-fiction novel and Vonnegut's Cat's 
Cradle is but one expression of that shift. Werner Heisenberg in "The Repre- 
sentation of Nature in Contemporary Physics" comments that "The problems 
of modern art, so frequently and passionately discussed in our time, force us 
to examine those foundations which form the presupposition for every devel- 
opment of art, foundations which at other times are taken as self-evident. In- 
deed , the question has been raised whether the relation of modern man to- 
ward nature differs so fundamentally from that of former times that this dif- 
ference alone is responsible for a completely different point of departure for 
the fine arts in contemporary culture. Certainly, the relation of our period to- 
ward nature hardly finds its expression, as it did in earlier centuries, in a 
developed natural philosophy; rather, it is determined mainly by modern 
science and technology. "9 In Cats Cradle, Vonnegut hints at the idea that 
the relation of our period toward nature has changed. About midway through 
the novel, our narrator John (or Johah), quotes a "Calypso" from The Books 
of Bokonon contained in young Phillip Castle's San Lorenzo: The Land, the 
People given him by the American Ambassador to the Republic of San 
Lorenzo, Horlick Minton. We learn that Bokonon 

. . .wanted all things 

To seem to make some sense. 

So we all could be happy, yes, 

Instead of tense. 

And I made up lies 

So that they all fit nice. 

And I made this sad world 

A par-a-dise. (p. 109) 

What is significant about Bokonon's "Calypso" is the idea that Bokonon 
has remade "this sad world" in the image of a set of "lies" in order to create 
a new "par-a-dise." Bokonon's paradise, however, is not Milton's or God's 
since it introduces into itself the mathematical concepts of chance and prob- 
ability through the image of a "pair-of-dice." Vonnegut's hyphenation of the 
work "par-a-dise" is significant. It is significant because it suggests clearly 
that Vonnegut's view of the world has been fundamentally altered by modern 
science and technology. As George Brecht in "Chance-Imagery" suggests 
"The conjuncture of statistical theory with mathematical physics, which oc- 
curred about 1860, resulted ultimately in a reformulation of our concept of 
the workings of nature; the requirements of strict causality, which classical 
philosophy had regarded as an a priori principle underlying the mechanics of 

9 Werner Heisenberg, "The Representation of Nature in Contemporary Phy- 
sics," in The Discontinuous Universe, ed. Sallie Sears and Georgianna W. Lord 
(New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1972), p. 122. 


the universe, were replaced by a measure of probability. "10 The "predomin- 
ance of cause thus gave way," as Brecht points out, "to the predominance of 
chance" and "chance became an underlying principle of our world view" 
(pp. 84,86). Vonnegut, like Bokonon, no longer believes in a "developed nat- 
ural philosophy." In its place, Vonnegut, in a very real sense, is offering us a 
choice between two radically different ways of looking at things. We may em- 
brace either a traditional "natural philosophy" with its accompanying picture 
of the universe as a stable and coherent, ordered world fashioned after God's 
image— the world of nature presented to us in our fiction by our senses, the 
world of metaphor— or, we may embrace the world of modern science and 
technology— a world of probabilities and chance, of uncertainty and increas- 
ingly abstract principle. Heisenberg's analysis of the realtion of modern man 
to nature is correct and it forces us to re-examine those foundations which 
"form the presupposition for every development of art" (p. 122). 

One such presupposition has been the function of metafihor in art. For 
centuries the mark of the great literary artist has been, in some measure, his 
use of metaphor and we know that the function of metaphor in literature is 
to present us with a picture of nature. Yet as modern science has shown us 
nature is a far more complex thing than we had previously imagined. For 
with each advance of science has come a set of abstract principles taken from 
modern science which, after their own fashion, form models. These models 
in turn present us with a picture of our relation to nature instead of a picture 
of nature. And, of course, our realtion to nature in Cat s Cradle is created by 
the novel's principles which ultimatley have their source in modern science. 
Metaphor, like reality, ceases to be a meaningful concept in this type of liter- 
ature. Yet those very principles which have replaced metaphor are empty of 
content. Lincoln Barnett in The Universe and Dr. Einstein comments that 
"In trying to distinguish appearance from reality and lay bare the fundamental 
structure of the universe, science has had to transcend the 'rabble of the 
senses.' But its highest edifices, Einstein has pointed out, have been 'purchased 
at the price of emptiness of content.' A theoretical concept is emptied of con- 
tent to the very degree that it is divorced from sensory experience. "1 1 Von- 
negut's "par-a-dise" is at best an uncertain world, if not an empty one. For 
at the end of Cat's Crac//e, our narrator, John, finally catches up with Bokonon 
and Bokonon hands him a piece of paper on which is written: 
If I (Bokonon) were a younger man, I would write a 
history of human stupidity; and I would climb to the 
top of Mount McCabe and lie down on my back with my 
history for a pillow; and I would take from the ground 

10 George Brecht, "Chance-Imagery," in The Discontinuous Universe, ed. 
Sallie Sears and Georgianna W. Lord (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1972), p. 

11 Barnett. 


some of the blue-white poison that makes statues of men; 
and I would make a statue of myself, lying on my back, 
grinning horribly, and thumbing my nose at You Know Who. (p. 231). 
And that is exactly what Cat's Cradle has been, a history of human stupid- 
ity. However, it is an incomplete history since the novel ends with Bokonon's 
note. The world may be frozen, but our narrator, John, is not. After all, 
John has told us that "Nothing in this book is true." Though it is interesting 
to note that "the blue-white poison," ice-nine, is in actual fact a theoretical 
possibility, it has not yet been created in the laboratory. Nevertheless, 
Vonnegut's message, by implication, is clear. The world of science will lead to 
a "dehumanization" of our art. The choice is there. However, whatever we 
choose it will involve a chance, in a word, a "pair-of-dice." 







Bartlett, Montine C, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


The purpose of this project was to provide a resource guide for social studies 
teachers in the Ronne City School System. The guide is intended to be used 
in the teaching of local history. 

Following a research of the literature dealing with the teaching of local 
history, an effort was made to identify historical sites, resource persons, and 
techniques in the collection and writing of local history. 

Conclusions reached as a result of this study indicated: (1) social studies 
teachers should emphasize the use of local primary resources to teach local 
history, (2) the use of oral history should be encouraged, and (3) the Rome 
City School Systems should adopt this resource guide for use by interested 
teachers in the school system. 

Baxter, Kay Greeson, (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 


The problem of this study was the designing of a program for gifted 
students, grades K-8, in a small school system. The study included the back- 
ground, significance and limitations of the study. The program was limited in 
that it was designed for intellectually gifted only, does not include discussion 
of teacher education, selection or in-service. 

The review of the literature includes the historical background of education 
of the gifted, definitions of giftedness and methods of identification, charact- 
eristics of gifted children, program goals, curricular interventions, administ- 
ration of a program and program evaluation. 

The study was a guide and procedures for setting up a gifted program bas- 
ed on current research. It included a plan for public involvement. The pro- 
gram was based on a definition of gifted which states, "The gifted are those 
children who, by reason of their intellectual superiority, are identified by pro- 
fessionally qualified persons and palced in specially designed educational pro- 
grams." Identification procedures were spelled out in detail. 

Administrative details described in the study included placement proced- 
ures, acceleration, individual program planning, progress reporting, a mentor 
system, a counseling program, record-keeping and withdrawal procedures. 
Organization details included scheduling, student/teacher ratio, the classroom 


setting, equipping the center, and transportation. A cost estimate for setting 
up a 2-teacher/140-pupil center was given. 

Four program assumptions and 27 goals are outlined. 

A grade by grade curriculum was then described.The curriculum gave at- 
tention to both content and process. Teaching methodology was suggested. 

Procedures for program evaluation were included. Appendices included 
various questionnaires and forms designed for the program. 

Brewer, Frankie G., (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


An assessment of a group of selected high school students' vocational inter- 
est was carried out at the Governor's Honors Program, located at North Georgia 
College, Dahlonega, Georgia. Twenty-five students volunteered to participate 
in the interest surveys. They were asked to list all the occupations of which 
they were aware. They were then administered the Kuder General Interest 
Survey and the Kuder Preference Record Vocational Interest Form. There 
was no significant agreement between the Kuder Vocational Inventory, the 
Kuder General Interest Survey, and the students' list. 

Buess, Lynn M., (Specialist in Education, December, 1978) 

This is an in depth examination investigating an age old theory that teaches 
there is a relationship between a person's name, date of birth, and certain per- 
sonality traits and behavior patterns. This investigative study has been design- 
ed to explore the possibility thatthere may be potential psychological merit to 
such theories. The methods of research employed will include experiental ac- 
cumulation of date, a detailed case study, and empirical data. If any corre- 
lation exists between the system under scrutiny and traditional methods of 
attaining psychological date, the numerical method could be used as an adjust 
to the professional counselor as a time saver which allows the counselor to 
conduct therapy with more effectiveness and savings in cost to the client. 

Byers, Stephen Walter, (MA, Psychology, August, 1978) 

The effectiveness of a consciousness raising program versus an integrated 
mind-body program at producing both mental and physical fitness was eval- 
uated. In addition, an on-going physical education program was evaluated for 
effectiveness in both of these experimental dimensions. Experimental and 
control groups were randomly constituted from a pool of junior and senior 
level high school volunteers. A total of twelve classes (fifty-five minutes in 


length each) was conducted with each experimental group. The subjects conn- 
pleted a self-esteem scale, an authority orientation scale, a self-disclosure 
scale, a cardiovascular efficiency test, a flexibility test, and the personal ori- 
entation inventory both before and after the experimental experience was 
presented. Results indicated that an integrated mmd-body approach was mar- 
ginally superior to either a strict mind or body approach employed separately 
in producing both mental and physical fitness, although no results were statis- 
tically significant. 

Cochran, Charlotte, W., (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


This experimental research design was undertaken to determine if the 
teaching of the Language Experience Approach to Reading would increase the 
reading achievement of a specific group of third grade students. 

For the purposes of the study, all third grade students at Tolbert School 
were tested and subjects were chosen for inclusion in the study on the basis of 
test scores on the Metropolitan Achievement Test, Primary II, Form G. Only 
those students whose scores on total reading were no greater than 3.0 and no 
less than 1.6 grade equivalent were considered for inclusion in this study. 
Subjects selected were twenty experimental group and twenty control group, 
third grade students matched on the basis of age, sex, I.Q., race, reading achi- 
evement test scores, and socioeconomic level. These subjects represented a 
low-medium range for third grade with extreme low and medium to high 
scores being eliminated from the study. 

Groups received parallel instruction in all respects except that the experi- 
mental group received thirty minutes instruction three days each week using 
the Language Experience Approach in Reading. 

A significance level of .05 was established as indicating a statistically signi- 
ficant event which could not be attributed to the probability of chance. Re- 
sults for the total group showed no significant difference at the t value of .61 
between the two groups in the area of word knowledge. There was no signi- 
ficant difference at the t value of .36 between the two groups in the area of 
Reading. There was no significant difference at the t value of 1.46 between 
the two groups in the area of Total Reading. 

It was concluded that while there was no significant difference in the areas 
tested those subjects in the experimental group did make more gain than did 
those subjects in the control group. The Language Experience Approach is 
still a useful tool in the teaching of reading because of the motivation gener- 
ated and because of the value as an effective reinforcer. 


Crowder, Lynnda Bernard, {Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


Schools for middle-aged children nnust take into consideration the nature, 
characteristics and needs of the children for whom they provide. The old 
junior high school arrangement seems to have lost its enchantment, and the 
trend of the emerging middle school has finally arived. 

This study presents a review of studies dealing with the change from the 
junior high school to the middle school program. 

Philosophical and historical literature has been discussed in direct relation 
to middle schools in Cobb County, Georgia. An examination of the data 
gathered from this study indicates that the Cobb County middle schools, hav- 
ing "emerged", are practicing effectively their own philosophy and that phil- 
osophy characteristic of the national middle school concept. 

Davis, Jane Thomas, (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 


The data provided in this study was collected over a three year period in 
the Bremen City Schools, Bremen, Georgia. Each spring all in-coming first 
graders were screened to determine their developmental readiness for formal 
learning. The results were tabulated and conferencing was done with parents 
of children who were identified as not ready for first grade. It was suggest- 
ed to those parents that their children might benefit by another year of devel- 
opment before being placed in the public school setting. 

A group of ten children who were advised to wait one year and did so was 
compared to a group of ten children who entered first grade in spite of the 
indications that they were not ready for school. 

There seemed to be a significant difference in the success level of the two 
groups at the end of first grade. 

Edwards, Melvin Reville, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 



The project was written as an attempt to find a solution to the problem of 

developing values in our public schools. After many years of experience as a 

teacher and an administrator in Catoosa County, it became very obvious that 

the students were unable to make value judgemnts and that something should 


be done to guide these students in making their own decisions. 

In order to gain insight into possible solutions to the problenn, an extensive 
review and research of literature was undertaken. In addition to the periodi- 
cals and books which dealt with the development of value systems, tapes were 
available that presented guidelines that might be followed. 

Literature which dealt with the subject of values was varied and included 
studies by many educators. One study by Allport, Vernen and Gardner was 
used because it is based on its ability to measure relative prominence in six 
basic areas of personality. These areas include: theoretical, economic, 
aesthetic, social, political and religious. Also, the studies presented and litera- 
ture reviewed were summarized so that the reader might see what solutions 
might be available through the open classroom concept as opposed to the 
traditional classroom. 

Chapter three dealt with the program development. This program develo- 
ment was done for the Catoosa County School System. This chapter discussed 
the need for the program along with the objectives. The steps for setting up 
the program were also included. 

Many educators are still debating the pros and cons of open classroom and 
traditional classroom methods. In this study the educators presented the 
open classroom as an effective way to help students develop and clarify values. 

Galloway, Ronald Dean, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 





In 1970, onlythirteen percentof more than 23,000 secondary schools were 
using computers for educational purposes. DeRodeff reported that lack of 
high level administrative commitemnt was the reason for education's lagging 
behind in the use of electronic data processing. Even though innovations tend 
to complicate the life of the administrator, many schools have turned to the 
computer for relief from the increased demands-for information handling and 
processing. One of the greatest aids that the computer gives to the administrator 
is the scheduling of classes. Perhaps one of the best known scheduling pro- 
grams is the Generalized Academic Simulation Program developed by Robert 
Holz at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Newness of automated data processing means re-education for many admin- 
istrators. Hawkins and Ney pointed out that there is a discrepancy in the 
training of administrators between laboratory experience and the actual de- 
mands of the job. If Hansen and Kalssen's prediction is accurate, given the 
current growth rate, computers will be used by every school district in the 
country within the next decade. \r\ this "real world" which James Cook re- 
ferred to, the administrator will be concerned with implementing available 
techniques and devices for improving education. 


School administrators must be provided with the skills necessary to direct 
the educational program in a technological setting. It is, therefore, the re- 
commendation of this writer that West Georgia College, which serves many 
school systems in Northwest Georgia, offer to its graduate students in admini- 
stration/supervision an introductory course in computer applications to 

Handley, Mary Alice, (Specialist in Eduation, August, 1978) 




Since the beginning of the education process, educators have constantly 
sought new concepts to aid in the understanding of the learning process. 

One educator wondered why the intellectual capability of students seemed 
to vary from time to time. The educator discovered that an exact pattern 
could be established. He concluded that the students' high and low peaks of 
performances fluctuated in a definite 33-day cycle. This 33-day cycle is in- 
cluded in the group of cycles known as biorhythms. The word biorhythm is a 
compound of two Greek terms. One is bios for like and the other is rhythimor 
which means a regulated beat. 

This study investigated the relationship of the intelligence biorhythm cycle 
and the scores on vacabulary and reading comprehension tests of 62 sixth 
grade students. The tests were administered at a 7-day interval to compare the 
different points in the intelligence biorhythm cycle. 

The hypotheses were tested with t-tests for dependent means at the .05 
level of significance. The scores on the tests administered on the peak days 
of the intelligence cycle were not significantly different from the scores ad- 
ministered on the zero days of the intelligence cycle. 

Harris, Lucian, (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 

It was thought important to develop a professional guide on public relations 
for the faculty and administrative staff at Marietta Junior High School. The 
problem was to examine the following relationships between the home and the 
school as they relate to the progress of the student: 
I.The student as a reporter of his school. 

2. Homework as a public relations tool. 

3. Parent-teacher conferences. 

4. Telephone contacts with the home. 

5. The involvement of administrators in explaning the policies and pract- 
ices of the school. 


These relationships were examined through large and small group discussions, 
with the faculty and administrative staff. From these discussions, a question- 
naire was designed and distributed to the faculty and administrative staff. The 
results were compiled and analyzed. They provided the basis for the small 
group discussions and recommendations from the faculty and administrative 
staff as to ways of improving public relations at Marietta Junior High School. 

Henry, Charlie, (Specialist in Education, December, 1978) 


This study attempted to determine if the use of the triadic method of 
teaching would result in a significant gain in achievement in or attitude toward 
United States history when compared to a traditional approach of teaching. 
The experimental group consisted of an intact class of thirty students. The 
control group consisted of an intact class of thirty students. Null hypotheses 
were used. 

Both groups were given form A of the Cooperative Social Studies: Amer- 
ican History as an achievement pretest and form A of Remmers Any School 
Subjcet Survey as an attitude pretest. Form Am of the Otis Quick-Scoring 
Mental Ability Gamma Test was given to determine(l) if the two groups were 
of equal mental ability and (2) placement in the triad groups. For all three 
tests, the t-test for the difference between means were computed; and no 
significant differences were found in either mental ability, achievement, or 

The experimental period lasted for one school quarter or twelve weeks. 
At the end of the treatment, form B of the Cooperative Social Studies Tests: 
American History and form B of the Remmers Any School Subject Survey 
were given as posttests. Mean gains in achievement and attitude, as demon- 
strated by scores on the pretests and the posttests, were calculated. The t-test 
for independent samples found no significant difference in achievement or 
attitude gains at the .05 level. Both hypotheses were accepted. 

Hughes, Susan J., (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 

This study was designed to determine the effects of a planned parent-in- 
volvement program in the primary grades on the attitudes of parents and on 
the personality of children. 


Students and their parents from the first, second, and third year classes at 
Chapman Elementary School in Cherokee County, Georgia were involved in 
the study. The control groups consisted of first, second, and third year stud- 
ents and their parents who were involved in a planned parent-involvement pro- 
gram. The treatment parent-involvement program covered an eight month 
period and involved scheduled meetings, scheduled conferences, working in 
the classroom, telephone communications, and note writing. 

Five null hypotheses were tested to determine if significant differences ex- 
isted in attitudes of parents and personality of students between the two 
groups. The teachers recorded parent participations, the parents were given 
pretests and posttests of attitudes, and the children were given the Early School 
Personality Questionnaire as a pretest and posttest. After analyzing the par- 
ent participations and statistically testing the pretest and posttest scores of 
parents and students using the t-test, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and 
the analysis of variance, it was found that the mean frequency of participations 
in the experimental groups was greater but that there were no bases for re- 
jection of the hypotheses at the .05 level of confidence, except in one of the 
personality factors tested for children. The experimental groups scored signi- 
ficantly higher on the factor which measured guiltprone, apprehensive, and in- 
secure personality traits. 

Jackson, Clara Jemigan, Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 




The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any difference be- 
tween the reading achievement and sex of the student, any relationship be- 
tween reading achievement and I.O., reading achievement and attitude. The 
study included only 74 of the 98 six grade students. Test scores were not a- 
vailable for students who were not enrolled in school all year, did not take the 
complete battery of tests or whose records had been sent to private schools. 

The evaluative instruments were the Otis Lennon Mental Ability Test Form 
J and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. These are given in October of each year 
and recorded in the permanent records of each student. The scale used for 
measuring attitude towards reading was developed by Thomas H. Estes and 
published in Journal of Reading (October, 1971). ANOCOVA was used to 
test the first null hypothesis. The Pearson Product Moment Coefficient was 
employed to test the second and third null hypotheses. 

The study found that there was a significant difference in reading achieve- 
ment and sex of the student, a significant relationship between reading achieve- 
ment and I.Q., reading achievement and attitude. 


Jones, Louise T., (Specialist In Education, December, 1978) 





The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the early child- 
hood masters education program at West Georgia College on one hundred and 
twelve graduates after re-entering the teaching profession. 

The hypothesis stated in Chapter I was supported by the results shown in 
Tables I, II, and III. There were positive evaluations reflected in the question- 
naire results concerning the early childhood education program at West Georgia 
College on graduates after re-entering the teaching profession with validation 
by their supervisors. Not only the comparative raw scores (Table 1), and per- 
centages (Table II) support the hypothesis, but so did the mean scores (Table 
II) and the correlation coefficients (Table III) on the matched pairs of teachers 
and supervisors. 

Knox, Joyce Morgan, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


In 1975 the Georgia General Assembly passed an amendment to the 1974 
Adequate Program for Education in Georgia — House Bill 671. The bill re- 
quired all teachers, principals, and guidance counselors seeking certification or 
recertification after July 1, 1976, to complete a 50 clock hours course in the 
identification and education of students with special needs. The purpose of 
the requirement was to see that regular educators became more knowledge- 
able of the needs of the exceptional child. 

Concurrent federal legislation, particularly Public Law 94-142, enacted in 
1974, also endorsed the education of the regular classroom teacher about the 
needs of special education students. 

To determine if the completion of the mandated requirement of House 
Bill 671 had made a significant difference in knowledge of those who had 
made a significant difference in knowledge of those who had completed the 
course, a fifty item questionnaire was devised. Distribution was made to 26 
schools within seven school systems in the West Georgia Cooperative Services 
Agency District. Responses were received from 352 educators. 

Utilizing a Northwestern University computer package, the West Georgia 
College computer service and the t test for probability, a significant difference 
at the 1% level was statistically proven when teachers who had completed the 
course were compared with teachers who had not completed the course. 

In addition to the statistical data, profiles of age, years of teaching, origin 


of course, year course was taken, payor of course, and knowledge item anal- 
yses were made. 

Krieger, A/an Pheris, (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 




This investigation was designed to determine the effect of class size on the 
rate of reading achievement of below average readers in the third and fourth 
grades. Two different studies were implemented for this purpose. 

The first study involved a comparison of reading achievement over a five 
month period. All of the third and fourth grade students at the test school 
with below grade level basel reading levels were used. Each grade had two 
five student experimental classes. The third grade control class consisted of 
21 students. The fourth grade had a control class of 23 students. 

The second study was conducted to determine the effect of class size on\ 
fifteen minute instructional period. Forty-two fourth grade students were used 
in this study. They were randomly divided into two experimental classes of 
five students and one control class of 32 students. 

There were three hypotheses used to determine the significance of this 
study. The hypotheses are as follows: 


At the end of this study, the third grade small experimental classes will not 
show a significantly greater rate of achievement in reading than the third grade 
large control class over a five month instructional period. 


At the end of this study, the fourth grade small experimental classes will 
not show a significantly greater rate of achievement in reading than the fourth 
grade large control class over a five month instructional period. 


At the end of this study, the fourth grade small experimental groups will 
not show a significantly greater proficiency in a specific reading skill than the 
fourth grade large control group after one fifteen minute instructional period. 

A pretest — treatment — post test control group design was used for all of 
the experiments. Because of differences in reading ability, an analysis of cov- 
ariance was used to treat the data with pretest scores as the covariate. The re- 
sults of the first hypothesis approached significance, but was not significant 
at the .05 level of significance. The second and third hypotheses did not ap- 
proach significance. Therefore, class size was not shown to be a significant 
factor in the rate of reading achievement of below average readers in the third 
and fourth grades. 


Lane, Ronald Erskine, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 





JUNE, 1972- JUNE, 1978 

The purpose of this study was to tabulate, compare and assess student eval- 
uations of the elementary education graduate program for those students 
completing both the masters and the specialists degree at West Georgia College 
from the inception of the specialists degree in 1971 until June, 1978. 

The data to be presented were a tabulation of the questionnaire and eval- 
uation form from approximately fifty students taken during the spring of 

The results showed that the responding students have a positive attitude 
toward both degree programs and also have definite opinions regarding the 
differentiation of courses for each program. 

Lippert, Pamela Ann, (MA, English, August, 1978) 


Three elements in the Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green 
Knight — the Beheading Game, the Temptation episode, and the character of 
the Green Knight — Bercilak — have been more discussed by source scholars 
than any other elements. The source scholars have traced these elements from 
folklore to their inclusion in the sources and analogues of Gawain. However, 
few source scholars seem interested in using their studies as a tool for under- 
standing the Gawain poet's artistry; they seem more interested in the arch-- 
types repeated throughout folklore than in the poem itself. 

Even those scholars who have discussed the theme and structure of the 
poem have failed to show what the Gawain poet's unique contribution to the 
legend is. Most archetypal critics see Gawain as a seasonal folk-myth, depict- 
ing the battle between summer and winter. Other critics see the poem as a 
myth of Gawain's r/tes de passage from spiritual ignorance to self-knowledge. 
Even thematic critics have failed to demonstrate that the Gawain poet depart- 
ed from his sources in theme or structure of plot. 

Actually, the Gawain poet has selected elements of plot and character 
from pagan sources and blended them into a Christian poem of such unity 
that no element can any longer be isolated from the rest of the poem. The 
poet has achieved this unity by his construction of a Christian plot, his re- 
creation of Gawain and the Green Knight as Christian characters, and his 
Christian style of narration. What emerges from the old legends is thus a 
completely Christian poem of great brilliance and clarity. The very Christ- 


ianity of Gawain is the poet's contribution to the legend, and it shows his art- 
istry in remaking the old stories into something new. 

Lunsford, Linda Ganelle, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


The main purpose of this study was to determine whether students in- 
volved in a free reading program develop more positive attitudes toward read- 
ing than those students who have no designated classroom opportunity for 
free reading. Attitude changes were also analyzed on the basis of the sex of 
the student as well as the interaction effect between the free reading program 
and the sex of the subject. 

The subjects for the study were 93 students enrolled in four tenth-grade 
Basic Composition classes taught by the researcher. Periods one and three 
constituted the control groups; periods two and five made up the experimental 

An attitude-scale pretest was administered to all four classes during the 
first week in October. The experimental classes then began using one day per 
week during which they were free to read any material of their own choosing. 
Occasional suggestions were made by the teacher, but, in general, X\\e choice 
of material was left entirely to the student. The same attitude scale was given 
as a posttest during the first week in May. 

An analysis of variance computed for the data indicated that changes in 
attitude were not significantly affected by the free reading program. 

Miller, Debroah Ann, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


The purpose of this survey was to compile and compare the attitudes of 
Carroll County residents in the survey conducted by the West Georgia Phi 
Delta Kappa Educational Fraternity in Carroll County. 

A total of one hundred and seventy-eight questionnaire results were tabu- 
lated. The purpose of this study was to compile and evaluate the responses of 
a selected group of people and their opinions of their public schools in Carroll 
County. Selected findings were compared with the National responses and 
opinions for that particular study. 


Miller, Ellen, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 




This study was directed toward evaluating reading achievement and to 
determine the effectiveness of the Ginn Tutorial Program and the Scott Fore- 
sman Tutorial Program as compared with the traditional approach to reading 
instruction. The thirty students involved in the study were from Belwood 
School, Gordon County System, Calhoun, Georgia. 

Experimental group 1 was tutored in the Scott Foresman Tutorial Program. 
Experimental group 2 was tutored in the Ginn Tutorial Program. The control 
group received no supplemental tutoring. 

Pre and posttest scores were acquired through the administration of the 
Metropolitan Reading Test and the Slosson Oral Reading Test. 

A statistical comparison of the mean scores of the experimental and con- 
trol groups in reading achievement was made. The results of the statistical 
analysis indicated that the students in the experimental groups did not show 
a statistically significant gain in reading achievement on the Metropolitan 
Reading Test or on the Slosson Oral Reading Test. 

Mitchell, George Clark, (MS, Biology, August, 1978) 

OF LARGEMOUTH BASS, Micropterus salmoides, 
Fifteen largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede), were tracked 
in Lake Carroll, Carroll County, Georiga, using ultrasonic telemetry techniques. 
Recorded data was used to determine home range, day and night movement, 
and habitat utilization. Lake Carroll largemouth bass seem to be of two be- 
haviorally different types, those that utilize small, well defined home ranges, 
and those that utilize large portions of the lake. Of the 15 bass tracked, eight 
occupied small, well defined home ranges, six utilized large portions of the 
lake, and no conclusion could be made on one. For all seasons (spring, 
summer, fall) the majority of fish moved more during the day than at night. 
When day and night movement for all fish were compared, there was signi- 
ficantly more day movement. Habitat utilization was determined by com- 
paring the measured physical parameters (water temperature, light penetration, 
degree of cloud cover, barometric pressure, and dissolved oxygen) with three 
aspects of fish location (distance from shore, depth of water and dock util- 
ization). A statistically significant relationship was found between light pene- 
tration and water depth selected. Fish were located in deeper water when 
Secchi disc measurements were high and shallower water when Secchi disc 
measurements were low. Surface water temperature showed an apparent, but 


not statistically significant relationship with fish location. The bass seemed 
to show a preference for water depths of less than 1 .5 m when surface temper- 
ature was less than 23 C and depths greater than 1.5 m when surface water 
temperature was greater than 23 C. No other relationships were found be- 
tween fish location and physical parameters. 

Neighbors, Linda, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 

This study was designed to determine if the instruction of map and globe 
skills would be beneficial to fifth year students. Seventy-five fifth year stud- 
ents from Richard B. Russell Elementary School were divided into three 
heterogeneous groups of twenty-five. Experimental group A was taught speci- 
fic map and globe skills using an individualized approach, experimental group 
B was taught the same specific map and globe skills as a whole group, and 
comparison group C was taught map and globe skills only in the context of 
their normal social studies program. 

Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were gathered from all three 
groups, and a statistical analysis using the Analysis of Covariance and Duncan's 
Multiple Range Test was made. The level of significance was established as 
.05. Using this criteria, null hypotheses two, three, five, and six were rejected, 
and null hypotheses one and four were not rejected. This study indicated the 
need for map and globe skills instruction in the elementary school social 
studies program. 

O'Keefe, Audrey Carol, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 

This study was undertaken, because of a concerned need or a greater 
awareness, a favorable attitude and improved understanding in sex education 
for the seventh grade students at Laurel Hills Elementary School in this day in 

The study involved approximately ninety-two students, both male and 
female, Caucasian, Negroid and Monogoloid. The student's ages ranged from 
eleven to fourteen and the majority of their IQ's were average. 

The study involved preparation, gathering of information, creating a com- 
fortable atmosphere, presentation of the education unit and evaluation of its 
values to students of age. 


The constituents used to serve as guidelines and materials; 

Parent involvement and cooperation. A continuous unit which was pro- 
ceeded by a science unit on the human body systems functions. 

The use of booklets, teacher's outline, state published information, films, 
diagrams, newspaper articles, magazines, commercial T.V. 

The study concluded that there was a need for sex education at this grade 
level with a positive acceptance by both parents and parents of this commun- 

These findings lead to the recommendation that a sex education unit be- 
come a supplement to the seventh grade science curriculum at Laurel Hills. 

O Malley, Judy Narmore, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 

The purpose of this study was to follow the progress of nineteen high risk 
first grade children who had been placed in an experimental first grade pro- 
gram during the 1977-78 school year. The study followed the non-random- 
ized control group pretest and post test design. Students involved in the study 
were part of a special prearranged placement at the beginning of the year. 
The researcher looked at two different class placements of high risk first grade 
children to compare their reading achievement as measured by the Clymer 
Barrett and Cognitive Abilities Tests. To determine if one group performed 
significantly higher than the other, tests were run on the means of the control 
and experimental groups using the pretest and post test data. Analysis of this 
data indicated that the experimental group showed a significant gain in the 
mean over the control group. Therefore, the null hypothesis that there would 
be no significant difference between reading achievement of high risk first 
grade children in a special developmental classroom and high risk children in 
conventional first grade classrooms was rejected at the .05 level of confidence. 

Palmer, Gabriel Franciso,(M/\, Psychology, August, 1978) 

In recent years a number of very provocative works have appeared chall- 
enging the basic assumptions of psychology as a natural science. The issue 
these critiques present is the inappropriateness of natural scientific methods 
to the study of psychological phenomena. The intention of this report is to 
show this "inappropriateness" and to discover a way for psychology to treat 
experience in a human and liberating way. 


The psychology here developed begins by considering human experience 
as the point of departure for psychological understanding and elaborates the 
idea of a human science by developing a method based on speech and immed- 
iate experience. Then, the experience of memory is approached through this 
method, the results presented and a further study suggested. 

Ponsell,Juanda, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 

This study examined the significance of parent involvement as it effects the 
progress of emotionally disturbed children. Subjects were sixty identified 
children whose files were available at the Burwel! Psychoeducational Center, 
Carrollton, Georgia. A Rating Objective Form was used to determine progress 
for each child, and parent involvement was determined by a minimum of three 
contacts monthly with staff members. The data was analyzed using the Chi- 
square test for two independent samples and the results did not prove signi- 
ficant at the .05 level. 

Price, Clay Louis, III, (MA, Psychology, March, 1978) 


As effects of the Women's Liberation Movement spread to religious de- 
nominations. Southern Baptist churches have faced questions about women 
in the ministry. This paper examined Southern Baptist attitudes on accept- 
ance of women in the pastorate, ordination of women to the ministry, the 
role of women in church-related work, and the role of women in business and 
politics. It was hypothesized attitudes would not differ significantly with re- 
spect to leadership status, age and sex, education, region of the country or 
support for women's rights. 

A sample of 668 Southern Baptist pastors, Sunday School teachers, 
Woman's Missionary Union directors, and lay members were mailed a twenty- 
four item questionnaire designed to record dichotomous responses. The re- 
sults of the 389 respondents were analyzed using chi square to determine 
significant relationships. 

Overall, the respondents were supportive of women's roles in business, 
politics, and non-pastoral ministries. Less than 20 per cent of the total re- 
spondents were supportive of women in pastoral roles. Pastors were signifi- 
cantly less open to women in non-pastoral roles (religious education, youth 
work, and social ministries) than church members. Significant differences be- 
tween the responses of persons with less than a high school education and per- 
sons with more than a high school education were observed on eighteen of the 


twenty-four items. Persons with more education tended to be more support- 
ive of women's roles outside the home. 

Region of the country was associated with items on women's understand- 
ing of and vocal participation in politics and with an item that attitude change 
will occur in the future. Support for women's rights was associated with 
support for women in the ministry. 

Two-thirds of the respondents expected attitudes toward women in the 
ministry to change within the next twenty-five years. If women continue to 
enter the ministry and if current trends in education, labor force participation 
and family patterns continue, it is likely that attitudes will indeed change to a 
more open acceptance of women in expanding roles. 

Roquemore, Aaron l/V. (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 


This research compared the family environment perceptions be.tween in- 
dividuals who are incarcerated in a penal institution and those individuals who 
comprised the normative sample of the Family Environment Scale. One ex- 
perimenter, a Counselor at the Georgia Diagnostic and Classification Center, 
Jackson, Georgia tested eighty-three criminal offenders utilizing the Family 
Environment Scale, during a two week period. After that time, the program 
was discontinued. 

The mean, standard deviation, and t-test for each of the two groups was 
computed. Analyzed difference between existing normative data developed 
by Rudolf H. Moos and that data developed by this investigator produced 
significant results at or beyond .05 level. 

Scoff, Charles Wesley, (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 

The problem was to determine whether there was a positive correlation be- 
tween the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in language arts, including vocabulary, 
word analysis, reading and spelling, at the third grade level and the Georgia 
Criterion-Referenced Test in reading at the fourth grade level. 

Information was gathered to determine whether the Iowa Test of Basic 
Skills, level 7, form 6, used with third grade students at Compton Elementary 
School in Powder Springs, Georgia was a predictor of the Georgia CRT read- 
ing scores obtained by testing the same pupils as fourth grade students in the 
Spring of the following year. 

Positive correlations at the .001 level of significance were shown by using 
the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation. Correlations of .61, .52, .54 and 


.74 were shown respectively between the vocabulary, word analysis, reading 
and spelling subtests of the ITBS and the Georgia CRT in reading. 

The ITBS in language arts at the third grade level can be considered as a 
significant predictor of achievement on the fourth grade Georgia CRT in 

Overall the data would not suggest that the Georgia CRT be used to sup- 
plant the ITBS. However, as the different purposes of the two tests are con- 
sidered, perhaps recognition of the significant correlations between the ITBS 
subtests and the Georgia CRT could help teachers approach the Georgia CRT 
with some confidence as they plan instructional strategies and interpret the 
test results to parents. 

Seymour, Donald W., (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 








The purpose of this study was to compare two different approaches to the 
teaching of reading. RID (Reading Is Developmental), an approach developed 
and adopted by the LaGrange School System, was compared to the previous 
approach, LEIR (Language Experience In Reading) plus a basal reader, in an 
attempt to determine if there had been a significant improvement in reading 
achievement test scores under the new program. Third grade students of Unity 
School were used in this study. One group (1974-1975 group) had been 
taught under the previous program. The other group (1977-1978) had been 
taught under the RID program for approximately three years. The t-test indi- 
cated that the RID program had enhanced the reading scores. 

Swantic, Frances McCormick, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 




This study was concerned with the comparison, of benefits and provisions, 

of the Teachers' Retirement System with the Employees' Retirement System 

in the State of Georgia. To accomplish this, relevant literature and laws were 

reviewed and provisions were compared. The comparison consisted of the 

following areas: (a) membership eligibility, (b) administration, (c) creditable 

service, (d) employee and employer contributions, (e) retirement benefit 

formulas, (f) benefits and options, (g) vesting, (h) inflation protection, (i) dis- 


ability benefits, (j) early retirement benefits, and (k) death benefits. The 
study concluded that disparities and inequities existed Ibetween the systenris. 
Proposals were listed to correct imbalances found. 

I/Vaits, Thurman Donald, (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 


This study was conducted during June, 1978, at Garden Lakes Elementary 
School in Floyd County, Georgia. The intent of the study was to gain a great- 
er insight regarding the number of students from single-parent families and 
the resultant effects of the divorce, separation, or death as measured by the 
students' achievement. Stated as the null hypothesis, there is no significant 
difference in pupil achievement from one-parent and two-parent families. A 
better understanding of the magnitude and the nature of the single-parent 
families was desired by the administration and staff in order to provide more 
effective guidance and counseling. This information was important in regard . 
to considerations for future planning. 

Grades 3, 5, and 7 were used in the study. In each class the Experimental 
Group was identified by reviewing comulative records and using subjects from 
families with one parent because of divorce, separation, or death. For this 
population all subjects lived with their mothers. A Control Group was then 
matched with the Experimental Group using subjects from homes with both 
natural parents. For the purpose of this study, subjects with step-parents were 
omitted. If information from the permanent records was incomplete subjects 
were omitted. Using the matched pairs, in grades three, five, and seven, the N 
(Number) was 14, 12, and 20, respectively. 

Subjects were matched using grade level, sex, age (within six months), and 
I.Q. (within five points). All students within the school are white, excluding 
race as a variable. Because of the size of the homes and the incomes, the 
neighborhood is identified as a middle-income community. As part of the 
countywide testing program all students took the Comprehensive Tests of 
Basic Skills and the Short Form of the Academic Aptitude appropriate for 
their grade level in May, 1978. 

Using the matched pairs, the null hypothesis was employed in testing the 
significance using the 't' test at the .01 level of significance. The results of the 
study accepts the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in 
pupil achievement of children from one-parent and two-parent families. Based 
on the implications of the study, the researcher concluded that children are 
extremely adaptable and achievement is not necessarily effected by being 
from the one-parent family. Schools should follow the trend of not "label- 
ing" the single-parent family as "different." Because of the continual increas- 
ing number of children living in single-parent families there is a tremendous 
need for more research. 


Wilson, Hugh K. (Specialist in Education, August, 1978) 

Major investigations have shown that most social studies textbooks are 
written above the readability levels of the students for whom they were writ- 
ten. The purpose of this study was to assess the readability level of all state- 
adopted sixth and seventh grade social studies textbooks. The readability 
data collected were used as the major criteria in the selection of sixth and 
seventh grade social studies textbooks for adoption in Cobb County. The 
thirty-three textbooks were divided by grades into three categories: history, 
interdisciplinary textbooks, and geography. Two instruments, the Fry Read- 
ability Graph and the SMOG Grading Formula, were applied in assessing the 
readability of the textbooks. According to the results produced by the Fry 
Graph, eight of the textbooks were above grade level. The SMOG Grading 
Formula, however, placed one textbook on grade level and the other thirty- 
two textbooks above the designated grade level. Twenty-one of the text- 
books showed internal readability level ranges of three to six grade levels. It 
was recommended that textbooks be carefully examined for readability 
level before adoption. 

Yates, Delores Free/and, (Specialist in Education, June, 1978) 

The purpose of this study was to investigate and determine whether a pos- 
itive relationship exists among black students between reading achievement 
and self-concept at the middle grades and senior high level. It was intended 
that the information derived from this study would produce valuable inform- 
ation for teachers and parents with respect to this widely discussed and highly 
significant problem. 

The study involved students from the Samuel Howard Archer High School. 
At the outset of the study, permanent record folders and other available data 
of all eighth and tenth graders were examined to give the researcher a working 
knowledge of the background of the population. A group of fifty students at 
each grade level was selected to participate in the study. Near the end of the 
school year, an instrument which measures self-concept was administered to 
these one hundred students. At the same time a reading achievement test was 
also administered. An analysis was made of scores on both tests to determine 
if there is any correlation between reading and self-concept at the middle 
grades and at the senior high level. 


Only 12 of the 29 variables yielded by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale 
were used for correlation with the total raw score of the Traxler Silent Read- 
ing Test. Variable number one, Total Conflict, appeared to be the only one 
to yield a substantially high positive correlation. 


Claxton, Robert 

"Investigating Past Weather Patterns: The Case of Guatennaia," Paper pre- 
sented April 29, 1977, Georgia Academy of Science, Emory (Atlanta). 

Review of El pensamiento vivo de Sandino by Sergio Ramirez (EDUCA, 
1976), in Hispanic American Historical Review, 57 (November, 1977): 

Volume Editor, "Dependency Unbends: Case Studies in Inter-American 
Relations," West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, 17 (June, 
n. 1978). 

t;; with Alan Hecht, "Climatic and Human History in Europe and Latin 
I. America: an opportunity for comparative study," Climatic Change, 1 
f. (1978): 195-203. 

[v Review of La iglesia catolica y el estado en Guatemala, 1871-1885 by 
■:'' Hubert J. Miller (Universidad de San Carlos, 1976), in Catholic Historical 
Review (forthcoming) 

Review of El pensamiento liberal de Guatemala, by Jorge Mario Garcfia 
Laguardia (EDUCA, 1977), in Hispanic American Historical Review 

Review of The United States and the Development of South America, 
1945-1975 by Samuel Baily (New Viewpoints, 1976), in The New Scholar 

"Social Responsibility in Guatemala in Times of Drought," paper presented 
October 20, 1978, Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies, Cali- 
fornia State University/Fullerton. 

DeVillier,J. Lincoln 

I' "Examine Loan Rates," The Financial Planner, Vol. 7, No. 1 (January, 
1978), page 28. 

"Lesson of Algamish," The Financial Planner, Vol. 7, No. 6 (June, 1978), 
p. 32. 

"Spender vs Planner," The Financial Planner, Vol. 7, No. 9 (September, 
1978), p. 76. 

"College Professor Says Term Life Article Erroneous," Times Free-Press 
(Carrollton, Georgia), October 31, 1978, p. 8 b. 

Co-authored with Mary Anne G. DeVillier: "Organization Behavior and 
Three Faces' of Adam," The Royal Air Forces Quarterly (London), 
Winter, 1978. 


Farmer, Gerald J. 


"Clarinet Multiphonics". The Instrumentalist, Oct. 1978, Vol 33, No. 3, p. 

"Competency-Based Education and Music Teacher Certification in Georgia." 
Georgia Music News, (November, 1978), Vol. 39, No. 2, p. 30-31. 

Television Programs 

(Wrote the script, directed performing groups, and performed on Clarinet 

and saxophone) 

"Woodwind Instruments" CATV; Oct. 19, 1978 

"Variety In Music." CATV; Oct. 26, 1978 

Paper Readings 

"New Techniques for Clarinet." Paper read at Research Session at Georgia 
Music Educators Association, Atlanta, January 27, 1978. 

"Careers in Music Education." Paper read at Student Chapter Music Edu- 
cators National Conference, Atlanta, January 28, 1978. 

Musical Performances 

Faculty recital - Woodwind Music, January 24, 1978, Cashen Hall, WGC 
Senior Composition Recital of Dan Piatt — Cashen Hall, WGC, January 12, 

Woodwind Quintet, Directed by G. Farmer — February 2, 1978, Cashen 

Hall, WGC 
Student Convocation Recital,clarinet and flute duet, Cashen Hall, February 

2, 1978 
"A Little Night Music" 5 performances, clarinet and flute, February 21-25, 
WGC Auditorium, Woodwind Quintet, Director — G. Farmer, West 
Georgia Arts Council Concert, Lomason Regional Library, March 2, 1978. 
Senior Composition Recital of Jeff McClendon — Cashen Hall, WGC, April 

4, 1978 
Woodwind Ensemble Recital, G. Farmer, Director, March 9, 1978, Cashen 

Hall, WGC 
Woodwind Quintet Concert "Woodwind Instruments of the Orchestra" 

Villa Rica Middle Schook, January 14, 1978 
Woodwind Quintet Concert "Woodwind Instruments of the Orchestra" 

Centralhatchee School, October 10, 1978 
Woodwind Quintet Concert "Woodwind Instruments of the Orchestra" 

South Douglas Elementary School, October 24, 1978 
Faculty Excahnge Concert, Clayton Junior College, November 8, 1978 
Faculty Exchange Concert, DeKalb Community College — South Campus 

November 15, 1978 
Student Convocation Recital, Cashen Recital Hall, WGC, September 16, 

Windwind Quintet Concert, Cashen Hall, WGC, November 16, 1978 


Hilt, Douglas R. 


"Germany Revisited" The Canadian Modern Language Review, October 
1962, pp. 4-6. 

"Jose Camilo Cela, La Colmena." (Book review) Hispania, September 
1967, pp. 626-27. 

"A New Look at Ph.D. Language Requirements." California Western Uni- 
versity Doctoral Society Journal, June 1968, pp. 14-16. 

"Manuel Godoy: Prince of the Peace." History Today, December 1971, 
pp. 833-41. 

"Mr. Bonaparte of Bordentown: Napoleon's Brother in America." 
Mankind, July 1972, pp. 50-55. 

"Madame de Stael: Emotion and Enthusiasm." History Today, 
December 1972, pp. 833-42. 

"A. W. Schlegel as Patriot and Politician." History Today, April 1973, 

pp. 239-46. 

"Goya: Turmoils of a Patriot." History Today, August 1973, pp. 536-45. 

"Chateaubriand and Napoleon." History Today, ZPecember 1973, pp. 831- 


"August Wilhelm Schlegel - Master Translator." The Canadian Modern 

Language Review, January 1974, pp. 134-36. 

"Galdos: The Novelist as Historian." History Today, May 1974, pp. 315- 

"Joseph Fouche, Policeman par excellence." Mankind, February 1975, 
pp. 38-45. 

"Compassionate Kins and Rebellious Pnnces." History Today, February 
1975, pp. 79-88. 

"Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos." History Today, June 1975, pp. 428-35. 

"Querido Manuel: Rise and Fall of a Fa\jor\te." Mankind, February 1976, 
pp. 46-51. 

"Pablo de Olavide: Spirit of an Age." Accepted by History Today. 


Ten Against Napoleon. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1975. 

A study of the literary, artistic, religious, and political opposition to 
Napoleon, with emphasis on the cross-cultural influences of the period. 

In preparation: A full-length biography of Manuel Godoy (1767-1851), 
royal favorite and effective ruler of Spain from 1792-1808. Emphasis will 
be placed on Godoy's relationship to Melendez Valdes, Moratin, hijo, 
Jovellanos, and Quintana, and his role as Goya's sponsor. 


Mann, George 

October 8, 1974 - Recital; North Georgia College, Dahlonega 

October 15, 1974 - Recital; West Georgia College 

October 25, 1974 — Recital for American Liszt Society Festival; Buffalo, 

New York 
April 2, 1975 — Recital; Clayton Junior College; Morrow 
April 15, 1975- Recital; West Georgia College 
April 25, 1975 - Recital; West Georgia College (Language Day) 
May 28, 1975 - Recital with Marianna Detrino, cellist; West Georgia College 
January 20, 1976 - Recital; Georgia College, Milledgeville 
January 27, 1976 — Recital with James and Stephanie Isaacson, violinists; 

West Georgia College 
February 2, 1976 - Lecture-Recital for Decatur Music Teachers Association 
February 10, 1976 — Recital; Jacksonville State University, Alabama 
March 28, 1976 - Recital; Cedartown Junior Music Club 
April 13, 1976- Recital; West Georgia College 
October 6, 1976 — Recital; Clayton Junior College, Morrow 
October 7, 1976 - Recital; Valdosta State College 
February 1, 1977 — Recital with Betty Sue Tolbert, painist; West Georgia 

March 19, 1977 - Recital; Clearwater, Florida 

April 4, 1977 — Recital; Presbyterian College, Clinton, South Carolina 
April 19, 1977 - Recital; West Georgia College 
May 22, 1977 - Recital, Georgia State University, Atlanta 
June, 1977 — Recital with Janet Stewart, Soprano, for National Assoc- 
iation of Teachers of Singing Regional Meeting, West Georgia College 
November 1, 1977 — Recital with Janet Stewart, West Georgia College 
November 18, 1977 — Recital with Janet Stewart, Columbus, Georgia 
February 7, 1978 — Performance with West Georgia College Woodwind 

Quinter, West Georgia College 
March 2, 1978 — Performance with West Georgia College Woodwind 

Quinter, Neva Lomason Library 
March 7, 1978 — Recital; Central Wesleyan College, South Carolina 
March 8, 1978 - Recital; Anderson College, South Carolina 
March 20, 1978 - Recital; Winthrop College, Rock Hill, South Carolina 
April 6, 1978 - Recital; Columbus College 
April 12, 1978 - Recital; DeKalb Community College, South Campus, 

April 17, 1978- Recital; West Georgia College 
April 28, 1978 - Recital; Brunswick Junior College 
May 15, 1978 - Soloist in Beethovan Concert No. 1 with Rome, Georgia 

Symphony Orchestra 
June 20, 1978 - Recital; West Georgia College 
June 21, 1978 - Recital; Emory University, Atlanta 


October 20, 1978 - Recital; Kennesaw College 

November 16, 1978 - Recital; Floyd Junior College, Rome 

November 30, 1978 - Recital; Valdosta State College 

Romanovicz, Dwight k. 


Brown, R.M. Jr., W.W. Franke, W. Herth, and K.K. Romanovicz. "The 
Role of the Golgi Apparatus in the Biogenesis and Secretion of a Cellulosic 
Glycoprotein in Pleurochrysis: A model system for the synthesis of struct- 
ural polysaccharides." pp. 207-257. In F. Loewus (ed.) Biogenesis of Plant 
Cell Wall Polysaccharides. Academic Press, N.Y., 1973. 

Hanker, J.S., L.P. Thornburg, P.E. Yates, and D.K. Romanovicz. "The De- 
monstration of Arylsulfatases with 4-nitro-1, 2-benzenediol mono (hy- 
drogen sulfate) by the Formation of Osmium Blacks at the Sites of Copper 
Capture." Histocheniistry ^\: 207-225,1975. 

Romanovicz, D.K. and J.S. Hanker. "Embedding Technique to Facilitate 
Speciman Selection for Electron Hicroscopy." Data Sheet 1 88, Po//sc/e/7ces, 
Inc., Warrington, PA. 

Brown, R.M. Jr., and D.K, Romanovicz. "Biogensis and Structure of Golgi- 
derived Cellulosic Scales in Pleurochrysis. I. Role of the Endomembrane 
System in Scale Assembly and Exocytosis." Appl. Polym. Symp. 28: 537- 

Hanker, J.S., D.K, Romanovica, and H.A. Padykula. "Tissue Fixation and 
Osmium Black Formation with Nonvolatile Octavalent Osmium Compounds. 
Histochemistry 49: 263-292. 

Hanker, J.S. , K.A. Carson, and D.K. Romanovicz, "Innovations in Osmium 
Black Cytochemistry." 6th European Congress on Electron Microscopy. 
Jerusalem: TAL International Publishing Company 

Romanovicz, D.K. and J.S. Hanker. "Wafer Embedding: Specimen Sel- 
ection in Electron Microscopic Cytochemistry with Osmiophilic Polymers." 
Histochem. J., 9: 317-327. 

Hanker, J.S. , J. W. Preece, E. J., Burkes, Jr., and D.K. Romanovicz. "Catalase 
in Salivary Gland Striated and Excretory Duct Cells. I. The Distribution 
of Cytoplasmic and Particulate Catalase and the Presence of Catalase- 
positive Rods." Histochem. J., 9: 711-728. 

Hanker, J.S., M.S. Silverman, and D.K. Romanovicz. Catalase in Salivary 
Gland Striated and Excretory Duct Cells. II. ^ body: an Ellipsoidal Perox- 
isomal Organelle with Crystalloid Axial Projections." A//sfoc/7em. 7., 9: 729 

Hanker, J.S. and D.K. Romanovicz. o bodies: Transformed Peroxisomes 
Which Produce Crystalloid Cellular inclusions. Science, 197: 895-898. 


Romanovicz, D.K. and R.M., Jr. "A Complex, Cellulosic Wall Component 
Synthesized and Transported via the Golgi Apparatus." Proc. Southeast 
Electron Microscopy Soc, Athens, Georgia. 

Hanker, J.S., J. P. Goulson, D. Romanovicz, L.P. Thornburg, and J.W. 
Preece. "Microbodies in Salivary Gland Ducts: Possible Relationship to 
Subcellular Tubles." J. Dent. Res. (Suppl.) 53: 142. 

Romanovicz, D.K. and R.M. Brown, Jr. "Cytochemical Localization of 
Enzymes Involved in Scale Biogensis." 32nd Ann. Proc. Electron Micros- 
copy Soc. Amer., Claitor's Publ. Div., Baton Rouge. 

Hanker, J.S., L.P. Thornburg, and D,K. Romanovicz. "Recent Trends and 
Advances in Catalytic Osmiophilic Polymer Generation by Transition Metal 
Compounds in Ultrastructural Cytochemistry." 32ncl Ann. Poc. Electron 
Microscopy Soc. Amer., Claitor's Publ, Div., Baton Rouge. 

Romanovicz, D.K. Cytochemical Evidence for Sulfotransferace Activity 
in the Golgi Apparatus of a Marine Alga." Proc. Southeast Electron 
Microscopy Soc, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Romanovicz, D.K., E.J. Burkes, Jr., and J. S. Hanker. Continuities Between 
Peroxisomes in Salivary Gland Duct Cells and Their Possible Relationship 
to Catalase Positive Rods." Proc. Southeast Electron Microscopy Soc, 
Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Hanker, J.S., D.K. Romanovica, and H.L. Moore, III. "Peroxisomes in 
Satellite, Schwann, and Laminar cells Associated with Trigeminal Sensory 
Neurons." 7. Cell Biol. 63: 131a. 

Romanovicz, D.K. and R.M. Brown, Jr. "Cellulose Produced in the Golgi 
Apparatus." J. Cell Biol. 63: 287a. 

Hanker, J.S., K.A. Carson, and D.K. Romanovicz. An Osmic Methanamine 
Complex as a Substitute for Os04 in Cytochemistry." J. Histochem. 
Cytochem. 23: 231. 

Hanker, J.S., J.W. Preece, E.J. Burkes, and D.K. Romanovicz. The Nature 
of Particulate Catalase in Mouse Salivary Gland Ducts." J. Histochem. 
Cytochem. 23: 320. 

Hanker, J.S., D.K. Romanovicz, and M.A. Crenshaw. "Nonvolatile Oct- 
avalent Osmium Compounds as Sources of Os04 for Electron Micro- 
scopic Cytochemistry." 33rd Ann. Proc. Electron Microscopy Soc. Amer., 
Claitor's Publ. Div., Baton Rouge. 

Hanker, J.S., P.E. Yates, and D.K. Romanovicz. "Peroxisome Content of 
Tissues of Germ-free Mice." J. Cell Biol. 67: 155a. 

Romanovicz, D.K., W.W. Ambrose, and J.S. Hanker. Stepwise Specimen 
Selection in Cytochemistry with Osmiophilic Polymers." J. Cell Biol. 67:369a 


Romanovicz, D.K. and J.S. Hanker. Wafer Embedment to Facilitate Light 
iVIicroscopic Selection of Specimens for Uitrathin Sectioning." 34th Ann. 
Proc. Electron Microscopy Soc. Amer,. Claitor's Publ. Div., Baton Rouge. 

Romanovicz, D.K. and J.S. Hanker,. "Biogenesis of Catalase-positive Rods 
in Excretory Duct Cells of Salivary Glands." 34th Ann. Proc. Electron 
Microscopy Soc. Amer., Claitor's Publ. Div., Baton Rouge. 

Hanker, J.S., E.J. Burkes, Jr., M.S. Silverman, and D.K. Romanovicz. 
"Distribution and Significance of Crystalline and Cytoplasmic Catalase and 
Microbodies in Salivary Gland Ducts." First International Congress on Cell 
Biology, Boston, Mass. 

Hanker, J.S., K.A. Carson, R.J. Chandross, and D,K. Romanovicz. 
"Schwann cell Glycolytic Activity and Proliferation in Sensory Neuro- 
pathy." J. Dent. Res. 55:265. 

Hanker, J.S., P.E. Yates, and D.K. Romanovicz. "Demonstration of Car- 
bonic Anhydrase by Catalytic Osmiophilic Polymer Generation J 
Histochem. Cytochem. 24:614-615, 

Hanker, J.S. and D.K. Romanovicz. "Phi bodies: Transformed Peroxi- 
somes that Produce Crystalloidal Cellular Inclusions." I J Histochem 
Cytochem. 25:253. 

Hanker, J.S., R.A. Coleman, D.K. Romanovicz, W.W. Ambrose, and K.A. 
Carson. "I. Osmiophilic Reagents in the Histocytochemical Localization 
of Oxidoreductases Relative to Cellular Metabolism and Function." Pro- 
ceedings of the Fifth International School of Electron Microscopy. Erice, 

Hanker, J.S., P.E. Yates, W.W. Ambrose, D.K. Romanovicz, and L.F. 
Gonzalez. "II. The Subcellular Localization of Hydrolytic Enzymes in Cells 
and Tissues of Developing and Diseased Animals." Proceedings of the Fifth 
International School of Electron Microscopy. Erice, Sicily. 

Romanovicz, D.K. and J.S. Hanker,. Acetylcholinesterase-positive Para- 
receptor Cells in the Palatal Dermis." J. Dent Res. 56: 163. 

Hanker, J.S., D.K. Romanovicz, J. Laszio, and J. Moore. "Formation of 
Auer Rods from Phi Bodies in Non-lymphocytic Leukemias " Blood 50- 

Gonzalez, L.F., D.K. Romanovicz, and J.S. Hanker. "Histocytochemistry 
of Glycolytic Dehydrogenases in Human Gingiva." J. Dent. Res. 57:140. 
Moore, J., J. Laszio, D.K. Romanovicz, and J.S. Hanker. "Catalase Staining 
of Leukocytes: An Adjunctive Clinical Test for the Classification of 
Leukemias." Clin. Res. 26:353a. 


Scoff, Carole 

Book, Your Financial Plan, A Consumers Guide, Harper and Row, January, 

Shank, W. A. 


Copland: The Quiet City: Syracuse University Synnphony Orchestra - 1961 
Vivaldi: Concerto in C Major for two trunnpets and orchestra 

Syracuse University Symphony Orchestra - 1962 

Quebec Symphony Orchestra- Feb. 21, 1967 and Feb. 29, 1967 
Haydn: Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra 

Syracuse University Symphonic Band - Summer of 1962 

Virginia State Symphony Orchestra - 1966 

New York State Symphony Orchestra - 1966 
Morrissey: Concertino for two trumpets, trombone and band 

Syracuse University Symphonic Band - 1963 
Morrissey: Soliloquy for Trumpet: Utica Municipal Band - 1963 
Anderson: Trumpeter's Lullaby: Utica Municipal Band - 1963 
Hummel: Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra 

Quebec Symphony Orchestra - Jan. 20, 1968, Jan. 30, 1968 and Feb. 

6, 1968 ^ .. 

CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Radio Orchestra- Recordmg 

on March 1, 1968 
Jackson Symphony Orchestra - January 16, 1972 

Arban/Clarke: The Carnival of Venice: The University of Tennessee at 

Martin Concert Band - 1970 
Arutunian: Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra 

Louisiana State University Symphony Orchestra - April 19, 1974 
Mendez: The Bullfighter's Song: Hudson Falls H.S. Band-Jan. 13, 1977 


Syracuse University - December 8, 1961 - Solo Recital May 19, 1963 - 

Solo Recital 
Eastman School of Music - August 4, 1965 - Solo Recital 
The University of Tennessee at Martin -April 9, 1970, January 18, 1971, 

May 4, 1972, and April 12, 1973 
Louisana State University - July 6, 1972 - Solo Recital, August 1, 1973- 

Lecture Recital, February 4, 1974 - Chamber Music Recital, July 29, 

1974 -Solo Recital, March 21, 1975 -Solo Recital 


Radford College — February 5, 1975 —Lecture Demonstration of Ancient 
and Modern Trunnpet Types 

Bryan College — February 6, 1975 — Lecture Dennonstration of Ancient 
and Modern Trumpet Types 

Federationof Music Clubs, Martin, Tennessee — January 9, 1976 — Trumpet 
and organ recital Adirondack Community College — May 5, 1977 


National Association of College Wind and Percussion Instructors Journal — 


An Essay Concerning the Understanding of Torelli's S//7fo/7/s co^ Tromba. 
Rochester: Eastman School of Music, 1965. 

Hunting Horns and Trumpets (1600-1750) A Comparative Study. Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1973. 

A Comparison of Prototype Eighteenth Century Musical Instruments: 
Jager-trompete, Barock-trompete, and Zink with their Modern Counter- 
Parts. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1973. 

An Annotated Listing of Music for Wind Ensemble, composed in America 
during the period from Early Nationhood until the Civil War. Baton Rouge: 
Louisiana State University, 1974. 

An Annotated Listing of Solo and Small Chamber Ensemble Music for the 
Cornetto (1570-1670). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1973. 

A Historical Study and Transcription of the Concerto for the Kent Bugle or 
Klappenflugel by Anthony Philip Heinrich. Baton Rouge: Louisiana 
State University, 1975. 


Short'n Sweet, for piano solo. 

Variations on a Theme for Wall<ing. for trumpet, Clarinet and Saxophone. 

Short Invention for two trumpets. 

Life for four part chorus. Words by Anna Laetitia Barbauld. 

The Moon in the Heavens, for Medium voice and piano. 

Stokes, Jimmy C. 

"ACS Cooperative Examination in Qualitative Analysis — Form 1976." 
Examinations Committee of the Division of Chemical Education of the 
American Chemical Society, Spring 1977. 


"ACS Cooperative Examination in General Chemistry — Form 1977." 
Examinations Committee of the Division of Chemical Education of the 
American Chemical Society, Spring 1977. 

"Non-Laboratory Activities for Chemistry." Georgia Journal of Science, 
35 (1977), 114. (Abstract) 

"Meeting Attendance Too Costly." Chemical and Engineering News, 55 
(33), August 15, 1977, pg. 2. (letter to editor) 

Worf<bool< for Theoretical Chemistry, West Georgia College Press, 1977. 
(with L.M. Barnes) 

"Pie in the Sky." Chemistry, January/February, 1978, pg. 31. 

"A Technical Writing Program for High School Students." Georgia Journal 
of Science, 36 (1978), 112. (Abstract) 

"Basic Liquid Chromatography (Review)." Journal of College Science 
Teaching, VII: 5 (1978), 324. 

"ACS Cooperative Examination in General Chemistry — Form 1977S." 
Examinations Committee of the Division of Chemical Education of the 
American Chemical Society, August 1978. 

Panelist, Georgia Section, American Chemical Society's Conference on the 
Drop/Fail- Rate in General Chemistry, October 14, 1978. 

"Where Has All the Sulfuric Acid Gone?" Chemistry, 51 (October, 1978), 

"Basic Mass Spectrometry (Review)." Journal of College Science Teaching, 
Vlll:2(1978), 124. 

Review of Chemistry (Bailar, Moeller, Kleinburg, Guss, Castellion, and 
Metz). Academic Press, December, 1978. 

"An Evaluation of Three Self-Paced Programs in General Chemistry." 
Paper presented at 27th Annual Convention of the National Science 
Teachers Association, March 23, 1979, 

Tolbert, Betty Sue 

January 19, 1979 — West Georgia College; Piano and Clarinet; Rhapsody 
in Blue by George Gershwin. 

December 17, 18, 1978 - Tabernacle Baptist Church, Carrollton; Played 
Piano in performance in "Amahl and The Night Visitors" by Menotti. 

December 3, 1978 - Tabernacle Baptist Church, Carrollton; Played harps- 
ichord in performance of the Christmas portion of "Messiah" by Handel. 

October 12, 1978 - Lit-Mu Club Evening Musicale at First Baptist Church, 
Carrollton; Fantasie in d minor by Mozart, solo piano. 

September 14, 1978 - Fine Arts Faculty Recital, West Georgia College; 
Piano and Violin; Nocturne, Op. 9, No. 2 by Chopin; Playera, Op. 23, No. 1 
by Sarasati; Mazurka, Op. 19 (The Village Fiddler) by Wieniawski. 


May 16, 1977 - West Georgia College, Piano and Violin; Sonata in A Major, 
Op. 47 "Kreutzer" by Beethoven; Concerto in G Major For Three Violins 
and Concerto by Telennann; Scottish Fantasy for Violin and Piano by Max 

May 8, 1977 — West Georgia College; Piano Quintet in c minor by 
Dohnanyi; Betty Tolbert, piano with American Pro-Art String Quartet. 

May 5, 1977 — University of Georgia; Piano and Violin and Piano and 
String Quartet; Sonata in A Major, Op. 47 "Kreutzer" by Beethoven and 
Quintet in c minor by Dohnanyi; Betty Tolbert, piano, with American Pro- 
Art String Quartet. 

February 1, 1977 - West Georgia College; Duo Piano Recital, Betty Tolbert 
and George Mann, Pianists; Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring by J.S. Bach-Hess, 
Sonata in G Major by J.C. Bach, Aria and Toccata by Dello Joio, Variat- 
ions on a Theme of Haydn by Brahms, Suite for Two Pianos by Arensky 
and Scaramouche by Milhaud. 

September 18, 1976 - Cartersville High School, Cartersville, Georgia. 
Piano and Violin; Sonata in C minor. Op. 45 by Grieg; Melodie by Gluck; 
Schoen Rosmarin by Kreisler; Nigun by Ernest Bloch; Scherzo-Tarentelle, 
Op. 16 by Wieniawski. 

September 27, 1976 — West Georgia College; Piano and Violin; Sonata in 
c minor. Op. 45 by Grieg, Nigun by Bloch; Scherzo-Tarentelle, Op. 16 by 

July 13, 1976 — Wesleyan College, Macon, Georgia, Georgia Governor's 
Honors Program; Piano and Viblin; Sonata in c minor. Op. 45 by Grieg, 
Nigun by Bloch; Scherzo-Tarentelle, Op. 16 by Wieniawski. 

July 13, 1976 — Wesleyan College, Macon, Georgia, Governor's Honors 
Program, Solo Piano Program (Mini Concert). ProgramJesu, Joy of Man's 
Desiring by J.S. Bach-Myra Hess; Preludes in c minor and g minor by 
Chopin; Waltz in A^ Major by Chopin; Preludes for Piano by Gershwin. 

May 30, 1976 — Tabernacle Baptist Church, Carrollton, Concert of secular 
and sacred music; Scherzo in B Flat Minor by Chopin; Jesu, Joy of Man's 
Desiring by J.S. Bach-Hess; The Lord's Prayer by Malotte; Numerous other 
sacred arrangements. 

May 30, 1976 — Performance for Phi Kappa Phi initiation at West Georgia 
College; Three Preludes for Piano by Gershwin. 

May 23, 1976 - Accompanied West Georgia College Concert Choir in per- 
formance of Psalms by Lukas Foss (Two piano accompaniment with my 
student, Tisha Clark, at the second piano). 

April 20, 1976 - "Mini Concert" for Carrollton Rotary Club; Scherzo in B 
flat minor by Chopin and Three Preludes for Piano by Gershwin. 


May 27, 1975 - Accompanied West Georgia College Concert Choir in per- 
formance of Neve Liebeslieder,Op. 65 by J. Brahma (Piano duet accompan- 
iment with George Mann playing the secondo). 

November 4, 1974 - University of Georgia, Graduate solo recital, Des pas 

sur la Neige, Debussy; Fantasia in D Minor, Mozart; Sonata in F Minor, 

Op. 57, Beethoven; Waltz in A Flat Major, Op. 69, No. 1, Waltz in G 

Flat Major, Op. 70, No. 1, Nocturne in C Sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 1, 

Scherzo in B Flat Minor - all by Chopin. 

November 1, 1974 - Gainesville Junior College, Guest performer; Des pas 

sur la Neige, Debussy; Fantasia in D Minor, Mozart; Sonata in F.Minor, 

Op. 57, Beethoven; Waltz in A Flat Major, Op. 69, No. 1, Walta in G Flat 

Major, Op. 70, No. 1, Nocturne in C Sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 1 Scherzo 

in B Flat Minor - all by Chopin., 

October 29, 1974 - West Georgia College, Faculty Recital, Des pas sur la 

Neige, Debussy; Fantasia in D Minor, Mozart; Sonata in F Minor, Op. 57, 

Beethoven; Waltz in A Flat Major, Op. 69, No. 1, Waltz in G Flat Major, 

Op. 70, No. 1. Nocturne in C Sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 1, Scherzo in B 

Flat Minor - all by Chopin. 

October 21, 1974 - Georgia Southern College, Statesboro, Georgia, Guest 

Performer; Des pas sur la Neige, Debussy; Fantasia in D Minor, Mazart; 

Sonata in F Minor, Op. 57, Beethoven; Waltz in A Flat Major, Op. 69, No. 

1, Waltz in G Flat Major, Op. 70, No. 1, Nocturne in C Sharp Minor, Op. 

27, No. 1, Scherzo in B Flat Minor - all by Chopin. 

October 17, 1974 - Berry College, Rome, Georgia, Guest Performer, Des 

pas sur la Neige, Debussy; Fantasia in D Minor, Mozart; Sonata in F Minor, 

Op. 57, Beethoven; Waltz in A Flat Major, Op. 69, No. 1, Waltz in G Flat 

Major, Op. 70, No. 1, Nocturne in C Sharp Minor, Op. 27, No. 1, Scherzo 

in B Flat Minor - all by Chopin. 

October 6, 1974 - Young Harris College, Guest Performer, Des pas sur la 

Neige, Debussy; Fantasia in D Minor, Mozart; Sonata in F.Minor, Op. 57, 

Beethoven; Waltz in A Flat Major, Op. 69, No. 1, Waltz in G Flat Major, 

Op. 70, No. 1, Nocturne in C Sharpe Minor, Op. 27, No. 1, Scherzo in B 

Flat Minor - all by Chopin. 

October 26, 1972 - West Georgia College, Faculty Recital; Sonata in f 

minor by Brahms. 

May 19, 1970 - West Georgia College Faculty Recital; Lyric Pieces Op. 

43 by Grieg and Trois Pieces by Poulenc. 

March 13, 1969 - West Georgia College Faculty Recital; Sonata in B flat 

Major, K.' 570 by Mozart; Three Preludes for Piano by Gershwin and 

Faschingsswank aus Wien by Schumann. 

March 9, 1969 - Hawkinsville, Georgia; Sonata in B flat Major, K, 570 by 

Mozart; Three Preludes for Piano by Gershwin and Faschingsswank aus 

Wien by Schumann. 


April 11, 1972 — West Georgia College, Accompanist for faculty voice 
concert given by Bruce Borton, Baritone. Works performed: Die Post, Das 
Wirtshaus, Heidenroslein, Du Bist Die Rue, Aufenthalt — all by Schubert; 
Trois Ballades de Villon by Debussy; General William Booth Enters 
Into Heaven, Serenity, At the River, The Greatest Man, The Children's 
Hour, Charley Rutiedge — all by Charles Ives. 

April 3, 1973 — West Georgia College, Faculty concert of works for Violin 
and Piano. Program: Sonata in D Major, Op. 5 by Corelli; Sonata in D 
Major, Op. 12, No. 1 by Beethoven and Sonata No. 1 in G Major, Op. 78 
by Brahms. 

October 27, 1971 -West Georgia College, Faculty Chamber Music concert; 
Suite for Violin, Clarinet and Piano by Darius Milhaud. 

May 13, 1971 — West Georgia College, Faculty Chamber Music concert; 
Suite for Violin, Clarinet, and Piano by Darius Milhaud. 

December, 1969 — West Georgia College, Harpsichordist in West Georgia 
College Concert Choir performance of "Magnificat". 

May 15, 1969 — West Georgia College, Faculty Chamber Music Concert; 
Concerto in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 8 for Violin, Viola, and Piano by Vivaldi; 
Concerto in D Minor for two Violins and Piano by J.S. Bach. 

May 14, 1969 — West Georgia College, Faculty Chamber Music Concert; 
Music of Mourning (I Slowly, II Moderately, III Fast, Iv Very Slowly) by 
Paul Hindemith. 

Ulrich, Walter 

Ulrich, Walter. "Recent Changes in the Nature of Inherency." Paper pre- 
sented at the April, 1976 Convention of the Central States Speech Assoc- 
iation, Chicago, Illinois. 

"Toward a Justification of Inherency." Paper presented at the April, 1976 
Convention of the Kansas State Speech Association, Wichita, Kansas. 

"On Debating Inherency." \v\ Perspectives on Criminal Justice: Penal Re- 
form. Pretrial Proceedure, Gun Control. Edited by Charles Kaufman, Robin 
Rowland, and Frank Cross. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas De- 
bate Squad, 1976. 

"A Theoretical Discussion of the Counterplan." in Health Care in America: 
Perspectives and Issues. Edited by Randy Lake, Robin Rowland, and Frank 
Cross. Lawrence, Kansas: Division of Continuing Education, 1977. 

"The Construction of the Affirmative Plan." In Energy Independence: 
Perspectives and Issues. Edited by Randy Lake, Robin Rowland, and Frank 
Rowland. Lawrence, Kansas: Division of Continuing Education, 1978. 

"A Process View of Argument." Journal of Human Interaction, I (Summer, 
1978), 38-43. 


"Tabula Rasa as an Approach to the Judging of Debates." Peper presented 
at the November, 1978 Gbnvention of the Speech Comnnunication Assoc- 
iation, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Wagner, Donald R. 

Review of The Totalitarian Temptation by Jean-Francois Revel. Georgia 
Political Science Association Journal, VI, No. 1 (Spring, 1978), 138-140. 

"Facts, Values, and the Sense of Sensory Experience." Paper read at Amer- 
ican Political Science Association, New York, New York, September, 1978. 

"Human Nature and Politics." Panel chairmen at Georgia Political Science 
Association, Savannah, Georgia, February, 1979. 





Vol XII 

May, 1980 

Published by 

Division of the University System of Georgia 




Volume XII 


of /Or 


Mysticism as Everyday Life: The Recurring 
Mystical Moment — James B. Klee .... 

Too Few for the Status Quo: Some Enrollment 
Issues for the Future — John C. Upchurch . , 

The Local Community and Global Awareness: 

The Case for the West Georgia Area — Paul E. Masters, Jr 12 

Reflections on Iran's Islamic Republic and 
The Origins of Public Authority: 
The Political Role of Charismatic 
Nation-Building — Daniel Brantley 21 

Are We Here for a Fair Exchange? A Review 
and Critique of George Homans' 
Exchange Theory — Lee-jan Jan 28 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specilist in 

Education Projects 35 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College 

Faculty as of January 1, 1980 69 

Copyright c 1980, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 

Published by 

Maurice K. Townsend, President 
John T. Lewis III, Vice President and Dean of Faculties 

Learning Resources Comrrfittee 
Chairman, Timothy M. Chowns 

Mary E. Baxter Joseph Doldan 

Charles Beard George C. Mann 

Edwin M. Blue Jerome T. Mock 

Herman Boyd J. Earl Perry 

Thomas A. Bryson III Jo Ann Sanders 

Dexter Byrd Carole E. Scott 
Richard Coffeen 

Jimmy C. Stokes, Editor 
Martha A. Saunders, Associate Editor 
Mark J. LaFountain, Assistant Editor 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for faculty 
research and to make available results of such activity. The Review, 
published annully, accepts original scholarly work and creative writing. 
West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for contributors' views. 
The style guide is Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for Writers. Although the 
Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, 
other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major recitals 
and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted are not 
listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and appears in 
the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all master's theses 
and educational specialist's projects written at West Georgia College are 
included as they are awarded. 


by James B. Klee* 

Zen is your everyday life. 

Nirvana and Samsara are one. 

Before I studied Zen, mountains were mountains, trees were trees. 
Then as I began to study Zen the mountains and trees were no longer just 
mountains and trees. After I experienced satori, the mountains were 
mountains, the trees trees. 

A rose is a rose is a rose. 

The above paraphrased expressions relect one of my recently realized 
notions — in fact convictions that the mystical experience is ordinary; that 
it is an everyday thread-of-life aspect of experience which is the continuous 
thread of karma, in maya, and atman, and which is the subject-object 
continuum. William James called it the stream of consciousness. F.S.C. 
Northrop called it the "immediately apprehended differentiated (or 
undifferented in the core at atman) aesthetic continuum." Aldous Huxley 
called it the perennial philosophy. A. H. Maslow recognized it as "peak 
experience." Yet it is only as the last that the mystical experience is mostly 
conceived, a rare mysterious occasional event which happens at best but 
rarely and then only to a very select few. And many of these very few, at 
least in the West, have tended to identify it with some "super" divine 
"millenial" consciousness which as the "holy" has turned the experience 
into an object of an end game that ignored all its "ecological" 
manifestations. (The distinction is Thomas Merton's.) As Harvey Wheeler 
recently pointed out, the end result has been the total desanctification of all 
life experience except some impossibly rare moment that left all else pale 
and insignificant and ignoble and ignorable and exploitable, dross for 
misues. Witness not only the destruction of the environment in the name of 
man's alleded dominion over the earth, waters, and living forms, but also 
of man by man in the name of God and of man's body by himself in the 
same alledged cause. Now, though this has been especially true of the West, 
the pursuit of austerities has also been a dominant motif in the major part 
of the East as well. Indeed it appears for the nonce to have been a universal 
human trait. No wonder then desire even of "the holy" is so roundly 
witnessed as the root of man's misery by those few individuals who like the 
Buddha were able to see beyond such narrow conceptions of the holy-(w) 

*Professor of Psychology, West Georgia College 

The resanctification of the whole and all its parts is a necessity if we are 
not to continue the ruthless destruction of not only the ecological 
surround, but of man by man, and of self by self. But obviously this can not 
be legislated or forced beyond a few defensive or protective measures. It 
can truly come only by the direct experience of the holy in each part or 
fraction of the whole that man is capable of experiencing, each in its turn. 
For this the traditional analytic pursuit of the holy as only one part 
separable from the whole prepares us but poorly. Traditionally when any 
one fraction appeared as divine in and of itself it was expected to be so 
forever. It -wo.?, permanently enshrined and turned into an idol. No wonder 
the concept of maya grew. All such moments regarded without reference to 
their temporal condition, their momentariness, could only in the context 
of permanentness appear as illusionary. Any such "good" regarded as 
absolute without recognition of temporal relativity could only be 
deceptive. The momentariness of any "good", that is its own being in iteslf, 
its suchness, indeed the very possibility and fact of continuance, was 
scorned because permanence was sought instead of the eternity of change 
acc&pted. In the context of permanence any moment can be only a 
disappointment. Its continuity into fading staleness as best could warn 
only against any kind of attachment. Yet in the context of eternity each 
moment is the realization of all that is (w) holy but each moment must be 
relinguished before the glory of the next moment and its own self- 
realization. In other words, it is not the temporality of the moment which is 
illusory but the attempt to arrest it, to make it essentially non-temporal, to 
try to hold on to it and use it in other contexts or dimensions of analysis, 
especially those that are formal and/ or qualitative and the quantitative 
and/or evaluative. Indeed is this not why man falls? Should he try to know 
as permanently good andevil that which was only the wealth of the 
moment, he could be led only into ignorance of the next moment's own 
particular virtue. Is man's fall only the punishment of an act of 
misinterpretation of the divine order in the sense of its pattern? 

The temptation to arrest and hold the moment past its momentariness 
is one that to a large degree our species has circumvented even if individual 
members or groups have succumbed to such temptation. And, of course, 
such "sin" has its temporary successes if defined primarily in a defensive 
way. Those creatures who have so sinned are among the most numerous 
and "successful on the earth. Witness the insects and other body armored 
creaturs, or those who wear a mantle of glory on a special basis, as mane of 
lion, plumage of bird, crown of antlers of stag and ram. Man too 
temporarily seems fair for permanence with his uniforms, surplices, 
feather headdresses, or his pyramids, superdreadnaughts, palaces, 
churches, or temples, and nations. Yet as we look back upon the temporary 
permanences of the past, it is to the tourist in us that they most appeal. 

Today children wear the once-honored warbonnet in play, our hippies now 
outbead the rosary, outgrow the sacred earlock but as a game, and even 
make the distinctions of sexual dress no longer special and permanent. We 
seem as a species on verge of breaking over from the insectoidal exosketetal 
protective armor of culture affected by traditional societies to a freer and 
endoskeletal or vertebrate, i.e., with "backbone", more relativistic cultural 
style. As Ortega has repeatedly suggested, we are moving from the ideal of 
"invertebrate" Spain to an appreciation of the existential life. We are 
"shipwrecked" as he termed it. Curiously this we share with all vertebrates, 
indeed even chordates, but only recently have we begun to use culture in a 
way appropriate to the daring choices we had already made on the 
evolutionary voyage as animals.But what does a "vertebrate" life mean for 
our pruposes vw a vis the mystical experiences temporally conceived? 

James found the answer so obvious that in the end he was mystified 
that it could be other. In the flow, the karmic ongoingness, one goes from 
one event or happening to another. Truth had the pragmatic finality of the 
moment, of a now never to be repeated. Life, mind, experience or 
consciousness was essentially phenomenological; the subject and object 
were at best hypothetical divisions made of the unitary experience. Each 
event sacred and unalterable in its momentary suchness made a pluralistic 
conception absolutely essential, not that there might not be an 
overweaning wholeness which could be misleadingly called "one". Yet in 
that whole the sanctity of the suchness was maintained. A story related by 
Maurice Friedman about D.T. Suzuki might express this. Suzuki was 
being entertained at Sarah Lawrence College in connection with a lecture 
and conversation developed with a Hindu lady about basic monism. She 
had implied that a variety of events, such as a shoe, cough, god, all had an 
underlying monistic substrate and solicited Suzuki's agreement with this 
position. He disagreed, asserting each was entirely its own. Yet each was an 
aspect of the whole. Each was itself as such. Each was its own mystery. And 
Uke each haiku, each work of art, each was a moment or short series of 
moments in itself. 

Why do we accept this when pointed out yet so soon forget? The most 
obvious answer is our relation to and understanding of what we conceive 
of as repetition of similarity and identity. To create a mathematics of 
repetition of identical elements, though useful in a large but limited sense, 
and then to apply such a calculus to living events without regard to the 
uniqueness of both the moment and individual event is a great temptation 
to say the least. Repeatedly we fail to resist such an overwhelming 
temptation. Despite our protestations as to the limited intent of census or 
statistics, we succumb to the almost irresistable lure of reduction of events 
to the qualitative or the quantitative. And of course it does work for a 
while. After all, events rarely differ that much. If there were not an almost 
essential repetition there could not be an organism, a body, a word or 


symbol, a culture, indeed evolution. That some event "recur" more often 
than not, more often that other events enables us to develop a sense of 
continuity. But if we only sense the recurrence and not the continued 
miracle of its creation and recreation, we lose the sense of vitality of the 
renewed moment to that of boredom. We come to expect its recurrence. 
We act as if the golden age were ever past or ever still ahead instead of ever 
present. And of course we begin to desire occurrence or recurrence and 
suffer the miseries of frustration, of unfulfilled desire and longing. The 
more we desire a repetition or the thoughtfully conceived ideal, the less 
sacred each moment becomes and the more we ignore the mystery of the 
moment. The more we act in beHef in repetition of past and future, the less 
faith we have in the actual essential partial recurrence of the ecological- 
organism unity without which life ceases to exist. Even though such 
repetition is seldom exact and enormous flexibility is required even to 
recognize relevant recurrences, yet on the whole it has been largely 
sufficient enough to have brought the current species to their present 
vitality. And unless man intervenes to an exaggerated degree there is little 
reason not to expect its somewhat fitful continuance. Sufficient at least to 
retain a vaguely justifiable faith. For if it ever altogether ceased as it 
threatens to in a major earthquake, drought, or flood, fire or storm, then 
that would be that, period. Yet so far death has never ceased. Is this death, 
the ultimate fear that makes us fiercely want exact repetition? My dog on 
Easter Sunday lost to death his best friend and most constant companion, 
my other dog. Although obviously disrupted by non-recurrence of his 
constant companion, yet the rest of his life seems not to have lost its zestful 
vitality. Is he the less for his failure to grieve? Has not the human animal 
also but temporarily strayed from such wonderful vitality albeit for several 
tens of thousands of years? The temptation to arm himself against his 
awareness of death by means of the new possibilities of symbol, tool, and 
culture so recently created was and is great. But we are possibly on the 
verge of a new sense of consciousness based on the recurrent divinity of the 
moment of the continued sacredness of each event of the (w)holiness of 
eternity. Perhaps as we realize this we will be able to give up the defensive 
and armored attempt to make permanent any one particular revelation in 
history. (Incidentally, perhaps such inspiration is relegated to "history" to 
reduce the obligatory sense of relevance each such event inspires.) 

The reorientation of consciousness from a concentrated desire-ordered 
pursuit of a seemingly monistically conceived goal (so effective in creating 
our current cultural achievements and also in creating the crises now 
apparent as the result of such an effort) to a more flexible pluralistic 
orientation which acknowledges the sacredness of each concurrent event 
not to mention their recurrence calls for a life style for which we have little 
or at best vague preparation. That a continuous creative and recreative 

effort has to be made is obvious. Yet a continuously creative and recreative 
milieu is also given even though it can not be expected in any exact way. A 
pluralistic orientation also implies the possibility of rhythmic alternations 
of experience more complex than the monoemphatic patterns to which the 
West has accustomed itself, the oom-pah-pah of waltz, rhumba, foxtrot or 
big beat rock. I would suggest instead the polyrhythms of Indian or 
African music with their emphases on complex occurrences and 
recurrences rather than the thematic repetitions of melody and harmony so 
long the standby of the analytical monistic, monothematic and 
monotheisitc West. 

This unexpected recurrence of the sacred is what to me C.S. Lewis 
means when he speaks of being "surprised by joy." Rather than seeking 
pleasure the "doing good" of traditional religious observance (the pleasure 
principle, the expected payoff) or postponing gratification while more 
clever means to the goal are devised, "doing better" (the reality principle of 
the scientific West), a third way is potentially emergin, a "doing best." But 
this would be not merely the perfectionistic continuation of good and 
better so much as a turn toward relevance. The first two are warned against 
by Adam's fall from grace, by eating of the tree of knowledge of good and 
evil. The third way involves a comparison of values on a qualitative as well 
as quantitative dimension and especially is cogniscent of presence, of 
temporality which takes full advantage of what is being given in all 
polyrhythmical dimensions. In this sense each event is passed through and 
released in turn, not grasped, held, accumulated, imprisoned, arrested and 
ultimately fossilized. The rhythmical conception of breathing in and 
exhaling again, inhaling and breathing out so typical of Eastern 
meditation and yoga seems the better physiological analogy than the peak 
experience of sexuality and/ or success achievement (salvation?) so typical 
of Western emphases. For ultimately the acceptance of relinquishment of 
sacred experience makes the experience of divine presence far more 
possible and probable than the holding on to as if permanent like a 
mounted fish or head trophy on the wall. For the latter works only by 
exclusion, the fish lasts longest when all forms of vitality especially those 
useful forms of decomposition (which make possible the recycling of the 
fish and hence its resurrection and reexperience) are most excluded. By 
purifying (purification always excludes other aspects), by excluding life 
and death we make the mounted fish permanently ours but all of us are just 
a bit more dead in consequence. Better to have "thrown it back" and fished 
again another day. (Is not the latter closer to the true meaning of the 
resurrection? Are not the dead to bury the dead?) In this sense the ecstacy 
of the peak experience is the more regressive than the potentially cyclical, 
albeit irregular and seldom extreme analogy of breathing, indeed of the 
life-death cycle itself. Growing to, passing through, and letting go only to 
grow again would seem the more authentic way of realizing the ever- 


present nature of the divine than to try to grasp and mount it on wall or 
altar. True, it is more mundane more "temporal", less ecstatic, or more 
ordinary; but that is where I started. Zen is our everyday life. But then 
today is the first day of the rest of our Hves, and in the rest we could realize 
the ever recurrent divinity inherent in all aspects of the continuous stream 
of consciousness. This ever present sacredness we now often ignore and 
ignoble by our desire for an ultimate and exlcusively "divine" god-boject 
permanently enshrined and isolated from the whole by being made the one 
and only. For this exclusive "god" we are recurrently tempted to trade the 
continual sacredness of eternity. How many more tens of thousands of 
years will our species go before we have broken out of these attempts to 
freeze into permanence a few revelations when we could have continuous 
access to each and every moment? But then how courageous we would 
have to be. To be! Dare we risk it? But then could we even possibly lose, for 
isn't it all sacred all of the time? 


John C. Upchurch* 

Demographic data recently formulated by the Bureau of the Census 
indicate a substantial shrinkage of the 18-22 year-old population cohortfor 
the period 1975-1992. The extent of the skrinkage can be determined by 
the following statistics: in 1975 there were 4.2 million 18-year-olds in the 
United States. A decade later, in 1985, the total population of this age 
group will decline to 3.6 million, and in 1992, to 3.2 million. Expressed in 
percentages, the decline between 1975 and 1985 will reach 15 and between 
1975 and 1990, approximately 24. It is well to keep in mind that these 
statistics are not based upon theoretical projections but on persons 
already born, with due consideration having been given to actuarial 
projections of mortality.' 

Since the 18-22 year-old cohort represents the traditional college-age 
student, the anticipated decline in absolute numbers suggests a potential 
threat to the status quo in many institutions of higher education. Not only 
will colleges and universities be forced to adapt to a diminishing 
enroUment pool of 18-22 year-olds during the next decade or so, they also 
will encounter increasing competition for students from other 
postsecondary educational institutions such as vocational and technical 
schools, proprietary schools, and industry-associated institutes, colleges, 
and universities. 

Another element of competition, one often neglected by those 
contemplating the ramifications of a decline in the number of 18-22 year- 
olds, is that of military requirements. Assuming that the nation chooses to 
maintain an active military force of 2.1 million persons during the 1980- 
1992 period, and that women continue to join the armed forces at today's 
annual rate of 40,000, the military must recruit (or perhaps conscript) up 
to one of three male 18-year-olds each year through 1992.- 

Fewer traditional-age students and increased competition are not the 
only factors likely to negatively affect enrollment in colleges and 

♦Professor of Georgraphy, West Georgia College 

'The census data are reported in Cathy Henderson, Changes in Enrollment by 1985 
(Washington: American Council on Education, 1977), pp. 12, 15. See also Leon F. Bouview, 
U.S. Population in 2,000 — Zero Growth or Not, vol. 30, no. 5 (Washington; Population 
Reference Bureau), pp. 18-20. 

^Thomas W. Carr, "Education in the Military: A Look into the Future," mimeographed 
(Washington; Department of Defense, 1977), p. 1. 

universities in the near future. Of increasing concern is cost. Put simply, 
attending an institution of higher education is expensive, and it will be 
more so in the years to come. Even at a public institution, expenses 
currently can exceed $3,000 per year. Add to this the effects of inflation on 
family budgets and the fact that little financial aid is available for part-time 
students and those who come from middle income families. Related to the 
cost factor is the increasing realization by parents, existing students, and 
potential students that the economic value of a college degree has slipped 
badly in the marketplace. 

The gradual emergence of a poor-benefit ratio is a study in complexity 
well beyond the scope of this essay; however, two interrelated factors 
should be mentioned because they seem to be directly related to the 
problem. The first of these had its beginnings in the post-World War II 
period and the educational opportunities granted veterans by a grateful 
nation. The doors of higher education were opened to many individuals 
who otherwise never would have had the opportunity to enter college. 
This egalitarian thrust was especially prominent during the 1960s when 
the nation's economy was expanding rapidly. It resulted in open door 
admissions policies, the creation of hundreds of new postsecondary 
institutions (especially junior colleges), and in the rapid growth of most 
pre-existing colleges and universities. 

In opening its doors to all during the 1960s and 1970s, the academy 
admitted a considerable number of students who were ill-equipped to do 
passing work in the context of traditional standards. Remediation 
programs were developed to help prepare the unprepared to meet the 
challenges of standard college work. Through dedication and intensive 
study, some poorly prepared students succeeded, thus justifying open 
admissions policies and remediation efforts. However, some damage may 
have been done to academic standards. 

To open door admission policies may be added the second factor: the 
effects of the Vietnam War. Beginning in 1965, the federal government 
began a policy of draft deferments for students enrolled in colleges and 
universitites. For nearly a decade many students entered the academy to 
escape the draft. ^ During this time, pressure was on faculty to aid these 
students in maintaining a satisfactory grade point average; otherwise 
students faced the prospects of fighting an unpopular war. Rather than 

'According to President John R. Silber of Boston University, "Such deferments represented 
class legislation that was a throwback to the days of the Civil War when the affluent could 
hire substitutes to be drafted in their place." See "Standards Versus Opportunity: The 
Unnecessary Conflict, "in Students and Their Institutions: A Changing Relationship, cds., S . 
W. Peltason and Marcy V. Massengale (Washington: American Council on Education, 
1978), p. 81. 


placing the burden of performing at the traditional level of academic 
respectability, many faculty loosened grading students.'' 

As a result of open door admissions policies, the Vietnam War, and 
grade inflation, coUege and university degree holders are commonplace 
today. Many graduates are underemployed or unemployed. Moreover, 
employers too frequently have encountered graduates of accredited 
institutions of higher education who have inadequate writing and 
computational skills. The bottom line is that a college degree has lost its 
mystique and too much of its meaning. 

If, as suggedted above, the 1980s and early 1990s will be characterized 
by (1) a shrinking enrollment pool of traditional college-age students, (2) a 
smaller percentage of 18-22 year-olds choosing to attend college, and (3) a 
diminished cost-benefit ratio, it is clear that the academy must face its 
problems with vision and determination. To do otherwise is to risk 
enforcement of stringent fiscal (and human) retrenchment measures — 
which may occur anyway despite our best efforts. 

The basic premise of this essay is that the academy, especially the 
smaller, undergraduate-oriented institutions, cannot maintain the status 
quo in the years to come. Since the only constant in academe is change 
itself, it is imperative that each institution, its faculty and administration, 
meet the future with policies and strategies designed to maximize 
opportunities. The remainder of this discussion relates to several steps 
that should be considered as potential responses to impending change. 

1. Carefully develop an institutional mission statement and goals that 
reflect tomorrow's demands as well as today's reality. This should be 
done with utmost care and tempered with the realization that no 
college or university can be all things to all people. Gauge educational 
effectiveness on the bais of the mission and goals. 

2. Engage in a continuous process of short-and long-term planning. 
Identify academic, fiscal, and facility priorities. Develop strategies for 
taking advantage of changes in program demands. Undertake 
longitudinal studies of student populations as well as follow-up studies 
of graduates; in this way, an assessment program can be on-going and 
thus play an important role in the planning process. 

3. Attempt to maintain credit enrollment by making a concerted effort to 
attract students that are both younger and older than those 
represented by the 18-22 year-old group. Design programs and utilize 
teaching strategies that will meet the needs of nontraditional-age 

4. Nationwide the average grade has moved from a C in 1965 to B-. At the same time this has 
occurrred, evidence ind' cates that an increasing percentage of students are poorly prepared 
for college work. Even distinguished institutions offer remedial work in grammer, 
composition, and mathematics. See Silber, "Standards Versus Opportunity." p. 83. 


4. Develop outreach programs, to be held on-and off-campus, to serve 
the needs of persons living within the primary service area. In return, 
the institution will gain newfriends, and the publicity value will be great. 

5. Support the concept of life-long learning. It is here to stay and will help 
academe in business in the years ahead. 

6. Reaffirm the ideals of scholarship and excellence as realistic goals of 
the college experience. 

7. Work to develop means of providingfinancial aid to older and part-time 
students. College scholarship applications are not designed for the 
housewife, and student aid is seldom available for students carrying 
less than a full academic load. Consequently, it is imperative that we 
work toward the implementation of a tuition assistance program for all 

8. We have come too far in our commitment to universal higher 
educational opportunities to turn back now, but we can develop a more 
realistic balance between academic standards and student 
performance. Be willing to say to some students that a vocational 
program may be better for a job objective than a four-year or even a 
graduate degree. 

9. Do not overrate the economic value of a college degree. Instead, be 
forceful in talking about the reasons for a college education that are not 
at all related to employment. 

10. Work to develop and implement effective student recruitment and 
marketing strategies designed to appeal to each of the several publics 
that the institution wishes to serve. 

11. Remember that higher education must adjust to a world that will 
demand new things of it. Be prepared to develop programs that will 
add distinctiveness to the institution as well as meet societal and 
student needs. 

12. Always take advantage of opportunities to speak in positive terms 
about the institution, its students, faculty, programs, etc., especially 
when talking with persons outside of the academic community. 

13. Develop an active public relations program so that pertinent 
information is fully reported in a timely manner to those who should 
be informed. 

14. Use every appropriate avenue to insure even-handed funding policies 
which will permit the institution to compete effectively for students 
and maintain its integrity. 

The steps listed above are an incomplete compilation of activities in 
which faculty and administrators should be engaged in view of the 
impending enrollment difiiculties. They are intended merely to provoke 
thought, discussion, and action. Some may well consider these steps to be 
impractical or even unworkable. Perhaps this is true. However, the basic 


premise that the academy soon will experience the full efifects of an 
enrollment pool shrinkage of traditional-age students is beyond debate. 
The question is "Can we discern opportunities in adversity and, if so, will 
we be prepared to react to events in a well-planned, rational manner?" 



Paul E. Masters, Jr.* 

A Conversation with a Lasting Effect 


What courses in the pohtical science department do you teach? 


International relations and comparative politics. In terms of specific 
geographical areas, I offer courses on Latin America, the Soviet Union 
and Western Europe. 

Oh, that's foreign stuff. I'm not interested in that; it's too distant, too far 
away. Don't you teach about things closer to home, more local? 

No. Sorry, I can't help you. 

The above dialogue occurred during my first year at West Georgia 
College. In the three years since then it has returned to haunt me many 
times. Most students perceive international studies to be esoteric, 
complex, and not terribly relevant to their daily lives. This attitude is 
reflected in the decreasing enrollment in international studies programs in 
colleges and universities throughout the United States. Yet, at the same 
time, we hear and read more and more about global interdependence and 
the global village in which we all live. We are reminded of this situation 
everyday as we drive our Japanese or German car to the gas station to fill 
our tank with gasoline from Saudi Arabia or Nigeria so we can go to the 
grocery store to buy Brazilian or Colombian coffee which we drink every 
morning after our Swiss clock signals the beginning of another day. 
Although we participate in such activities on a daily basis, few people 
perceive them as international in character; they are seem simply as routine 
activities with little significance beyond the local community. 

•Assistant Professor of Political Science, West Georgia College 


The purpose of this paper is to set forth a proposal for a research-action 
project that will enable both students and citizens of the West Georgia area 
better to perceive the international activities in which they are engaged.' 
The basic assumption of this project is that the local community can be 
used as a learning laboratory in which to study world affairs. Local 
communities provide the facilities and institutions through which many 
international transactions take place: airports, banks, corporate 
headquarters, churches, universities, travel agencies, importers and 
exporters.2 These facilities and institutions link the local community to the 
rest of the world. A vivid portrayal of the linkages between the West 
Georgia area and the global system will increase the awareness students 
and citizens have of the world in which they live. An inventory of these 
international linkages will help people to see that such activities are not 
distant and irrelevant but rather near and observable. 

This project is labeled "research-action" because it is felt that the 
research on these linkages will increase awareness of the world society 
which, in turn, will lead to increased participation in foreign affairs on the 
part of the local citizenry. This project goes beyond the confines of 
academia to the various countries traditionally served by West Georgia 
College; thus it is hoped it will have relevance to public policy. 

The Difficulties in Perceiving the International Dimensions of Our 


An analysis of local communities reveals that international activity 
tends to take place in three broad sectors of community life. The economic 
sector is the most obvious one. This sector includes banks with their 
various transactions such as the transference of funds to their counterparts 
in different countries; businesses, many of which have branches abroad; 
and service industries such as insurance companies that insufe merchant 
vessels. The second sector is the professional one. This sector includes 
lawyers with clients that have business affairs in other countries; university 
faculty doing research abroad; and foreign students who add a 
cosmopolitan flavor to the local campus. The third sector has been labeled 
mass activities. This sector includes the local churches which give money to 
alleviate world hunger; various voluntary groups such as the League of 
Women Voters that maintain an interest in international affairs; and 

'This project is a replication of the Columbus in the World: The World in Columbus 
Project directed by Chadwick F. Alger of the Mershon Center, Ohio State University. 

^Chadwick F. Alger, Your Community in the World: The World in Your Community 
(Columbus: Ohio State University, Mershon Center, 1974), p. 3. 


cultural exchange groups which travel abroad to spread goodwill.^ The 
reasons for these international activities are not greatly different from the 
reasons for domestic ones. The local community establishes linkages with 
the global society in order to exchange money, goods, people and 
information/ Few people purposely engage in international activities; they 
become involved simply as they go about their routine daily business. As 
individual citizens make money, help people, acquire knowledge, 
disseminate knowledge or seek pleasure, they become involved in 
processes that spill across national boundaries. Community activities like 
these on the part of millions of people establish the basic outline of 
international relations.^ 

Everyday of our lives we are involved in the business, religious, 
educational, and cultural institutions of our community, yet we fail to 
perceive these activities as having an international dimension. Why does 
this failure of perception exist? There seems to be two reasons for this: (1) 
the socialization process through which we learn about the world, and (2) 
the feeling that there exists very little opportunity for personal 
participation in international affairs.^ 

When children are growing up they first see and touch those things 
close to their home and neighborhood. Gradually they are introduced to 
the wider community through visits to the city hall, the police station, and 
the fire house. The next layer of experience is the state or region, followed 
by the nation and finally the world. Thus children come to grips with their 
environment through distinct layers of experience. The global society is 
perceived as only accessible from the national border which is many layers 
away from the local community. As a result of this socialization process, 
international activities are thought of as "remote," "far away," and 
controlled by people in "distant" cities like Washington and New York.' 
Since world affairs are not felt to be part of the daily realm of experience, 
no great interest is shown towards the global society. 

This process of socialization imprints on our minds the traditional 
perception in international relations that focuses almost exclusively on the 
nation-state. The maps and globes used in our schools distinguish 
countries with different colors and clearly marked national boundaries. 
Americans often feel that foreign policy begins at the water's edge, some 

^Karen A. Mingst, "Teaching Global Interdependence Using Local Data: Problems and 
ViXiaWi," International Studies Notes. V (Winter, 1978), 12. 

^Chadwick F. Alger, " 'Foreign' Policies of U.S. Publics," International Studies 
Quarterly. XXI (June, 1977), 296-297. 

^Ibid. , 302. 

'Chadwick F. Alger, "Extending Responsible Public Participation in Internationa] 
Affairs," Exchange. XIV (Summer, 1978), 17. 



distance from their immediate surroundings. Many human activities that 
we engage in are thought of in national terms vis-a-vis other nation-states 
in the world. This image of the world is reinforced by our customs of data 
collection. We can research how much the United States imports or 
exports or even how much our state imports or exports, but it is virtually 
impossible to find such data dealing with the local community. This is true 
despite the fact that the national data are simply a summation of all the 
activities that take place in local communities throughout the country.^ 
Such customs of data collection add to our inability to perceive the 
international dimensions of our daily lives. This entire process of 
socialization isolates people in the global society. 

The second factor that blinds us to the international dimensions of our 
lives is the feeling that the individual citizen has little opportunity for 
personal participation in foreign affairs. The decision-making process is 
thought to be very distant from most of us. We have been socialized to 
believe that this type of policy-making is especially complex, esoteric and 
should be left to those "experts" in Washington and New York who have 
the necessary training and experience to cope with such difficulties. This 
contributes to the wide-spread disinterest in international education 
mentioned earlier in this paper. Why study world affairs? After all, the 
"experts" will take care of everything. This attitude creates a self-fulfilling 
prophecy: since people feel there is no room for their participation in 
foreign affairs, they do not bother to acquire international education, and 
thus never develop the necessary skills which will prepare them for such 

Both democratic and authoritarian governments have never expected 
much citizen participation in international affairs. When the democratic 
movements of the world overthrew the various royal families, citizen 
participation was expected in domestic but not foreign affairs. 
Constitutional provisions and practice provide heads of state with special 
privileges in foreign policy. 'o Many point to political philosophers like 
John Locke to support the idea that in terms of citizen participation there 
is a very distinct division between domestic and foreign policy." Our 
system of federaUsm tends to promote this belief. The division of powers 

*Alger, " 'Foreign' Policies of U.S. Publics," 295. 

'Alger, "Extending Responsible Public Participation in International Affairs," 18. 

'"Chad wick F. Alger, A World of Cities or Good Foreign Policies Begin At Home 
(Columbus: Ohio State University, Mershon Center. 1976), pp. 9-10. 

"William O. Chittick, "Individuals, Local Publics, and World Affairs, "(Paper presented 
at the 20th Annual Meeting of The International Studies Association, Toronto, Canada, 
March 21-24, 1979), 3. 


into national, state and local governments leads many individuals at the 
local level to regard international affairs as rather remote, something 
handled at the national level. '^ Citizens defer to the "experts" in 
Washington and New York because they lack a feehng of efficacy in world 
affairs; after all, in such matters even congressmen tend to defer to these 
same "experts" in the executive branch. Because of this situation people 
tend to gravitate more toward domestic issues where they feel greater 

Professional political scientists have done little to alleviate this 
situation. Most scholars continue to assert that foreign poHcy is different 
from domestic policy because it is concerned with vital subjects like 
national interest and national security. Thus foreign policy is more 
important. The acceptance of this uniqueness has left the study of world 
affairs in the hands of those political scientists who continue to focus 
exclusively on the nation-state and its political and military activities.'"* It 
is questionable whether such an approach is wise when we live in an 
interdependent global society in which the line dividmg foreign and 
domestic affairs is becoming increasingly blurred. 

Chadwick Alger suggests replacing this system- of -nations perspective 
with an international society-of-individuals perspective: 

(Scholars should) look upon those persons from 
whatever nation ... as a society of individuals. In this society 
there are groups — religious, professional, ethnic, national 
etc. The importance of nation groups is a matter that must be 
empirically verified since it will vary in different parts of the 
society and change through time.'' 

This international society-of-individuals perspective is adopted in this 
research-action project because it offers a fresh and challenging approach 
to the study of international relations. Individuals interact as individuals 
and in groups other than their national group such as religious, 
professional, and ideological groups. Such a perspective does not deny the 
importance of the nation-state in the international system but says it is more 

^Ubid., 10-11. 

"Alger, Your Community in the World: The World in Your Community, P. 64. 
'<Alger, " 'Foreign' Policies of U.S. Publics, " 278. 

"Chadwick F. Alger, "Comparision of Intranational and International Politics,' 
American Political Science Review, LVII (June, 1963), 408. 


fruitful to look at other interactions beside state interaction. This 

paradigm can help individuals better to understand the role they play in the 

world system. Political scientists must look at individual interactions and 

various group interactions other than the state to gain new insights into 

international politics. 

Using the international society-of-individuals perspective, this paper is 

a study of the politics of the world society and the individuals that compose 

sucH a society. "The primary referents of this analysis are the planet Earth 

and nature, along with man and his work upon that planet. "'* The basic 

orientation is global, that is, a study of earth politics or geocentric 

orientation is global, that is, that is a study ot eann pontics or geocentric 

politics. The dictionary defines geocentric as viewing the earth as the center 

of perspective.'^ The study of geocentric politics takes into account the 

technological advances in the post-World War II era and the increasing 

interdependence of the world produced by these advances. Such a study 

recognizes that it is static and dangerous to continue to think of the world 

as divided into action-states when the world is truly turning into a global or 

world society. Robert Harper says throughout most of history" 

. . . mankind did exist in separate, almost isolated cultural islands . . . now 

most of humanity is a part of a single, world-wide system.'''^ This notion of 

the world is well-summarized in the following observation by Barbara 

Ward- , , ^ . , 

Most of the energies of our society tend toward unity — the 

energy of science and technological change, the energy of 

curiosity and research, of self-interest and economics, the 

energy — in many ways the most violent of them all — the 

energy of potential aggression and destruction. We have 

become neighbors in terms of inescapable physical proximity 

and instant communication. We are neighbors in the risk of 

total destruction. '9 

As the world becomes increasingly interdependent, it moves closer to a 

world society or single human community. 

We are all part of this emerging world society whether we like it or not. 

There is no need to ask individuals to become involved in world affairs; 

global interdependence guarantees their involvement. The significance of 

the international society-of-individuals perspective is that it can be used to 

bring this involvement into focus and foster responsible participation. 

Such a perspective is not one of idealism but rather one of realism; global 

interdependence is reahty, to deny it is to deny reality. The job of the social 

■'George A. Modelski, Principles of World Politics (New York: the Free Press, 1972), p. 
"Ibid., p. 15 

"Robert Harper, "Georgraphy's Role in General Education," Journal of Geography, 
LXV (April, 1966), 182. 

"Barbara Ward, Spaceship Earth (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966), p. 14. 


scientist is to provide students with analytical tools that describe and 
explain the world in which they live. The international society-of- 
individuals perspective and the local linkage approach are tools that will 
help citizens in the West Georgia area understand the rapidly changing 
world system. 

West Georgia in the World: The World in West Georgia 

Individuals in communities throughout the West Georgia area are part 
of the emerging global society. This relationship can be brought into focus 
by analyzing the local linkages of three basic sectors of community life: 
economic, professional, and mass activities. The economic sector in the 
West Georgia area has very obvious linkages. The telex in local banks 
indicates what funds are being transferred to their counterparts in foregin 
lands. Most likely West Georgia banks have arrangements for such 
transfers through larger banks in the city of Atlanta, but this does not 
reduce the importance of such activity. Elementary school teachers might 
consider taking their students to such offices in the same way they visit the 
city hall, the police station, and the fire house. Such encounters early in the 
socialization process would help expose the falseness of the local- 
international dichotomy. 

Southwire, CBS Records, and various textile mills are examples of 
businesses that are either multinational in scope or are involved in the 
import-export business. An examination of their annual reports which are 
available to the public should clearly reveal their international linkages. 
Such an analysis would show what manufactured products are sold to 
other countries and what ingredients in these finished products come from 
abroad. In addition, one would find subsidiaries in other nations and 
foreign nationals employed in their home countries or in the corporate 
headquarters in this area. The vivid presentation of these data ought to 
impress upon students the importance their community has to the world 
system. Such corporations usually welcome visits by school and college 
groups. A talk with the head of international sales at the Southwire 
Company would be a positive learning experience. 

The professional sector of the West Georgia communities also has 
linkages. It is possible local lawyers have clients who need advice about 
such matters as the licensing of patents and trademarks, anti-dumping 
laws and regulations, or immigration and naturalization laws. Inquiries 
directed to the local bar associations could produce such data. 

A mail survey of the faculty at West Georgia College should reveal 
significant research being done abroad. In the last few years faculty have 
visited such places as India, Pakistan, Great Britain, Venezuela, 
Columbia, and Mexico. Such a survey should also include foreign students. 
Although the number of such students at the college is small, they do come 


from a variety of different countries which adds some cosmopolitan flavor 
to the campus. West Georgia College can play a more active role in the 
community by having these faculty members and foreign students offer 
presentations to local schools and civic groups. Such presentations can 
show that the local communities in the West Georgia area have many 
similarities in terms of needs, desires, and hopes for the future with local 
communities in foreign lands. 

The third and final sector of community life involves mass activities. 
This is an especially fruitful sector to explore because it includes citizens 
from all walks of life. A beginning point is the church. Throughout 
American history the church as not only served as a spiritual and moral 
guide but also as a community organization. A mail survey of local 
congregations would most certainly involve a large cross-section of the 
citizens of the West Georgia area. Many churches have been active in 
teaching about and collecting money for world hunger. Others have 
undertaken more specific projects such as aid to earthquake victims in 
Nicaragua and Guatemala. Still others have established missionary 
programs that link West Georgia to the global society. 

Other mass activities include voluntary organizations that add so much 
to community life. The League of Women voters has traditionally 
maintained an active interest in world affairs. Other civic groups like the 
Rotary International have done likewise. Many communities have local 
volunteers that collect maney for UNICEF, Project HOPE and CARE. As 
with a visit to the telex in the local bank, a presentation by those groups to 
an elementary school class could go a long way to expose the arbitrary 
separation of the local and the international. 

If such survey efforts are successful and the data are vividly presented 
in the international society-of-individuals perspective, they can promote 
local-global integration. Students in international studies programs can 
engage in such collection efforts and learn through their own participation. 
The proximity and concreteness of these personal and local linkages 
provide a means for understnding the world at large. 20 This approach can 
show individuals the saliency of their everyday lives and their international 
dimensions. All local communities are integrated into the world society. 
This system is faced with problems that are global in scope. Pollution, 
hunger, disease, inflation and the threat of nuclear holocaust do not 
respect national boundaries but easily cross these artifical lines to affect all 
individuals living in communities dotting the globe. The proposals set 
forth in this research-action project will help increase the competence of 
individuals to cope with the changing geographic scope of their lives. 

^OAlger, A World of Cities or Good Policies Begin At Home, p. 15. 


Conclusion: A Contribution to Democracy 

The theoretical orientation of this paper is normative. It is based on a 
very strong belief in participatory democracy. For too many years 
American citizens, normally very active in domestic politics, have deferred 
to the foreign policy "experts" in Washington. Such defernce may have 
been appropriate in the past but in the world today and most certainly the 
world in the future such behavior is very dangerous. The boundary 
between domestic arid world affairs is becoming increasingly blurred and it 
is no longer possible to separate the role that individuals play in one arena 
from the other.^' Many people see no alternative to this deference ♦d the 
Washington "experts"; anything else is unthinkable. In an interdependent 
global society what this attitude really means is that democratic 
governance is unthinkable! 22 

The proposals set forth in this paper can help people in the West 
Georgia area, through participatory learning exercises, develop a feeling of 
efficacy in world affairs that matches the feeling they have in the domestic 
realm. It is hoped such a project can promote greater public involvement in 
shaping foreign policy agendas. Foreign policies are developed by 
poUtical, miUtary and economic elites who delimit such basic terms as 
national interest and national security using their own definitions and 
interests.23 The more we defer to these elites, the wider the latitude they 
have to control foreign policy decisions. Recent events have shown these 
decisions are not always consistent with the interests of the American 
people. As public concern about foreign policy agendas develops in local 
communities, the priorities of these politico-military elites will be 
questioned. 2'* In an interdependent global society it is no longer possible to 
ignore our responsibility for foreign policies. It is our right and our 
obligation to be responsible citizens in the international realm just as it is in 
the domestic realm. 

2'ChiUick, "Individuals, Local Publics, and World Affairs," 3^ 

"Alger, A World of Cities or Good Foreign Policies Begin At Home p 21 

"Ibid,, p. 1 6 

"Alger," 'Foreign' Policies of U.S. Publics," 311. 



by Daniel Brantley* 

The subtitle of the essay is "The PoHtical Role of charismatic Nation- 
Building."' The author, for years, has been impressed by the fact that 
extraordinary personalities seemed to appear suddenly and set-up 
governments. For example, there was V.I. Lenin in Russia, Benito 
Mussolini in Italy, Adolf Hitler in Germany, Mao Tse-tung in China, 
Fiedel Castro in Cuba. And, there is also the Ayatollah Ruhollah 
Kromeini in Iran.^ 

To the author, these men are all charismatic; that is their power is (was) 
the ability to command the obedience of other men based on their 
extraordinary capacities and deeds. Such a leader's followers accept his 
authority because they have faith in his person. More simply, it is 
leadership resting upon the force of personality, in the process of 
conceiving revolution, planning and devising a "new" type of community. 
With these thoughts in mind, the author views the new Iranian 
constitution, which provides for an Islamic Republic, as another example 
of charismatic nation-making. 

♦Assistant Professor of Political Science, West Georgia College 

'This essay is the communication of some thoughts the author has relative to two topics: 
the Ayatollah Khomeini's role in shaping the new Iranian government, and, a gap in the 
literature on political or public authority. The writer is in the process systematizing his 
notions about the two themes and when he has done so he plans to submit them for 
publication. Therefore this essay may be seen as a note on, or a preliminary statement 
regarding two of the author's research interests, which he is in the process of working on. 

^Ayatollah Khomeini, the 79-year-old Iranian religious leader, came to power in February 
1979, as a result of a revolution which combined nationalistic and religious elements. 
Khomeini is a Moslem of the Shiite sect, which is the majority religious group in Iran, while 
representing approximately 15% of Moslems world-wide. In Iran, the centers of political 
power include — Khomeini and the Revolutionary Council. The council consists of laymen as 
well as Islamic clergy (the majority). The Revolutionary Council is officially headed by 
Ayatollah Mohammed Beheshti, an Islamic clergyman. Khomeini himself gave power to the 
Council. That is, in the early days of the revolution Iran's Khomeini, then the unquestioned 
master of Iran's political affairs, told the Iranian peoplethat he had decided to bring a group 
of laymen and shiite Muslim fundamentalists (clergymen) inta a government which he was 
establishing on a provisional basis, until a new constitution could be drafted and voted on by 
the people. The Iranian people voted for an Islamic Republic in December, 1979. In recent 
months, the Iranian people have elected a president, Abdul Bani-Sadi. Iran will also have a 
new parliament which will be elected in April-May, 1980. 


The Shah was toppled February, 1979, becuase of a revolution, which 
was led by a Shiite Muslim fundamentalist, Khomeini. Khomeini is an 
"ayatollah" (a clergyman of Shiite Islamic sect); he is also called an "imam" 
(or leader). To distinguish Khomeini from other religious leaders, the 
followers of Khomeini now call him "The Imam": the leader. In December, 
1979, the Iranians voted for a new constitution, which created an Islamic 
Republic, making Iran the first country in history to have established an 
Islamic Republic. While it is impossible to say how in the future this "new" 
form of political community will operate, it is possible to comment on how 
the Iranian authorities are operating. At present, the government 
functions as a theocracy. That is, the clergy has effective political control 
over the country. Theocracy is, by definition, "A political system wherein 
the clergy exercises considerable political powers."^ 

On the one hand, theocracy is an old (perhaps the oldest) form of political 
system. Some examples are "Geneva, Switzerland (in the time of John 
Calvin), the nation of Tibet (in its pre-Communist period), and 
Massachusettes Bay Colonly (in precolonial times). . . "" On the other 
hand, there has never been a republican theocratic nation-state. 
Theocracies, like monarchies, were once plentiful, but there are only a few 
still in existence: there is, for example, Vatican City^. Iran's success or 
failure with a theocracy will be closely watched by the Muslim world- 
community, especially by those Muslim oil-rich feudal kingdoms, which 
border on Iran. If Iran can demonstrate that an Islamic Republic can be a 
viable political system, then one would expect to see through-out the Mid- 
East a number of revolutions inspired by nationalistic and religious 
elements. As we reflect, let us widen the frame of reference by trying to 
understand the power the Ayatollah Khomeini has over the Iranian 

In trying to understand the Ayatollah Khomeini's power, the author 
has found it helpful to think of Khomeini's role as that oi a legitimatizing 
presence, for instance like emperors of Japan, who will be discussed in the 
second part of the essay. If power is the ability to control others, a symbolic 
leader — a legitmatizing presence — has a share of it. He can, by virtue of 
his charismatic hold on the masses, appoint and dismiss officials of 
government, approve or disapprove governmental policies, and, in 
general, legitimate a group's actions (Iran's Revolutionary Council or the 

^Robert E. Murphy, 77ie Style and Study of Political Science (Glenview, III.: Scott, 
Foresman and Company, 1970), p. 122. 


'According to one score. The American Heritage Dictionary,\ aucan City is "A sovereign 
papal state, established in 1929, in an enclave of about 108 acres in the city of Rome, Italy." 
The American Heritage Dictionary (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978), s.v. 
"Vatican City," p. 1418. As a papal state, Vatican City qualifies as a theocracy. 


group holding hostaged Americans in the Terheran embassy). Prior to the 
December, 1979, adoption of the Islamic constitution, Khomeini's power 
was extralegal, his followers adhering to his wishes in main because of his 
charisma. That is to say, originally his power was not derived from office- 
holding. The Iran situation has demonstrated the fact that a person may be 
"officized" to act but lack the authority to make his action stick. Authority 
per se is not power, but prestigious and influential individuals (such as 
Khomeini) may hold power that is real. Clearly this was what we were 
seeing on television screens when we saw the Iranian foreign minister make 
a policy statement, prior to clearing it with Khomeini, and, later 
"changing" his mind (in reality, Khomeini had ordered the foreign minister 
to return the original policy, which Khomeini had formulated). And 
finally, it is open to debate whether or not Khomeini (or any one person or 
group) is in control of events in Iran, but there is no doubt that Khomeini is 
the figure who legitimates all decisions: i.e., everything that is done, is 
done, in the name of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.^ 


There is a gap in scholarship that this (the second part) of the essay 
addresses and proposes to fill — the lack of a critical and theoretical 
understanding of the role charisma plays in the founding of political 
authority. The gap will be presently highlighted by a brief examination of 
the myth of origins. 

The myth of origins has been a typical form of both rationalizing, 
justifying, questioning, and condemning the established order, divine and 
human, ethical and political. Genealogies of regimes often include 
charismatic individuals. The theme of "divine ancestors" reveals nothing 
more clearly than this. That is why genealogies can serve as readily to 
destroy as to enhance claims to political supremacy. Professor Cutherson 
draws our attention to the dual nature of myth: myth has a capacity for and 
operates to either free people of oppressive political authority and 
leadership or enslave them to the established socio-political order. 
Cutherson explains, "Political myth is the mechanism of charisma, linking 
the hero to the community." He continues: 

Myth is a primary source for legitimizing and maintaining political 

power. The derivation of myth is the beginning of power politics. Myth 

custodians are powerholders. Myth establishes moral consensus in the 

*An analogy may be made between Khomeini and Big Brother, a fictional character in 
George Orwell's novel, 1984. In each case, a political system legitimates its actions on the basis 
of a political leader, who symbolizes a successful revolution, which toppled a hated system, 
and constructed in its place, a system which at its best is seen by its architects as a secular 
Utopia, and, at its worst seen by the masses as offering little improvement, in a material way, 
over the previous system. 


community and is accompanied by social sanctions. Myth stabilized 

the relationship of the individual to politics by restricting the purely 

organic state with the element of the moral purposiveness.^ 

There are five myth categories of doing what Dr. Cutherston has 

described. The five myth catergories, which are capable of revolutionary 

function, are specifically examined by Cutherson, namely, messianic, 

cultural, catastropic, community-forming (utopian), and iconoclastic 

myth. Of these myths, the community-forming or myth of origin of 

regimes will be the focus of this study. 

Political theorists have noted that inquiries into the beginnings of 
regimes may lead to a god or hero who engendered a royal house. Such 
diverse thinkers as Thomas Hobbes and Edmound Burke entirely shared 
Immanuel Kant's opinion that "The origin of the supreme authority is. . 
.not open to scrutiny by the people who are subject to it. . ." Kant says 
"that. . .the subjects should not be overly curious about its (the state's) 
origins as though the right of obedience due it were open to doubt. . .these 
are pointless questions that threaten the state with danger if they are asked 
with too much sophistication."* In short, curiosity about the origins of 
public authority, as with all history, is inevitably dangerous. As Dr. 
Cutherston observed, "The deprivation of myth is the beginning of power 
politics." Sophisticated critical appreciation and theoretical 
understanding of the mythical basis of public authority on the part of the 
citizenry is dangerous to the state or myth custodians. Hobbes too 
recognized the destructive possibilities of the search for origins. It was his 
belief that "there is scarcely a commonwealth in the world, whose 
beginnings can in conscience be justified," and that curiosity about the 
origins of political authority and leadership is the "most effectual sees of 
death to any state."' 

The main use of the community-forming (uptopian) myth in the 
modern era has been polemical. 'o One may well ask whether it has been 
effective. It has been and still is. As people derive their sense of their own 

'Giberston Cutherson, Political Myth and Epic (EastLansing: Michigan State University 
Press, 1975), p. 156. 

^Immanuel Kant, The Metaphysical Elements of Justice, trans. John Ladd 
k(lndianapolis: bobbs-Merriell, 1965), p. 84. 

'Thomas Hobbes, Levj'ar/jaa editor Michael Oakeshott(Oxford: Blackwell, 1946), p. 463. 
For Edmound Burke's view, see "A Vindication of Nature Society,"in ^Vorks (Boston; Little 
Brown, 1869), I. 9-10. 

'"Even with its traditional religious foundations destroyed, the myth of the perfect 
community continues to reappear in new forms. It may be argued that belief in "perfect order" 
then is a universal phenomenon, because all people seem to wish to make the world perfect or 
to move to a perfect world when they die. Politically, the theme of the "world to come" is 
exemplified in, for example, the third state of Auguste Comte and communism as the highest 
state of human development of Karl Marx. 


worth to some degree from that of their families, the same is true of 
regimes. Therefore, states are vulnerable to attacks on their pedigrees, 
whether moral or social. By analogy, the origins of institutions, national 
character, and political authority will also remain sensitive to such 
scrutiny. Tracing a man's character to its psychic roots or a social 
institution to its founders may either effectively support or undermine 
(destroy) its claim to honor. 

To appreciate the importance of "divine ancestors" to secure sanction 
for a polity, one has only to consider the role of the imperial family in 
Japan's history as Professor H. Carroll Parish did. Since the beginning of 
Japanese history the myth of the emperor as a link with the divine 
ancestors of the nation has served as a constitution." In an article, "The 
Role of the Imperial Family in Modern Japan," Dr. Parish argues that 
"The emperor was the intermediary between the divine imperial ancestors 
and the people."' 2 All "virtue", Parish notes, is derived from the imperial 
family. Moreover, he says: 

Traditionally, the emperor represented the continuity of the nation 
and the repository of "virtue" which he developed as a result of his 
studies of Confucian classics, Chinese literature, and Chinese and 
Japanese history. . .When earthquake, fire, and pestlience struck 
repeatedly during a certain reign, it was believed often that such 
tragedies were due to a lack of virtue on the part of the sovereign. '^ 

Clearly the traditional emperor was a charistmatic figure. Japanese 
emperors were — in Japanese political theory — all related to the gods. 
Only their morality make them different from the divine ancestors. An 
emperor, as befitted his unique position, remained aloof from the political 
struggle that embroiled the actual rulers of Japan whose regime the 
imperial institution legitimized. The emperor was the political progenitor 
of civil order (or government) among his people. It was a political order 
that was based on his omnipotence and omniscience. The emperor's 
traditional role as a link between the people and the gods is illustrative of 
Kant's and Hobbes' assertions. 

We might quite aptly compare the Japanese imperial institution — the 
central figures in this system are the imperial family members — with 

"Emperors deified by the Japanese were not fabled figures, or merely beings of myth; they 
were moral. It is difficult for us to imagine this deificiation of people who really lived; to do so 
we must think in terms of the canonization of our own saints. Politically, the United States 
put an end to emperor worship, with a Japanese (American imposed) constitution. As a result 
of the American "democracization" of Japan, following the Second World War, a new 
constitution was adopted (in January 1946) that rejected the "godhood" of the emperor. 

'^H.C. Parish, "The Role of the Imperial Family in Modern Japan, "^ocia/Sc/ewce, 49, p. 


Machiavelli's prince. A Machiavellian prince, Romulus, for example, is 
also the founder of a civil society, Rome.''* Such a leader too establishes a 
secure political order and ensures his own power. His justification for 
creating a polity is found in his special status (as a demigod) and his success 
in the political arena. Specifically of Romulus, it may be observed that the 
basis of the community be founded in his political success. There is an 
important similarity in the two portraits. Going to the foundations of both 
Japan and Rome, we find charismatic authority and leadership. While 
Romulus represents an example of a Machiavellian ruler, not all 
Machiavellian rulers (possibly not a majority) are charismatic. Because 
Machiavelli most surely had a vision of political greatness that involved no 
more than success acquired by all and any means, a Machiavellian leader 
may or may not also be a charismatic one.'^ 

Japan and Italy are political systems in existence today. In marked 
contrast to existent regimes, there is a body of literature, which is the 
product of reUgious teachers, social philosphers, and visionaries, on the 
origins and existence of communities which have never existed. The 
generic name given such social orders is Utopia, which is an English work 
derived from a Greek noun for "no place". 

Commentators have written on the theme of perfect communities or 
Utopias (also called paradises). An interesting as well as a revealing way to 
examine the creative aspect of charismatic leadership — the charismatic 
leader as a founder of a community — would be to study it as a theme in 
religious and political literature, isolating fantasies about "another world" 
as they found expression in sacred books (for examples the old and new 

'^Tradition says Rome was founded by Romulus in 753 B. C. Tradition also tells of how 
the early people of Rome worshiped Romulus as Quirinus. In Roman legend, Romulus and 
his twin, Remus, were sons of the god Mars and Rhea Silvia, a princess. The two brothers 
(demigods) Jointly founded the settlement, which later became Rome (named after Romulus). 
Remus was slain by Romulus, whose reign lasted many years. But to assure the survival of his 
new city Romulus made war on neighboring peoples, among them the Sabines, whose women 
he caught in order to provide wives for his settlers. Furthermore, to stabilize his polity he 
established a constitution. His end was no less miraculous than his beginning (viz., being 
fathered by a god); he vanished in a thunderstorm and thereafter was worshiped as Quirinus. 

'M brief statement is in order regarding Romulus' status as a Machiavellian prince. 
Niccolo Machiavellian in the Discourses uses Romulus as an example of a ruler (probably a 
fabled figure) who knew how to obtain and keep political power, and therefore, a model for 
those who wish to study the methods by which power is obtained and kept. Thus, this essay's 
identification of Romulus as a Machiavellian ruler. 


Testaments and the Koran) and in commentaries upon them, and in 
secular adaptation. '^ In the West (Euro- America), the myth of paradise (a 
place of perfect order) has given sustenance to such great enterprises as the 
propagation of Christianity, the Crusades against Islam, millenarian 
revolts during the Reformation, the overseas explorations of the sixteenth 
century, and the settlement of the American continent. Western man has 
seen (it may be argued) paradise in terrestrial and celestial terms, and in his 
visions of paradise he has disclosed his innermost desires, whether he 
thrust their background into the past, projected them forward into the 
future on earth, or raised them to the heavens. As expressed in this 
literature, these "wishes" include the "garden eastward in Eden" of 
Genesis, the "golden race" of Hesiod, the "philosopher-king" of Plato, the 
"world to come" of Christ, the "city of the living God" of the Spistle of the 
Hebrews, the "vision of man in a primitive state of nature" of Rousseau's 
Discourse on Inequality, and "communism" of Marx's and Engels' works. 

In the beginning paradise was a myth — of the community-forming 
type — with all the ambiguities of myth. But later it became a religious 
belief in Israel and eventually a theological doctrine in Judasism, 
Christianity, and Islam. However, in popular usage paradise is a "golden 
age" which has established itself as a separate entity. Utopia is the generic 
name given to it in secular literature. In this literature there is, it should be 
stressed, no one charismatic type founder of the perfect community, but a 
spectrum from the hero to the wonder-working man to the son of God. At 
intervals groups are seized with a desire to create an "ideal" social order 
once and for all inspired by Messiahs, prophets, heroic leaders, the world- 
historical personalities, who promised a heavenly kingdom on earth after 
an apocalyptic combat with the incarnation of evil. 

In conclusion, we need not look any further than the front page of the 
newspaper or the television screen to find an example of the interplay of 
charisma and the founding of a new political system. The example referred 
to is Iran's new Islamic constitution and the part played by the Ayatollah 
Ruhollah Khomeini in its establishment. In December, 1979, the Iranian 
people, inspired by the religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini, voted to 
transform the country into an Islamic Republic. The new constitution 
gives Ayatollah Khomeini an official role in the political process, and, 
under it,he will remain for life in effective political control over the political 
affairs of the new Republic. 

'*A detailed discussion of this literature is beyond the scope of the present essay. The 
purpose of this section of the discussion is simply to suggest the existence of a relationship 
between charisma and Utopian literature. For the readers who would like to read about the 
writer's views on this topic, see the writer's doctoral dissertation, submitted to Howard 
University, Department of Political Science, 1979. 




by Lee-jan Jan* 


The Theory 1 

George Romans is one of the most prominant contemporary social | 
psychologists. His greatest theoretical contribution is in the exchange j 
perspective. Homans, originally a structural functionalist as evidenced in i 
his book The Human Group, 1950, grew dissatisfied with the Parsonian | 
conceptual framework and wanted to provide an alternative strategy for 
theory building. This strategy, based on elementary economics and 
behavioral psychology, was presented in his book Social Behavior: Its 
Elementary Forms (1961, rvised 1974). 

George Homans' exchange theory, according to him, is mainly an 
attempt to explain what he called "elementary social behavior", and then 
the use of elementary social behavior to explain social behavior in general. 
By elementary social behavior, Homans means that 1) the behavior is 
ordinary and everyday behavior; 2)it is social (two persons interact with 
each other in a face to face contact, the activity one person emits must be 
rewarded or punished by the other person immediately and directly); 3) it is 
actual behavior, not how the person and the other ought to behave; 4) the 
interactions are spontaneous, not under some kind of contract or one has 
authority over the other; and 5) it is elementary, shared by all mankind and 
is not any institutionalized behavior. Put in Homans' own terms, 
elementary social behavior is mainly "an exchange of activity, tangible or 
intangible, and more or less rewarding or costly, between at least two 

The setting for the study of elementary social behavior is the small 
group. As Homans indicates that elementary social behavior is the face-to 
face contact between individuals, in which the reward each gets from the 
behavior of the others is relatively direct and immediate, then the study 
needs close observation. It is difficult to observe a large number of persons 
at one time, and therefore one can only study it in small groups, and make 
inferences according to observation. 

The underlying general propositions of the exchange theory used to 
explain the elementary social behavior are behavioral psychology and 

♦Assistant Professor of Sociology, West Georgia College 

'George C. Homans, Social Behavior: lis Elementary Forms (New York: Harcourt, Brace 
& World, Inc., 1961), 13. 


;lementary economics. Since behavioral psychology is a set of 
)ropositions derived from experimental studies of animals, usually in 
lonsocial situtations, and elementary economics is a set of propositions 
iescribing the behavior of men in exchanging material goods, they do not 
lutomatically explain the human social behavior which includes exchange 
)f intangible services. Therefore, Romans stretched these two sets of 
)ropositions and meshed them together to form a set of propositions to 
ixplain elementary social behavior as an exchange activity between 


The propositions are: 
. If in the past the occurrence of a particular stimulus situation has been 
he occasion on which a man's activity has been rewarded, then the more 
imilar the present stimulus situation is to the past one, the more likely he is 
o emit the activity, or some similar activity, now. 

L The more often within a given period of time a man's activity rewards the 
ictivity of another, the more often the other will emit the activity. 
i. The more vaulable to a man a unit of the activity another gives him, the 
nore often he will emit activity rewarded by the activity of the other. 
i. The more often a man has in the recent past received a rewarding activity 
rom another, the less valuable any further unit of that activity becomes to 

. The more to a man's disadvantage the rule of distributive justice fails of 
ealization, the more likely he is to display the emotional behavior we call 

The main points of this theory and its underlying concepts can be 
ummarized as follows: it begins with behavioral psychology and 
lementary economics which assume that men are hedonistic and profit- 
eeking; therefore in social contact the more a man is rewarded for an 
ictivity he emits, the more likely he will emit that activity. When two 
)ersons interact with each other, they will emit the kind of activity which 
vill get them the activity valuable to them from the other person. The more 
hey value each other's activity, the more they will interact. The more 
)ersons interact with one another the more they like one another. When 
)ersons interact with one another they expect that the rule of distributive 
ustice be realized; that means each of them expects to get a profit from the 
nteraction. The profit should be proportional according to their 
nvestments and the cost they spent on it, profit defined by Homans as 
eward less cost. Cost occurs when there is an alternative activity which 
vill also gain reward for the person. 

^Ibid.. 12-13. 


If the rule of distributive justice is not realized, the person shows the 
emotional behavior of anger. If the persons's activity is not rewarded by 
others he will emit less and less of that activity. If two persons find 
interaction with each other is not rewarding they will not continue to 
interact with each other. Another condition when two persons will 
decrease their exchange of activities when they feel satiated during the 
exchange of activities. According to Homans this is just like the rule of 
marginal utility: the value of each unit of activity decreases per unit of 

When explaining behavior in a group, Homans evaluates social 
approval as a very important reward one gets from his group. Individuals 
conform to the norm of their group mainly to get social approval. If the 
individual values more the approval of a nonconformer of the group, the 
less he will conform. The more a person conforms to the norms of his 
group the more he will be rewarded by approval, thus the higher esteem he 
will receive. But a person receives high esteem not only because he 
conforms but also because he is able to provide more valuable and scarce 
rewards to others. The ability to provide scarce and valuable activity to 
other members in the group will lead to more interaction directed to those 
with high esteem. The people who value the other's activity are more likely 
to originate the interaction, since the people with low esteem are apt to 
value the activity of the people with high esteem. This explains why the 
interaction is more likely to flow from the low esteem people to the high 
esteem people, and the high esteem people return them with valuable 

The people who control scarce and valuable services gain authority 
over the rest of the members by rewarding or punishing them. The 
members follow or obey the high esteem people's advice or suggestions ini 
expectation of gaining reward or avoiding punishment. Homans defines 
authority as an earned influence by a person over the other members in a 
wide range of activities. This authority bestows leadership on the person.' 
(Homans does not talk about authority acquired by appointment or 
inheritance.) The leaders are few in number and tend to be loners. 
Although we know the leaders are paid high esteem and more interaction is 
directed to them, Homans also pointed out that the follows also feel 
deprived by them, and the psychic cost of feeling inferior will create 
ambivalence in the relationship between leaders and followers. Thus, people 
tend to interact with their equals. The leaders may gain liking in the first 
place, but lose it after they have established their leadership. What they 
retain may be high esteem and respect. 

From this breif summary we can see behavioral psychology and 
elementary economics as a strain running through the explanation, as 
Homans attempted to explain social behavior in its elementary form, 


namely exchange behavior. Homans begins with explaining interaction 
between individuals, later expanding to explain interaction in a group and 
the emergence of authority and leaders. The leaders rise to their place with 
a lot of liking but unfortunately end in a unavoidably lonely place with a 
lot of cold respect. 


The Criticisms 

Kenneth E. Boulding thinks that the theory only explains the 
interaction of persons at levels below that of strictly formal organization, 
and in dealing with valued activities and reward did not explain how the 
preference structures are learned.^ It is hard to agree with these criticisms 
because Homans has explicitly indicated that the exchange theory was not 
intended to explain formal organizational behavior, and that he has taken 
many things as given, such as how the preference structure is learned, as 
beyond the theory's scope. 

Boulding further criticizes that the exchange system is not the only 
system in human interaction; there are other systems such as threat system, 
love system."* Although it can be argued that people interacting by threat of 
love are also practicing exchange behavior (such as to emit a certain 
behavior under threat to avoid a punishment, or the mother who gives her 
love to her children in hope of maintaining her children's love or 
attachment to her in return), these activities are better explained by threat 
and love than exchange, because'human beings are motivated to act or 
interact by some other factors than profit-seeking. Love can be a 
motivation itself; it does not need to have anything in return, such as 
mother sacrificing herself to protect her children in an emergency. At that 
moment she does not do it for a reward; she does it intuitively, purely 
motivated by love. It would be illogical to explain it by profit-seeking 
because she may kill herself in the process; if this is the cost, it would be 
very hard to find any reward to exceed it and leave some profit. 

James A. Davis thinks that the exchange theory is a nonmathematical 
reasoning; therefore it is not precise enough to determine the relationship 
between cause and result, and he doubts that anyone except Homans could 
draw these particular conclusions for his theory. ^ Although some of the 

^Kenneth E. Boulding, "Two Critiques of Homans' Socail Behavior: Its Elementary 
Forms, An Economists's View." American Journal of Sociology (bl: January 1962), 458- 

*Ibid., 460. 

'James A. Davis, "Two Critiques of Homans' Soc/'a/ Behavior: Its Elementary Forms, A 
Socialogist's V\ew"AmericanJournal of Sociology (67: January 1962), 454-458. 


concepts such as value, profit, and distributive justice would be better if 
they could be reasoned with a mathematical model, it is not the only 
legitimate way of explaining the action; in human behavior there are many 
aspects which nedd not and/ or cannot be explained by mathematical 
reasoning, such as we mentioned before, people interact because of love. 

Deutsch and Krauss think that the key terms in this theory are neither 
conceptually nor operationally defined, such as unit of activity, value, or 
reward. They can be understood in a sense of everyday language, but it is 
very hard to test them and interpret them in a strictly scientific method.^ 

Deutsch and Krauss further indicate that the Homans' theory implies 
that there is a common currency or a single dimension to which the value of 
different experiences can be coordinated so that the value of a unit of one 
such activity received can be compared with the value of another unit. But 
this common currency and the method of unitizing activity have not been 
identified. That is to say without some conceptual and empirical definition 
of reinforcement, Homans is in the position of defining a value as that 
which is valued, paralleling the Skinnerian circularity of a reinforcer as 
that which reinforces.^ This is valid criticism because from the definition of 
value summarized in the first part of this paper it can be seen that although 
Homans tried to define and tell us how to measure value and quantity 
independently, the measurement is still a vague idea and cannot be 

Deutsch and Krauss further criticized that the lack of specification of a 
common currency for the measurement of value creates serious problems 
for such notions as profit, reward, cost, distributive justice, because these 
notions imply an ability to compare, to add and substract, and to divide 
value. Since value is not measurable then how can one determine how 
valuable a reward or cost is? Ifone cannot determine the value of reward or 
cost then how can one determine how great the profit is? If one cannot 
determine the value of the profit, then how can one determine whether the 
interaction is a fair exchange? How can one apply the rule of distributive 

Another important defect Deutsch and Krauss pointed out is that the 
exchange theory ignores psychological processes both as inner conflict and 
ambivalence because it takes strictly the economic assumption that values 
are additive — for example, the formula Profit - Reward - Cost. But 
besides the fact that one has no way to substract the cost from reward 
objectively, to add a negative value or cost to a positive value or reward the 
result is just not simply the smaller positiv value. Rather the person 
experiences conflict and manifests symptons of stress. 

'Morton Deutsch and Robert M. Krauss, Theories in Social Behavior (New York: Basic 
Books, Inc., 1965), 112. 
'Ibid., 115. 


Besides the criticisms cited above, there are still some other questions: 
1. Whether psychic profit is actually measurable objectively according to 
the formula Profit - Reward - Cost. For example, If person A gives person 
C help, it is because he thinks that the approval he gains is more valued 
than the cost he expands to give C help. But suppose one has studied 
person B's history and his recent activities and they are all equal to person 
A's. However, person B would not give help to person C, according to the 
formula, because person B does not value the approval reward more than 
the cost he needs to spend to help person C. Since everything is equal, the 
reason one can attribute to this is that they are of different personalities; 
maybe person A is a nice guy. Then how can one calculate the personality 
difference into the formula? As another example, say person A would give 
help at one time but not at another time, and other things being equal, 
besides the difference that when person A gave help he was in a good 
mood, he does not give help when he is in a bad mood (not satiation). 
Then the reason one can attribute is to emotion, and how is one going to 
take account of emotion in that formula? 

It has been documented in many studies that a person's emotion or 
mood has a great influence on his interaction with another person, 
especially in helping behavior. ^ Here, Homans' theory suffers, as 
behavioristic reinforcement theory in general cannot explain altruistic 
behavior. Such behavior usually involves a high cost to the person who 
emits such an activity, but who expects nothing in return; for example, a 
good Samaritan. 

2. The assumption of profit-seeking as the origination of the 
establishment of human interaction is questionable. According to the 
theory, when people are thrown together before common norms have been 
crystallized among them, the advantage to be gained through entering into 
exchange relations furnishes incentives for social interaction. The 
exchange process serves as a mechanism for regulating social interaction, 
thus fostering the development of a network of social relations and 
rudimentary group structure. Therefore the elementary social behavior 
supplies the process of institutional behavior. Institutional behavior 
differs only because the rewards are complex and the exchange indirect, so 
that the process must be mediated through explicitly stated norms. The 
norms continue to operate only so long as they are supported by the 
workings of elementary behavior. Here the question is how people know 
that entering into interaction will gain profit in the first place. If they just 
blindly hit on it and are rewarded, then the first activity cannot be assumed 
as profit seeking motivated to enter into interaction after norms, 
regulations, and expectations have been established. Then their behavior 

'Lawrence S. Wrightsman, Social Psychology (Monterey, California; Brooks/ Cole Co. 
1977), 296-297). 


may be assumed or interpreted as economically rational, because as this 
time when a person emits an activity he has the norms or regulations to 
follow and knows what to expect from it. 

Levi-Strauss had argued strongly that unlike animals, humans possess 
a cultural heritage of norms and values; not only is exchange behavior 
guided by learned and regulations, it is also more than the results of 
economic or psychological needs, even those needs that have been 
acquired through socialization. Exchange cannot be understood solely on 
terms of individual motives, because exchange relations are a reiieciiuii ui 
patterns of social organization which exist as an entity, sui generis, to the 
psychological dispositions of individuals.^ 

3. Since exchange behavior is mostly a learned behavior, and culturally 
bound or biased, therefore it cannot be adequately generalized to a global 
scope before it has been examined in other cultures. Homans indicated 
himself that he thinks this exchange theory is universal but he based his 
observations mainly on American experiments, thus making people 
question the validity of these generalizations. 

It is reasonable to criticize that Homans did not take social structure 
into consideration in formulating his exchange theory, and based it solely 
on the assumption of economically rational men. But it would be incorrect 
to accuse Homean, as Poloma did, of psychological reductionism and that 
psychological reductionism could render sociology obsolete. 'o It is up to 
those sociologists who oppose psychological reductionism to demonstrate 
the worth of sociology. 

'Johathan H. Turner, The Structure of Sociological Theory (Homewood, Illinois: The 
Dorsey Press, 1978), 210. 

lOMargaret M. Poloma, Contemporary Sociological Theory (New York: Macmillan 
Publishing Co., 1979), 45-46. 



Albrecht. Marx Ann, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




This research study was designed to compare the achievement of 
students who were taught word recognition skills by the structuralphonetic 
analysis approach with students who were taught word recognition skills 
by the regular phonic approach. 

Word recognition skills were taught during three ten minute periods 
each week over a four month period by a teacher and two instructional 
aides to two groups of eighteen students. These skills were presented to the 
students individually or in small groups. The experimental group was 
taught using a structural-phonetic analysis approach, and the control 
group was taught using the regular phonic approach. 

Subjects in these groups were randomly selected from the students 
assigned to the Title 1 language arts class at LaBelle Elementary School. 
They were in their fourth, fifth, or sixth year of school. 

Data were collected from the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, 
Word Recognition and Word Analysis Test. These data were analyzed 
through the use of the t test to determine significance. The null hypothesis 
was not rejected because there was no significant difference at the .05 level. 

It was concluded that there was no significant difference in 
achievement in word recognition skills between the experimental group 
and the control group which can be attributed to the two methods of 
teaching word recognition skills. 

Atkins, Kathy, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 






This study is aimed at determining the effects of the early childhood 
graduate education at West Georgia College on one hundred and seventy- 
seven graduates from January, 1976 to March, 1979, who have earned a 
masters degree and have returned to teaching. A questionnaire developed 
by the early childhood education department was filled out by the graduate 
teachers and by their immediate supervisors. The positive results are 


shown in the raw scores, percentages, mean scores, and the correlation 
between the matched pairs of teachers and supervisors. These results of the 
questionnaires show that the teacher graduates exhibit positive skills, 
characteristics, and behaviors. The study concludes that the early 
childhood fifth-year education program at West Georgia College has 
positive effects upon teacher graduates. 

Autry. Barbara Gail, (MA, June, 1979) 


This article deals with problems and conflicts faced by women in 
management or executive positions. Historical developments are included 
to provide the reader with a transistion from the past societal standards to 
the current market of the executive female. Research is provided on age, 
educational training, experience and marital status of interviewed subjects 
with emphasis on salary ranges and conflicts of executive females. 
Findings indicate, of those in executive positions, 44% of the females have 
some college education. 64% of the males have bachelors degrees. Females 
were found to have greater work experience than their male counterparts, 
66% of the males had between five and 10 years of experience, 39% of the 
females had more than 20 years experience before attaining management 
positions. Fifty-five percent of the females surveyed were earning from 
$15,000 to $20,000; of the majority of the males, 66%, had earnings in 
excess of $40,000. 

Battle, Joan Barnwell, (Specialist in Education, March, 1979) 


In January, 1978, a study was conducted to compare the inschool 
suspension system with the traditional method of out-of-school 
suspension to see if they differ significally at the .05 level. This would 
enable school administrators to modify the behavior of students within the 
school setting, yet, maintain state aid based on the average daily 

The subjects for this study were selected at random and assigned either 
to a control or an experimental group, each containing twenty students. 

The experimental group reflected a greater reduction in the number of 
suspensions than the control group, the difference being significant 
beyond the .05 level of significance. 


It is recommended that similar studies be conducted to assess the effect 
of in-school suspension (1) on academic achievement and (2) on other 
criterion variables such as interest, motivation, and attitudes. 

Bookhardt, Jesse, (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 


The point of this study was to determine the extent of peer influence 
and parent influence on the beliefs of sixth and eighth graders from a 
suburban middle class Cobb County, Georgia sample. 

It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences 
between sex or grade level relative to parent and peer influences. To test the 
null hypotheses, 60 eighth grade subjects, and 60 sixth grade subjects 
equally divided between sexes respectively were chosen. A modified 
version of The Students Belief Opinionnaire was given as a pre-test. 
Indicating their agreement or disagreement with stated opinions, the 
subjects responded to the instrument on a seven point Likert scale. 

Four weeks later the same instrument was given as a post-test and 
included a Likert scale that had been treated with a written persuasive 
communication indicating parent and peer agreement or disagreement 
with items. The difference between subject responses on the pre-test and 
post-test was calculated. These changes of opinions relative to peers and 
parents formed the foundation of the statistical treatment and conclusions. 

A t-test, an analysis of variance, and a Duncan procedure were applied 
to the change of opinion scores of each sub-group. The findings revealed 
that relative to selected opinion formation, eighth grade females were 
significantly more peer directed than eighth grade males, and were 
significantly more peer oriented than parent oriented. All other sub- 
groups of sex and grade levels were not found to be significantly different 
relative to parent or peer influence. All sub-groups as a whole were found 
to be attracted by both peer and parent indicated opinions. 

Therefore, based on the findings the most outstanding conclusions of 
the study had to do with the strong peer orientation of eighth grade female 
subjects and the finding that both parent and peer opinions attracted 
rather than repelled subject responses. 

It was recommended that similar studies be done to determine the 
status of peer and parent influences at the seventh grade level; to determine 
whether the subjects were atypical; to include a wider range of variables; 
and to narrow the type of opinions involved to a single kind. 


Brewer, Lawton Andrew, (MA, June, 1979) 




After giving a brief review of representative critical evaluations of "The 
City of Dreadful Night," this paper attempts to deal with the major themes, 
symbols and images of the poem. Most of the initial discussion involves the 
poet's attitude toward religion and his treatment of the topic as revealed in 
the symbolism and situations of the work. In addition, the paper traces the 
nihilistic philosophy of the work in some of its major sections. A 
significant amount of space is devoted to an explication of the reality- 
illusion motif and its relationship to the poem's religious pessimisma. 
Penultimately, other major symbolic devices, especially those of the City 
and the river, receive some attention. Finally, the paper gives some 
consideration to the poem's relationship to other literary work: the paper 
suggests possible influences exerted upon the poem and points out the 
affinities between "The City of Dreadful Night" and modern literature. 

Cagle, Sara E., (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 






This study was designed to determine if children would learn sight 
words significantly better if they were taught utilizing behavioristic 
strategies or by utilizing humanistic strategies. 

The subjects were forty Title I reading students from Douglas County, 
Georgia. These students were randomly assigned to two experimental 
groups. Thirty-six of the subjects studied sixty eight words from the Dolch 
List that they were unable to recognize instantly. Since they recognized too 
many words on the prestest, four of the subjects participated using shorter 
word lists and were, therefore, not included in the analyses. 

Experimental group A taught sight words utilizing behavioristic 
strategies. Experimental group R was taught sight words utilizing 


humanistic strategies. Both groups studied their word lists approximately 
fifteen minutes each school day for six weeks. 

The findings of this study suggested that there was significant 
difference in sight word recognition achievement scores when comparing a 
group taught utilizing behavioristic strategies with a group taught utilizing 

humanistic strategies. In the group taught humanistically, the same results 
were found when the groups were compared by sex. 

Click, Joy C. (Specialist in Ecuation, August, 1979) 








The purpose of this study was to formally tabulate and assess all the 
student evaluations of the Early Childhood Education Graduate Program 
at West Georgia College from August, 1977 through August, 1979. 

One hundred fifty-three questionnaire responses were tabulated. The 
results indicate that the students had positive attitudes towards the Early 
Ehildhood Education Graduate Program at West Georgia College. 

Cooke, Wyvis M., (SpeciaUst in Education, August, 1979) 


This study was an attempt to determine if in-school suspenison is a 
worth-while innovation at Carrollton High School. 

Several conclusions were drawn from this hmited study as a result of 
the date collected: 

1. Overall suspensions have decreased at Carrollton High School 
during the last three years, even though student enrollment has been on the 

2. Students assigned to in-school suspension have decreased since its 
inauguration. -^ 

3. Repeaters to in-school suspension have decreased substantially at 
Carrollton High School. 

4. There has been a significant reduction in student drop-outs. 

5. Eighty-three percent of the students surveyed would choose in- 
school suspension rather than suspension. 

6. Sixty-one percent of the students surveyed felt that in-school 
suspension should be continued at Carrollton High School. 

7. Fifty-seven percent of the students surveyed thought that in-school 
suspension was an effective punishment. 

8. Seventy-eight percent of the students surveyed felt that in-school 
suspension was similar to being in jail. 

9. The in-school suspension classroom should be totally nonpunitive 
and should be staffed by a person who is an expert in guidance. 

Cooper, Dale F., (SpeciaUst in Education, June, 1979) 





This study was designed to determine the effect, if any, the language 
experience approach to teaching mathematics story problems would have 
on achievement and attitude. 

Subjects used in this study were two heterogeneous groups of fourth- 
grade children in Polk County, Georgia. During the six- week instructional 
period, the experimental group was taught mathematics word problem 
solving skills using the language experience approach, while the control 
group was taught mathematics word problem solving skills using the 
traditional method receiving no specialized instruction. Each treatment 
period for the experimental group was 45 minutes, three days each week. 
Subjects completing the experiment numbered twenty in the control group 
and nineteen in the experimental group giving a total of thirty-nine 
participants completing the experiment. 

The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Level 10, Form 5 was used for the 
pretest and Form 6 was used for the posttest for mathematics achievement. 
The Dutton Scale (Straight's modification) was used for the pretest and 
posttest for mathematics attitude. The testing for the experimental group 
wat administered by the investigator, while the testing for the control 
groap was administered by the control group teacher. 


The Analysis of Covariance was used to analyze the data. The niill 
hypotheses were tested using the .05 level of significance. The significance 
of the F ratio in mathematics achievement indicated no significant 
of the F ratio in mathematics attitude did indicate a significant difference. 
Therefore, the first null hypothesis concerning mathematics achievement, 
was not rejected at the .05 level of significance. The second null hypothesis 
concerning mathematics attitude, however, was rejected at the .05 level of 
significance, with the experimental group having a higher mean. 

Davies, Pamela G., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 






This study was designed to compare results of reading achievement of 
first year students using an intensive phonics program with first year 
students using a basal reading series and occasional phonics program. The 
subjects were students at Hollydale Elementary School and Austell 
Elementary School. The subjects were matched socio-economically in two 
groups of forty-four students. The length of the study was eight months. 

Four subtests of the Stanford Achievement Test, Primary Battery I 
were used. These subtests, word reading, paragraph meaning, vocabulary 
and word study skills, along with the total raw scores, were covaried with 
the Metropolitan Readiness Test, parental occupation and kindergarten. 
The analysis of the covariance was used as the statistical analysis. 

The results showed only one significant area of difference. This 
difference was indicated at the .009 level of confidence in the analysis of the 
data. The difference was found to favor the control group in the area of 

Davis, Mary Jack, (MA, March, 1979) 



The poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins, W.B. Yeats, Gertrude Stein, 
William Carlos Williams, and Wallace Stevens have been the subject of 
varied and often contradictory interpretations. Their poems have in 


common unusual linguistic structures which often make their poetic 
meanings ambiguous and complex. Many times a poem's meaning will 
seem to be nothing more than the linguistic structure itself. However, each 
poet has an affinity with a philosophy of being, and this affinity is reflected 
in his poetry. This thesis attempts to demonstrate that through a blending 
of two polar theories, contextualism and romanticism, a common poetic 
purpose does emerge from the poems of Hopkins, Yeats, Stein, Williams, 
and Stevens. 

In romantic theory the concept that poetic meaning is identified with 
the imagination's power to coalesce with the essence of nature provides the 
basis for interpreting the poems in light of a theory of continuity. However, 
unlike the Romantic who stood in a position of preestablished harmony 
between spirit and nature, Hopkins, Stein, Yeats, Stevens, and Williams 
felt that they were in a position of dissonance with nature. They had to 
search for that harmony which the romantics took for granted. The 
language itself was the poet's greatest barrier to the experience of 
continuity. In contextual theory the poem only exists in language, and 
poetic meaning is identified with the system of linguistic relations in the 
poem. Contextual thinking provides the basis for examining the linguistic 
relations and identifing those relations with the imagination's power to 
blend spirit with nature. 

Dollar, Sue F., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 





A study was conducted to compare the achievement of two groups in 
specialized social studies vocabulary. Group One was taught social studies 
by the teacher's traditional teaching method. Group Two was taught social 
studies vocabulary by the directed reading technique. 

The classes in Group One and Two were heterogeneously grouped. 
They were considered equivalent because assignment to classes was a 
random process. Two teachers were involved in this study. The researcher 
was one of the teachers involved. 

A sixty item vocabulary test was administered as a pretest and posttest 
equivalent group design in the study. A one-way analysis of covarieance 
was used in the data analysis with the pretest as a covariate. The results of 


the comparison revealed that following the directed reading technique as 
applied to specialized vocabulary in seventh grade social studies was more 
effective than following the method of traditional teaching. 

Edwards, Mary B., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 





This study was designed to compare the self-concepts of students in a 
junior high school environment with the self-concepts of students in a self- 
contained school environment. The variables of grade level, sex, and 
school were analyzed as to their main and interactive effects of self- 
concept. Seventh and eight-grade students from two schools were the 

A two-way Analysis of Covariance was the statistical technique 
employed. Socio-economic status was the covariate. Program ANOVA 
and Program Breakdown from the Statistical Package for the Social 
Sciences were used. The results showed that the main effects of grade level, 
sex, and school were not significant at the .05 level. The intereactions of 
grade level with school, and the interaction of sex with school were also not 
significant at the .05 level. However, the interaction of grade level with sex 
was significant at the .05 level. 

Gadd, Linda Patterson, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 






Mathematics has become an increasingly fascinating and important 
study in recent, years. Many children are excited by the orderHness of 
mathematics, by the sheer fun of manipulating numbers, by the scientific 
achievements possible through the use of mathematics, by the discovery of 


a surprise relationship, or by the solution of a puzzling problem. 

The negative attitudes that children and adults hold about 
mathematics were learned. Usually they could be traced to prior pressure 
to learn something that was either incomprehensible or boring to both. 
When children are frustrated for bored, changes need to be made. 

The purpose of this study was to determine if a manipulative activity 
approach to teaching multiplication had an equally positive effect on 
multiplication achievement as did the traditional approach to teaching 

The subjects for this study were two third-grade classes at North 
Dalton Elementary School in Dalton, Georgia. The subjects were placed in 
each classroom without regard to mental ability, academic achievement, 
or socio-economic background. 

The control group, a class of nineteen students, was taught 
multiplication using the traditional approach. The experimental group, a 
class of nineteen students, was taught multiplication using a manipulative 
activity approach. A multiplication facts pretest was given at the beginning 
of the study. The study lasted eight weeks, at the end of which time a 
posttest was given over the multiplication facts. A delayed posttest was 
given four weeks after instruction has ceased. 

The gain from pretest to posttest was significant at .05 level, in favor of 
the experimental group. The gain from pretest to delayed posttest was 
significant at .05 level, in favor of the experimental group. Since there were 
just two groups to compare, the t-test was employed on the data from each 
of the comparisons: the results at the end of the treatment period and the 
results at the time of the delayed posttest. 

It is recommended that similar studies be conducted to assess the 
effect of the manipulative activity method when subjects and teachers are 
selected from different schools and different areas. 

Corley, Robert Leon, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 


The study was an attempt to explore the effectiveness of the 
homogeneous grouping of one hundred thirty-two seventh-grade students 
in reading acheivement as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. A 
comparative study of the significance of the difference between the two 
correlated means was investigated over a nine-month period. 


There was a significant difference in the low and top group at the 
corresponding confidence level of .02 of 5.79 and 6.5 respectively. These 
two groups improved a grade equivalent of eight months during this 
period. The middle group did not show any statistical significance (2.4 1 ) at 
the .02 level and the grade equivalent score improved only five months. 

There was reason to believe, from the statistical analyses, that the 
grouping method employed is effective with the low group and the top 
group, but that it does not have any statistical significance on the middle 
group in reading achievement. 

Garrett, Carolyn, R., (Specialist in Education, March, 1979) 




This study was designed to determine the effect, if any, the use of hand- 
held calculators would have on the achievement of computation and 
problem solving skills involving decimals. 

Subjects used in this study were two sections of eighth-grade students 
considered equivalent in terms of their progression in the Douglas County 
Math Program. During the four-week period from October 18, 1978 
through November 14, 1978, instructional treatment was the same for both 
classes with the exception of the use of hand-held calculators by the 
experimental group. Each treatment period was 55 minutes daily for the 
four-week study. Subjects completing the experiment numbered 27 in the 
control group and 29 in the experimental group giving a total of 56 
participants completing the experiment. 

A pre-test designed by the investigator after consultation with Dr. 
Lamar Blanton, a professor of mathematics education at West Georgia 
College, was administered by the investigator and the teacher performing 
the experiment. A post-test similar in form to the pre-test was administered 
at the end of the study. 

The t-test for the differences between two means was used to analyze 
the data. The null hypotheses were tested using the .05 level of significance. 
The t-values associated with the means gains in computation and problem 
solving skills indicated no significant differences; therefore, the null 
hypotheses were not rejected at the .05 level of significance. This would 
indicate that calculator usage within the purposes and limitations of this 
study had no statistically significant effect in the acquisition of decimal 


computation and problem solving skills. 

Although results indicated no significant differences, the mean gain in 
terms of computation was in favor of the control group whereas the mean 
gain in problem solving favored the experimental group. It is 
recommended that further studies be made in this area. 

Goolsby, Roy Franklin, (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 





The purpose of this study was to determine if there was any significant 
difference in student performance under the quarter system and the nine- 
month system. 

After several years of operation on the quarter system in the two high 
schools in Rome, serious concern had arisen about the value and 
effectiveness of the quarter system. 

West Rome High School was chosen for this study. The student 
population there was much more stable than that at East Rome High 
School, during the years selected for this study. 

The West Rome High School Class of 1976, which attended school 
four years under the quarter system, was compared to the West Rome 
High School Class of 1972, which attended school four years under the 
nine-month system. Student performance in four areas was compared. 
Grades, attendance, drop-out rate, and retention rate of the Class of 1976 
was compared to the same performance areas of the Class of 1976. 

The Class of 1972 had a higher percent ofattendance, a lower drop-out 
rate, and a lower retention rate, for a more favorable outcome in three of 
the four areas of comparison. The Class of 1976 was superior to the Class 
of 1972 only in the area of grades. 

A statistical analysis of the data being compared indicated that only in 
the area of attendance was there a significant difference. 

A second component of this study was to obtain teacher opinion of the 
quarter system at West Rome High School. An opinionnaire was devised, 
and administered to the forty-one faculty members. Forty members 

A majority of the West Rome High School faculty indicated that the 
major weaknesses of the quarter system were (1) too many students 
avoiding the more advanced courses, (2) the time and effort required in the 


registration and scheduling process, (3) courses not haveing built-in 
sequence and continuity, (4) too many lesson preparations during the year 
for teachers. 

The study does not indicate a significant difference in the overall 
comparison of the quarter system and the nine-month system. It is 
recommended that the two high schools in Rome remain on the quarter 
system, with further study being given to changes that could improve the 
quarter system, in light of the problems identified by the tea-; hers at West 
Rome High School. 

Hall, Patricia Phillips, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 





The purpose of this study was to plan, implement, and evaluate an open 
media program for Rico Elementary School. The entire school, grades one 
through seven, participated in varying degrees in this study. 

Planning for the study began in July, 1978, when questionnaires were 
sent to in-field resource people. The responses received helped in the 
formulation of an open media program developed to meet the unique 
needs of Rico School. The plan designed included changing from a 
scheduled to an unscheduled program, planning teacher-media specialist 
conferences, extending the use of student-assistants, and beginning a 
parent-volunteer program. 

Implementation of the open media program necessitated involving the 
Rico staff and training additional personnel. Student-assistants, safety 
patrol helpers, and parent-volunteers were chosen and trained. Faculty 
meetings were held concerning the program changes and written directions 
were distributed. Schedules were made for teacher-media specialist 
conferences, student workers, and parent-volunteers. The media speciaUst 
instructed the student body in the program changes in December, 1978. 

The sixth and seventh grade combination class was used as subjects for 
the evaluative phase of this study. Library utilization and book circulation, 
reference and Hbrary skills, and students' attitudes toward media center 
utilization were evaluated. 

Library utilization and book circulation records were kept by the 
individual sixth and seventh grade students during a twenty-six week 
period throughout the 1978-1979 school year. This time allotment was 
divided into a nine-week base period and a seventeen-week experimental 


period. The book circulation and library utilization data were evaluated by 
comparing the means between the base and experimental periods. During 
the experimental period library use increased considerably in the following 
ways: ( 1 ) book circulation increased, and (2) the number of student visits to 
the library to check out books increased. Library utilization increased 
slightly in (1) the amount of time spent in research, (2) the actual minutes 
students spent in the Ubrary, and (3) the number of students visits for the 
purpose of reading. On the other hand, library utilization for browsing 

A reference and library skills test and an attitude survey toward media 
center utilization were administered by the investigator. The gains in 
achievement and attitude improvement were evaluated statistically using a 
t-test to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were not rejected at the .05 
level of significance since neither test showed a significant difference at this 
level. However, the achievement scores were extremely close to being at a 
level of significance. 

The data analyzed in this study indicate that the open media program 
did not produce significantly higher achievement than did the former 
library program. However, the tendency of the data indicated an increase 
in book circulation, library utilization and time spent in the library, and an 
improvement in students' attitudes toward the media center. 

Harden, Carol Miller, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 



The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 
different methods of teaching production typewriting to fourth-quarter 
typewriting classes at North Clayton Senior High School. 


Literature describing teaching methods for production typewriting was 
researched. Three of these methods were chosen to be used in a study at 
North Clayton Senior High School during the Fall 1978 quarter. The 
methods chosen were production, production and drill, and a production, 
drill, and self-paced activity combination. 

The Production Only Students spent each entire class period typing 
problems which were timed. These students participated in no drills; 


however, new material was previewed. As students determined their 
production rate, problems were reviewed. 

The Production and Drill Students spent approximately 20 to 30 
minutes of each class period typing timed problems. The remaining 15 
to 20 minutes were spent in typing teacher-directed drills on problems 
and straight-copy material. Except for drills, these students were treated 
like the Production Only Students. 

The Production, Drill, and Self-Paced Activity Students participated 
in a modified self-paced instruction plan. For 15 to 20 minutes three 
days each week, these students typed drills on problems and straight- 
copy material. When these students completed a unit, they were given a 
timed 30-minute production test. During the rest of the class time, these 
students participates in self-paced activities which were comprised of 
untimed problem typing. 

A pretest consisting of a typewriting theory test, a five-minute 
writing, and a 30-minute production test was admninistered during the 
sixth and seventh class meetings. No theory was discussed, and no 
problems were typed prior to the pretest. The first five class periods 
were devoted to teacher-directed straight-copy drills and to short 

At the end of the quarter a posttest was given. The posttest consisted 
of the pretest typewriting theory test, a five-minute writing of equal 
difficulty as the pretest timing, and a 30-minute production test similar 
to the pretest. 

A t-test was used to compare the posttest results with the pretest 
results. An f-test was used to test the null hypotheses: There will be no 
significant difference in the production achievement among the groups. 


The conclusions drawn from the findings of this study were: 

1. Students made progress in production typewriting regardless of 
teaching method. 

2. The Production Only Students learned about the same as the 
Production and Drill Students. 

3. The Production Only Students learned significantly more than the 
Production, Drill, and Self-Paced Activity Students. 

4. The Production and Drill Students learned significantly more 
than the Production, Drill, and Self-Paced Activity Students. 


Harris, Douglas Eugene, (Specialist in Education, June 1979) 







The Primary purpose of this study was to determine whether there 
was a signigficant difference in achievement gain made by students 
enrolled in a traditional mathematics program as opposed to 
achievement gain made by students enrolled in an individualized 
mathematics program. 

A secondary purpose of this study was to determine whether there 
was a significant difference in achievement gain made by these study 
groups when placed in the same traditional mathematics program. 

The areas under comparision were mathematical concepts, 
mathematical computation, mathematical applicastions and total 
mathematic score. Achievement gain in these areas was measured by 
correct student responeses on the Stanford Achievement Test, 
Intermediate level II Forms A and B. 

The student population of the study consisted of three sixth grade 
classes at Emerson Elementary School (individualized mathematics 
program) and four sixth grade classes at Adairsville Elementary School 
(traditional mathematics program). Both of these schools are located in 
Bartow County, Georgia. A total of 161 students were involved in the 
initial pretesting of these classes, 161 students were involved in the 
original posttesting of these classes which serves as the pretesting for the 
secondary problem under consideration, and 125 students were involved 
in the final posttesting. 

Analysis of the data obtained showed no significant difference in 
achievement gain between students enrolled in the individualized and 
the traditional programs. Secondary data analysis indicate that there is 
no significant difference in achievement gain between the same students 
when enrolled in traditional programs. 


Haverkampf, David O., (MA, August, 1979) 

This thesis consists of five (5) separate essays which discuss the great 
3,000 year old ancient Chinese oracle, the / Ching. 

There are two separate essays introducing the / Ching, an essay on the 
sixty-four (64) hexagrams which comprise the / Ching, an essay dealing 
with the / Ching and parascience, and an essay discussing the 
relationship of the / Ching and acupuncture. 

Both the philosopher-sage Confucius and the psychologist Dr. Carl 
G. Jung used the / Ching as a mens of divination. 

The thesis includes the written symbols of the sixty-four (64) 
hexagrams drawn in the margins, as a means of clarification. 

Hayes, Christine Y., (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 







A study was conducted in an attempt to determine any differences in 
achievement and attitude between two groups of subjects who were 
taught a science unit by two different methods. Group I, the control 
group, was taught science using a departmentahzed approach which 
included lecture, questions and answers and minimal experimentation. 
Group II, the experimental group, was taught science using an 
integrated science and social studies approach which included hands-on 
activities, experimentation, large/ small group interaction. 

The classes in Group I and II were heterogeneously grouped. They 
were considered equivalent because assignment to classes was a random 
process. The two teachers involved in the study taught each group for a 
six week period of time. 

A sixty-four item science achievement test as well as a sixteen item 
science attitude test was administered as a pretest and posttest 
equivalent group design in the study. A one-way analysis of covariance 
was used in the data analysis with the pretest as a covariate. The results 
of the comparison revealed that using an integrated science and social 


studies approach to science instruction was not significantly more 
effective than using a departmentalized approach. The results also 
revealed that students had a more positive attitude toward science when 
receiving science instruction with an integrated approach rather than a 
departmentalized approach. 

Herring, Jack R., (SpeciaHst in Education, June, 1979) 




The Career Development and Planning Program as developed in this 
paper provides for continuity and sequencing in education and makes 
learning more relevant and meaningful for students who participate 
fully in the program. An individual who has an awareness of self and 
others; who has awareness of the basic skills and education required of 
a variety of careers; who has been taught decision-making skills; and 
who has developed positive attitudes toward work, and an 
understanding of the work ethic imposed by society will be an active 
and contributing member of society. Education, then, becomes more 
meaningful in school and throughout life. The Career Development and 
Planning Program then, is a means of achieving this goal. 

Hooper, Judith H., (Specialist in Education, March, 1979) 


In July, 1978, fifty student from the terminated files of a 
psychoeducational center were randomly selected to record IQ scores 
and the length of time, in school months, that each had attended the 
psychoeducational center. These students had been ascertained to have 
emotional problems or behavior disorders. 

This study was conducted to determine if there was any relationship 
between IQ and number of school months that the student attended the 
psychoeducational center. The IQ and number of school months for 
each student were compared and the Spearman rank order correlation 
coefficient was used to determine if there was any significant correlation 
between IQ and number of months in attendance at the 
psychoeducational center. 


Huntley, Jane Jordan, (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 


In 1978, the Georgia Department of Human Resources collected 
statistics that revealed an alarming increase in the rate of teenage 
illegimate births. The governor requested this survey. He advised local 
communities and school superintendents to assess their local needs and 
work together in developing a program of action. 

The purpose of this study was to assess the need in the rome City 
Schools for a human sexaulity program. To determine the need, a ten 
item questionnaire was administered to Rome teachers and students. 
Distribution was made to the two high schools and junior high schools 
in the school district. One hundred and seven faculty members 
completed the questionnaire at each location. Forty-seven eleventh 
graders and sixty eighth graders were surveyed and the same number 

Descriptive research was used in the study. Responses were tabulated 
by dividing the data first, into teacher and student groups and secindly, 
into male and female groups. Percentages were calculated on each 
response. An item analysis was used to interpret the findings. Responses 
which indicated differences, discrepancies, and likenesses when 
tabluated were utilized in reporting the data. 

Ninety percent of the students and teachers agreed that a human 
sexuality program was needed. The findings of the study were presentes 
to the Rome City Schools Superintendent. Further research was 
recommended to determine the schools' role in executing a human 
sexuality program. 

Ivey, Deborah Dobson, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




This study attempted to determine if the study of genealogy would 
result in a significant gain in (1) student attitude toward social studies or 
(2) student achievement in knowledge of local history. The subjects of 
this study were the six heterogeneous classes of seventh graders in social 
studies at Bowdon Elementary School, Bowdon, Georgia. The control 
group consisted of three randomly selected classes and the experimental 
group consisted of the remaining three classes. 


Since all students had been given the Nelson Reading Test, the mean 
scores for the control group and the experimental group were 
computed. The t-tests for the difference between the means determined 
that there were no significant differences in the two groups in regard to 
reading ability at the beginning of the study. 

Remmers' Any School Subject Survey Form A was given as an 
attitude pretest. A teacher-made pretest on local history was given as an 
achievement measure. 

The experimental periods lasted eight weeks for the control group and 
nine weeks for the experimental group. A unit on Carroll County and 
Georgia history was taught to the control group. The same unit was 
tuaght to the experimental group, with the addition of instruction and 
discussion in genealogy, historical research, and the incorporation of the 
students' knowledge about their ancestors into the subject matter. 

At the end of the experimental period Remmers' Any School Subject 
Survey Form B and a teacher-made test on subject matter were given as 
attitude and achievement tests. Mean gains in attitude and achievement, 
as demonstrated by scores on the pretests and posttests were calculated. 
The t-tests found that there were no significant differences in attitude 
gains or achievement gains at the .05 level of significance. 

The hypotheses were accepted. It was concluded that the teaching of 
genealogy with local history does not produce a significant gain in 
attitude or achievement. 

Jackson, Barry N., (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 




High school students need to know and want to know about their 
local government. The 26th Amendment which extended the voting 
franchise to 18 year ols makes the need for local government studies 
more crucial than ever. Studies show that the classroom lecture 
approach, traditionally used in teaching government, has not met the 
needs of today's students. Neither will such an approach succeed in 
teaching students about local government. New ideas must be 
introduced into the social studies classroom if students are to grasp the 
complexities of local government services and if they are to realize the 
need to participate in local politics. The multi-media approach to local 
government studies is a means toward this end. 

Locally collected materials such as newspapers, telephone books, 
maps, floorplans, slides, and transparencies make it easier for high 


school students to learn about local government. Special teaching 
techniques which use sample documents, circuit board, computers, 
visitations, and voter registration materials not only enhance the 
traditional approach but also add realism. An adequate amount of class 
time spent in preparing students to appreciate local government 
increases the students' desires to understand their local government and 
to become competent contributing factors in that government. 

Laney, James A., Jr., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




This study reports on 247 questionnaires dealing with the subject of 
adequate training and employment procedures for substitute teachers in 
Floyd County, Georgia, public schools. 

Respondents were 144 substitutes, 87 classroom teachers, and 16 

Findings revealed a lack of a unified, consistent policy at either the 
county administrative level, or within the member schools. 

Such policy as is formalized permits principals, teachers or school 
secretaries to choose and notify substitutes. There is no procedural 
check for notification as to duties, terms of employment, or evaluation 
of performance. 

Inasmuch as substitutes served 4,322 student days in 1978, the study 
concludes with recommendations for selection criteria, in-service 
training and evaluation procedures for an improved substitute teacher 
program in Floyd County. 

Lenney, Eleanor A., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




This study proposed to ascertain that the patterns of interests found 
in earlier studies actually held true for the students at Osborne Middle 
School. The purpose was to discover and tabulate the subject matter 
about which the students voluntarily chose to read. In light of current 
changes in attitudes toward women's rights, one objective of this 
research was to discover whether boys' and girls' interests were as 
differentiated as those of students in the past. Investigation was made of 


the influences on their reading and where their books were obtained. 
Previous studies indicated that abiUty was of no significance in 
determining reading interests. To see if this held true, the relationship 
between reading ability and reading interests was investigated. 
The following hypotheses were tested: 

1. There will be no significant difference between the patterns of 
reading interests of boys and girls. 

2. There will be no significant difference in the frequencies of fiction 
and non-fiction chosen by boys and girls. 

3. There will be no significant difference in the patterns of interests 
shown by high-ability boys and low-ability boys, or by high-ability 

girls and low-ability girls. 

The subjects for the study were 134 seventh-graders at Osborne 
Middle School, Cobb County, Georgia. Osborne serves a lower-to- 
middle class surburban community of about 800 students in grades six, 
seven and eight. 

Informations was gathered in an interest survey given during the first 
weeks of school and from records kept by students during the year. 
Results were tabulated and analyzed by using chi square. The results 
were considered significant at the .05 level. 

The first hypothesis was rejected, as there was a great difference in the 
reading patterns of boys and girls, significantly at the .001 level. The 
third hypothesis was not rejected. There was little difference between the 
high-ability groups and the low-ability groups. 

An analysis was made on the reasons students choose books. The 
difference between boys and girls was significant at the .001 level. 

It appears that sex is still the major influence on reading at the 
middle-school level. 

Mahan, Gary Douglas, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




The purpose of this study was to determine whether students in a 
sports literature program achieve significantly higher scores in literary 
interpretation and understanding than do students in other literature 

The subjects of the study were an experimental group of students in 
two Sports Literature classes taught by the researcher and a control 


group consisting of an American Novel class taught by another teacher 
and an American Short Story class taught by a third teacher. 

A pretest was given to all classes during the first week in September 
by the researcher, and a posttest was given to all the four classes near 
the end of November. Intelligence test scores were also collected for 
each student. 

An analysis of covariance computed for the data indicated that 
students in sports literature classes do not achieve significantly higher 
scores in literary understanding and interpretation than do students in 
other literature classes. 

Matthews, Margaret Williams, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of the 
Developmental Lab at Carroll County Area Vocational-Technical 
School. The purpose of the study was to determine if there is a 
significant difference between students who attend the Developmental 
Lab before entering the Licensed Practical Nursing program and 
students who do not attend the Developmental Lab. Analysis of 
Covariance was used to analyze the Data. Reading, language, and 
mathematics grade equivalent scores from the pre-test Test of Adult 
Basic Education were used to adjust the post-test grade point average 
(GPA) and state board scores (SBS) of the two groups. The analysis of 
the data revealed that no significant difference exists between the two 
groups. The null hypothesis were accepted, therefore, we can assume the 
lab is effective in upgrading basic skills in the area of reading, language, 
and mathematics. 

Nelson, Davis R., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 


Sex education in the public schools has, for many years, been 
considered a taboo subject. The task of the school is to provide a well 
rounded education program for its population. The lack of sexual 
knowledge by students makes it imperative that the schools provide an 
educational teaching program for their students. 


The resource unit will serve the appropriate school personnel in their 
task of making the student aware of the knowledge needed to cope with 
his/her body. 

The resource unit consists of the various areas of study that noted 
authors and educators recommend to be included in a sex education 
study for students. The subjects are placed in the order recommended to 
be taught. Tests, student questions, help agencies, surveys, and terms 
are provided to assist the instructor with the use of these materials. 

Nevois, Leslie Ann, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 





This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the personality 
characteristics of junior high school counselors (specifically grades 7 
and 8) in the state of Georgia. The objective of this study were achieved 
by analyzing individual personality profiles of junior high school 
counselors. Research was limited to one group of respondents, 
composed of forty school counselors at the seventh and eighth grade 
level. The data was obtained from the Sixteen Personality Factor 
Questionnaire (16 PF), an objectively scorable test designed to give 
complete coverage of personality in a brief time. 

Literature examined produced personality characteristics of 
counselors not unlike those found upon analysis of the data for this 
study. Reviewed literature and the subsequent findings of this study 
agreed on the following: (1) certain personality characteristics are 
particularly appropriate for counselors; (2) no significant dissimilarities 
in personality characteristics exist between male and female counselors; 
(3) certain personality characteristics influence the effectiveness 
potential of counselors, and (4) counselors generally possess personality 
characteristics which allow them to offer a high degree of unconditional 
positive regard, empathy, warmth, and trust. 

This study lends support to the theory that certain measured 
personality characteristics can be predicators of potential counselor 
effectiveness and that these characteristics typify the junior high school 
counselors in Georgia. 


Owens, Betty, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 


A comparison of the eighth grade Georgia Criterion-Referenced Test 
scores for East Rome Junior High School was made in an effort to 
determine whether any significant progress has been made in the areas 
of reading, math, and career development over the past three years 
(1976, 1977, 1978). 

The results of the study indicated that there has not been a significant 
increase in the scores. 

Possible reason for this include: change in student population; 
academic level of students; present curriculum not effective; more time 
needed to show evidence of increase. 

Phillips, Laura, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 




This study was conducted to determine the possible effects of 
concreteness and imagery training in paired-associate learning and recall 
in the reading process. The thirty-eight students involved in the study 
were from Taylorsville School, Bartow County School System, 
Taylorsville, Georgia. 

Experimental Group a was trained to "image," or make up pictures in 
their heads, of material read. Comparison Group B was instructed to 
remember the material "for later," but received no special training. 
Inherent in the study was the question of whether students learnes pairs 
best when presented as pictures, concrete nouns, abstract nouns, or 

A paired-associate test was adapted from a study conducted by 
Epstein, Rock, and Zuckerman (1960). Vocabulary and comprehension 
pretest and posttest scores were acquired through the administration of 
the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. 

A series of t-tests were used to analyze data collected in the paired- 
associate tasks, and analyses of covariance were used ti analyze pretest 
and posttest data from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. 

The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the students in 
Experimental Group A learned and recalled at the .001 level of 


significance more pairs than Comparison Group B when pictures were 
used as the means of presentation. Futhermore, Experimental Group A 
showed a greater gain in reading comprehension which was significant 
at the .005 level. 

Phipps, Bonnie Louise Philpot, (Specilaist in Education, June, 1979) 




A study was made of 41 West Georgia College Business Education 
graduates to evaluate the undergraduate business education curriculum. 
The following subproblems were analyzed: 

1. The first subproblem is to determine if West Georgia College's 
Business Education graduates are teaching. 

2. The second subproblem is to determine what the graduates are 
doing if they are not teaching. 

3. The third subproblem is to determine the effectiveness of West 
Georgia College's Business Education program in training business 

4. The fourth subproblem is to determine if the Business Education 
certification curriculum needs to be modified to meet the needs of the 

5. The fifth subproblem is to determine the extent to which the skill 
courses are being emphasized. 

6. The sixth subproblem is to determine the extent to which the basic 
business courses are being emphasized. 

7. The se\enth subproblem is to determine if there are particular 
areas in which additional training should be offered. 

The following conclusion was drawn from this study: 
West Georgia College has a well-rounded undergraduate curriculum 
in the Department of Business Education. 

Rakestraw, Tyre L., Jr., (Specialist in Education, March, 1979) 





In March 1978, a study was begun, at Paulding County High School, 
to determine if the Program of Education and Career Exploration, 
P.E.C.E., was worthwhile and effective by comparing the amount of job 


intonnation known by students before and after taking the P.E.C.E. 

I he students for this study were randomly chosen from a total of one 
hundred and five students enrolled in four classes of P.E.C.E. at 
Pauldmg County High School located in Dallas, Georgia. A total of 
twenty studentsd were selected and classified as the experimental group. 
The research design employed in this study was the pretest posttest, 
using the Job Knowledge Test as the measuring instrument. 

The experimental group reflected a marked increase on the posttest 
scores over the pretest scores, thus showing the difference to be 
significant beyond the .05 level of significance. 

It is recommended that similar studies be conducted on other school 
systems to assess the effectiveness of their P.E.C.E. programs. This is to 
insure that the students are receiveing the information concerning job 
knowledge that will be so beneficial to them in the near future. 

Rawls, Kathryn Hundley, (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 


The main purpose of this study was to determme the existence of sex- 
role stereotyping in Saturday morning television advertisements directed 
toward children. This study was conducted between the hours of 8:00 
a.m. and 12:00 noon on the following dates: July 28, 1979, August 4, 
1979 and August 18, 1979. The three major networks were represented 
in 186 commercials and six variables were analyzed. 

The six variables under analysis were as follows: product 
representation, occupations of adult characters, gender of the voice- 
overs, total number of male and female characters, active or passive 
roles of male and female characters, and settings which noted whether 
the characters were shown indoors or outdoors. 

To determine if significant differences existed, comparative 
percentages were drawn in the areas of product representation and 
occupations. The Chi Square statistic was applied to test for significant 
differences the hypotheses related to voice-overs, total number of 
characters, roles, and settings. 

The research hypotheses were accepted at the .05 level of significance 
and the study revealed that differences exist in the types of products 
that males and females advertised or represented. Male characters 
portrayed a greater variety of occupations as compared with female 
characters. All of the voice-overs of the advertisements examined were 
male. In a total count of characters, males outnumbered the females 
significantly. Males were more often active in their roles while females 


were more often passive. Males were shown in outdoor settings more 
often then females who were more often shown indoors. Based on these 
findings the study concluded that sex-role stereotyping existed in 
Saturday moring advertisements. 

Robinson, Sara R., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 





This study was designed to determine what differnce in reading 
achievement would be found between subjects taught by two different 
methods. Fifty fifth and sixth year remedial reading students from West 
Haralson Elementary School were divided into two heterogeneous 
groups of twenty-five. Experimental group A was taught reading skills 
through strategies designed to stimulate both brain hemispheres. The 
comparison group B was taught the same skills as they occured in the 
context of the regular remedial reading program. 

Pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest scores were gathered from both 
groups, and a statistical analysis using the Analysis of Covariance was 
made. The covariates were age and I.Q. The level of significance was 
established as .05. 

This study provided a basis for support or rejection of the following 
null hypotheses: 

1. There will be no significant difference in gains from pretest to 
posttest between the experimental group and the control group when 
I.Q. and age are used as covariates. 

2. There will be no significant difference in the gains from posttest to 
delayed posttest between the experimental group and the control group 
when age and I.Q. are used as covariates. 

Null hypotheses one and two were not rejected. This study indicated 
the need for further investigations about the relationship of the left and 
right brain hemispheres to learning. 


Summerfield. Rachel Ann. (MA, June, 1979) 


Now that the Human Potential movement has been around for a 
number of years, we are all familiar with the terms "authenticity" and 
"inauthenticity"; yet it is easy to get lost in the jardon and forget what 
the words actually mean. In an attempt to look closely at what 
authenticity is, two figures from literature are used as illustrations: 
Joseph K., from The Trail by Franz Kafka and Psyche, form the myth 
of Cupid and Psyche as told by Apuleius in The Golden Ass. Joseph K. 
is an example of an inauthentic individual, while Psyche is an example 
if an authentic one. Authenticity is synonymous with answering one's 
call or fulfilling one's destiny; thus, being an authenic individual is being 
a hero. The opportunity to be authenic is always present to us. The 
theroetical basis for this essay is described as a synthesis of the 
psychologies of Carl Jung and Ronald D. Laing. 

Taylor, Linda M., (Specialist in Education, March, 1979) 




The purpose of this study was to assess increased Counselor 
effectiveness as a result of the Counseling Methods Course 888 at West 
Georgia College. 

The Personal Orientation Inventory was administered to 32 
Counseling Methods students prior to their first class experience and 
again upon completion of the course. 

Time Competent and Inner-Directed ratio scores were computed and 
correlated using the T-test formula. The Time Competent Ratio score 
was found to be significant beyond the .05 level. The inner-Directed 
Ratio score was found to be significant beyond the .05 level. 


Thomas, Ann W.. (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 


The problem involved in this study was to determine if there was a 
significant difference in the progress made in English grammar 
achievement by fify-seven eight grade students at Buchanan Junior High 
School in Buchanan, Georgia under individualized instruction and group 
instruction. Comparisons were made of the achievement progress 
differences in two groups during two research time periods. 

During the first time period, Group A was the experimental group 
instructed through the individualized technique, and Group B was the 
control group given group instruction. During the second research time 
period, the groups' intructional techinques were reversed. Comparisons 
were made between the two groups during both research time periods, 
between the total groups' individualized and group techniques, and 
between males' and females' progress under both techniques. 

Achievement progress was determined by pretest and posttest scores on 
text oriented tests designed by the textbook authors, and significance was 
determined by the t-test for independent means. 

Results indicated that there was a significant difference in favor of 
individualized instruction for both research time periods and for the total 
group comparison. There was no significant difference in the comparison 
of males and females under either instructional technique. 

Thompson, Terry, (MA, March, 1979) 


This thesis presents background information concerning Southern male 
stereotypes which is essential to a full appreciation of Southern literature 
and the various characters therein. The scholarly introduction gives a brief 
synopsis of the three most famous Southern male stereotypes: the Good 
or Boy, the Southern Gentleman, and the Unreconstructed 
Rebel. Each is relate in terms of his mentality, his appearance, his violent 
tendencies, and his treatment of women. It is hoped that this thesis will 
allow the reader to enjoy Southern writing with a new and deeper 
understanding of the Southern male in general and Southern male 
stereotypes inparticular. 

In the poems and short stories there is no conscious attempt to present 
an example of a Good Ol' Boy, Or either of the other two stereotypes; 
rather, the works are based upon unique experiences, most of them 
firsthand, that serve to demonstate some of the traits, peculiarities, quirks, 
and afflictions that characterize the creature called Southern man. 


Wilburn, Nell, (Specialist in Education, August, 1979) 







Teaching reading in the kindergarten is a highly controversial topic. 
The purpose of this paper was to determine if those students who 
received informal reading instruction in the kindergarten scored 
significantly higher in reading at the end of the first grade and again at 
the end of the second grade than those students who did not receive 
informal reading instruction prior to entering the first grade. 

The subjects in the study were a group of 109 children who attend the 
first and second grades at Spring Place Elementary School in the Spring 
Place, Georgia. The students were placed randomly in the various 

Both groups of students were instructed in the readiness, pre-primer, 
primer, and first readers in the same manner. At the end of grade one 
and again at the end of grade two, the Iowa Test of Basic Skills was 
administered to determine reading achievement. 

The results of the tests at the end of each year showed a considerable 
difference in the mean scores between the two groups, however, due to 
the unusually large standard deviation the t-test did not reveal a 
significant difference between the experimental and comparison groups. 

It is recommended that similiar studies should be conducted with 
students from different school to see if the results are similiar. 

Vaughn, Karen L., (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 








The problem of this study was to compare the achievement of high 
school distributive education students who were taught human relations 
by IDECC LAPs with students who were taught human relations by 

TA. 65 


The first subproblem was to determine whether students learn human 
relations more effectively using IDECC LAPs or TA. 

The second subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the sociability level of a student. 

The third subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the social presence level of a student. 

The fourth subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the self-acceptance level of a student. 

The fifth subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the sense of well-being level of a student. 

The sixth subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the responsibihty level of a student. 

The seventh subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the socialization level of a student. 

The eighth subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the self-control level of a student. 

The ninth subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the tolerance level of a student. 

The tenth subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the good impression level of a student. 

The eleventh subproblem was to determine whether IDECC or TA is 
more effective in developing the communality level of a student. 


Two distributive education classes at Etowah High School 
participated in this study for nine weeks during the first semester of the 
1978-79 school year. These classes were assigned to one of two groups — 
IDECC control group, or Transactional Analysis experimental group. 

The control group used the Human Relation Learning Activity 
Packages (LAPs) developed by IDECC. The experimental group was 
taught Human Relations skills through Transactional Analysis using 
information and materials from Am I OK? written by Paul L. Phillips, 
Ed. D., and Franklin D. Cordell, Ph.D. 

Both groups spent eight weeks studying human relations. One week 
was utilized for pretesting and posttesting. 

Both groups were pretested and posttested on human relations using 
the California Psychology Inventory. 


West, Howard E.. Jr., (MS, June, 1979) 




According to local fihermen, bluegill fishing in Lake Carroll has been 
poor for the past several years. A bluegill of 6 inches (150 mm) or 
longer is generally considered to be "keeping size" and few fish of this 
size were being caught in Lake Carroll. A population study showed a 
maximum of only 4% of the bluegill population to be 6 inches or longer 
and only 0.1% to be 7 inches (178 mm) or longer. An age and growth 
study showed only a slightly below average growth rate for the first two 
growing seasons but marked decline after the second growing season. 
Results also indicated an above average mortality rate for fish three 
years and older, with few fish surviving to age four and almost none 
surviving to age five. After determining that the Lake Carroll bluegill 
population was abnormal in theses respects, other studies were initiated 
to try and determine the factors responsible. Areas which were 
investigates included population density of the bluegill and other fish 
species, food availability and parasite burden. Results showed a high 
density of bluegill (1,129/ ha) and a low density of macrozoobenthis 
organisms (122/m2). The macrozoobenthis organisms serve as the main 
source of food for the adult bluegill. The high population density and 
poor food availability are believed to be the factors chiefly responsible 
for both the poor growth rate and the high mortality rate. There is, 
however, speculation that an unidentified parasitic nematode is also 
contributing significantly to the high mortality rate. 

Williams, Mary Sue, (Specialist in Education, June, 1979) 


The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of automatic 
data processing on the intermediate service agency level. With the 
proliferation of paper work required by federal, state, and local 
bureaucracy school administrators and central office personnel are 
searching for inexpensive and rapid ways of processing data. 

Innovators in the field of education have proposed computer-based or 
computer-assisted instruction as the most feasible means of providing 
individualized programs of instruction. 


The computer field has, since the advent of the fist commercially 
available automatic data processor, continuously worked to lower the 
cost and reduce the size of the computer. Computers are now in the 
range of many school systems and intermediate service agencies. 

In order to study the use of the computer in education and in the 
intermediate service agency a general review of the literature was 
conducted. It was evident through the literature that the computer had 
many applications in the business management of the pubhc schools 
and in the hige amount of record management, both student and 
personnel. Computer-assisted instruction had been in evidence since the 
early days of the computer when the computer companies used their 
machines to train their employees. 

To study the feasibility of computer appUcations in the state of 
Georgia and to narrow the study down to the Northwest Georgia 
Cooperative Service Agencies, two surveys were administered. All 
directors of Georgia CESAs were mailed questionnairs, and all school 
superintendents in the Northwest Georgia CESA district were mailed 
questionnaires. The results of these questionnaires were tabulated, 
compared and conclusions were drawn. A number of appHcations were 

The date received from the CESAs and the superintendents was 
compared with what is being done on the intermediate service level in 
other areas of the United States. 

It was concluded that certain data processing applications would be 
feasible for intermediate service agencies. 



Brantley, Daniel 

Review of Ethnic Conflict in Internayional Relations by Astri Suhrke 
and Lela Garner Noble, eds. Perspective, Volume 7, No. 4 (May 1978), 


Review of Studies in Socialist Pedalogy by Theodore Mills Norton and 
Bertell Oilman, eds. Perspective, Volume 8, No. 1 (January/ February 
1979), 12. 

"The Charismatic Political Leader: A Study In Political Authority and 
Leadership". Doctoral Dissertation submitted to Howard University, 
May 1979. 

Review of Toward a Marxist Theory of Nationalism by Horace B. 
Davis. Perspective, Volume 8, No. 4 (May, 1979), 71. 

Review of Marx's Method: Ideology, Science and Critique in Capital by 
Derek Sayer. Perspective. Accepted for publication but as yet not 

Claxton, Robert H. 

Review of La iglesia catolica y el estado en Guatemala, 1871-1885 by 
Hubert J. Miller (Guatemala: Universidad de San Carlos, 1976) in The 
Catholic Historical Review (April 1979), 65 (2): 291-292. 

Review of El pensamiento liberal de Guatemala, edited by Jorge Mario 
Garcia Laguardia (San Jose, Costa Rica: EDUCA) in Hispanic 
American Historical Review (May 1979), 59 (2): 361-362. 

"The Impact of Drought Upon Guatemalan Society, 1563-1925," Paper 
presented in the International Conference on Chmate and History, 
University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, July 10, 1979. 

Garmon, Gerald m. 


"Edmond Hamilton," Dictionary of Literary Biography. Detroit: Gale 

Research Company, 1979. 

"A Note on Edgar Allen Poe's 'The Fall of the House of Usher,'" in 

Studies in English and American Literature, ed. John L. Cutler and 

Lawrence S. Thompson. Troy, N.Y.: The Whitston Publishing 

Company, 1978. 

"Tragic Realism in Sentimental Literature: 1720-1820." 

Bulletin of Bibliography and Magazine Notes, 33, no. 3 (April-June, 
1976), 131-134, 139, 148. 


Paper Readings 

"Teleology, Evolution and Science Fiction." Paper read at The Phililogical 
Phililogical Association of the Carolinas, March 1979. 

"Christian Virtues and The Lord of the Rings." Paper read at the First 
International Conference on Fantasy in Literature, March 19, 1980. 

Chairman, Science Fiction and Fantasy Discussion Circle at the South 
Atlantic Modern Language Association, Atlanta, November 3, 1979. 


John Reuben Thompson. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1979. 


General Editor, Monograph Series, Georgia-South Carolina College 
English Association-Xerox Company 

Kennedy, W. Benjamin 

"The Irish Jacobins," Studia Hibernica (Dublin, 1976), 109-121. 

Review of Naval Documents of the American Revolution. Vol. 7 
American Theater: November 1, 1776- Dec. 1776. European Theater: 
Oct. 6- Dec. 31. 1776. Georgia Historical Quarterly LXI (Spring, 1977), 

Review of Vincent J. Knapp, Europe in the Era of Social 
Transformation. The History Teacher X (February, 1977), 319-320. 

Review of R. Ben Jones, Napoleon: Man and Myth. The History 
Teacher XI (February, 1978), 268-269. 

Review of Peter N. Stearns, The Face of Europe. Teaching History, 3 
(Fall, 1978), 82. 

Review of Danton by Norman Hampson. The History Teacher XII 
(August, 1979), 594-595. 

Review of Aspects of European History, 1494-1789 by Stephen J. Lee. 
The History Teacher, XIII (November, 1979), 125-126. 

"Conspiracy Tinged with Blarney: Wolf Tone and other Irish Emissaries 
to Revolutionary France." Proceedings of the Consortium on 
Revolutionary Europe. (Athens, GA., 1978). 

"Future Prospests for State Historical Associations of Professional 
Historians." Paper read to the Community College Social Science 
Association, Louisville, Kentucky, November, 1979. 

"William Duckett," J.O. Baylen and N.J. Gossman, eds. Biographical 
Dictionary of Modern British Radicals. (Sussex: harvester Press, 1979), 


"William Jackson." Ibid.. 254-259. 
"Edward John Lewines." Ibid., 284-290. 
"Henry Sheares." Ibid., 436-439. 
"Matthew Tone." Ibid., 484-488. 

Mann, George 

February 8 Recital for Lit-Mu Club, Carrollton 

February 12 Recital for Canterbury Court Retirement Home, Atlanta. 

April 2 Recital, Liberty Baptist Church, Lynchburg, Virginia 

April 17 Recital, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, 

May 10 Two Piano Performance with Betty Tolbert for Lit-Mu Club, 

May 12 Two-Piano Recital with Betty Tolbert for Sigma Alpha Iota 
American Musicale, Carrollton 

July 22 Two-Piano Recital with Betty Tolbert for West Georgia College 
Piano Camp. 

September 20 Recital at University of the South, Sewanee,Tennessee 
(premiere of Sonata No. 3 by Robert Donahue) 

October 21 Recital, Brunswick Junior College, Brunswick, Georgia 

October 22 Recital for Mozart Society of Glynn County, Brunswick, 

October 26 Recital for Canterbury Court Retirement Home, Atlanta 

November 10 Soloist in Beethoven's Choral Fantasy with Rome 
Symphony Orchestra 

November 26 Recital, Shorter College, Rome, Georgia 

Scott, Carole E. 

"Small Business in the South," in The Regional Environments for Small 
Business Entrepreneurship , Small Business Adminstation, February, 

"Kemp-Roth and Political Energy," The Collegiate Forum, Dow Jones 
and Company, Winter, 1979/80. 

Short. Verl M. 

Editor, Georgia Association for Childhood Education Newsletter I, 


Guiding Your Young Child Though School. Co-authored with Russell 
Robbins. Atlanta: Southeast Educators Services, Incorporates, 1979. 

Who Ever Said . . . an old lemon can 't have a new twist. Co-authored 
with Priscilla M. Wade. Atlanta: Southeast Educators Services, 
Incorporated, 1979, 

Woods, Walter a. 

"Implications of Adaptation-level, Arousal and Opponent-Process 
Theories for Marketing," in D.K. Howe and R.D. Tamilia (eds.) 
Developments in Marketing Science, Vol. I, 1978, p. 267. 

"Routine and Persistant Problems in Decision Making," with D.A. 
Osborne, in H.S. Gitlow and E.W. Wheatley, (eds.). Developments in 
Marketing Science, Vol. II, 1979, pp. 311-316. 



vi.. -^^ 



Volume XIII 

May, 1981 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 




Volume XIII May, 1981 




Culture as an Aspect of Style in Fantasy — William S. Doxey 1 

An Alternative Approach to Cost Variance 

Analysis — Frank M. Boozer 8 

Jeremiah Clemens: Unionist as Southerner — 

John M. Martin l^ 

The Social Destruction of Reality — Deborah Offenbbacher 

and Constance H. Poster 22 

Coins as an Investment Medium — Carole E. Scott .38 

The Poet as Existential Surgeon — Steven Tanner 45 

A Study of Composition Teaching Methods for High School 

Students — Patricia W. Stokes and Jimmy C. Stokes 50 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 56 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty as 

of January 1, 1981 84 

Copyright c 1981, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 

Published by 


Maurice K. Townsend, President 
John T. Lewis, III, Vice President and Dean of Faculties 

Learning Resources Committee 
Chairman. Timothy M. Chowns 

Charles Beard 
Herman Boyd 
Dexter Byrd 
Joseph Doldan 
Lynn Holmes 
Benjamin Kennedy 
Jerome Mock 

Earl Perry 
Elizabeth Phillips 
Constance Poster 
JoAnn Sanders 
Jane Smith 
Lloyd Southern 

Jimmy C. Stokes, Editor 
Martha A. Saunders, Associate Editor 
Mark J. LaFountain, Assistant Editor 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for faculty 
research and to make available results of such activity. The Review, 
published annually, accepts original scholarly work and creative writing. 
West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for contributors' views. 
The style guide is Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for Writers. Although the 
Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, 
other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major recitals 
and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted are not 
listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and appears in 
the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all master's theses 
and educational specialist's projects written at West Georgia College are 
included as they are awarded. 


by William S. Doxey* 

1 became interested in culture as an aspect of style in the course of my 
own writing both of and about science fiction and fantasy. It seemed to me 
that authors had to take culture into consideration as they created 
imaginary worlds and populated them with imaginary beings. My reason 
for this conclusion was based upon the observation that culture, as an 
aspect of style, served two useful purposes: it helped establish 
verisimilitude and it served to create conflict. 

These uses are of course evident in mainstream fiction, too. Take, for 
example, the work of Sir Walter Scott. In his historical romances, he chose 
a moment in history when two cultures were in conflict and the outcome 
was in doubt (for instance, Norman vs. Saxon in Ivanhoe). Scott used 
cultural details to establish life-like characters and scenes, and he also 
employed cultural beliefs to develop conflict. 

It seems to me that fantasy writers also make use of culture in these two 
ways (whether consciously or not), and that, furthermore, if we were more 
aware of culture as an aspect of style in fantasy, we might better 
understand it and, therefore, enjoy it even more than we do. Towards that 
end I will examine the stylistic uses of culture in three of the stories of Jorge 
Borges and in Tolkien's long story, "Farmer Giles of Ham." 

For the purpose of this discussion, 1 take culture to mean the customs, 
arts, languages, religions, sciences — and so on — of a life form in a given 
period. Style, that elusive term, I understand to be the writer's choice of 
material and the use he puts it to as he develops his work for an audience. 
Finally, fantasy means to me a freedom to operate unrestrained by the 
standards of accepted reality, whether they be the laws of science or those 
of society. 

While Borges gives evidence in many of his stories of a keen interest in 
culture, one story which depends for conflict upon the clash of two cultures 
is "The South." Dahlmann, the main character, exists as a librarian in the 
"real" world of Buenos Aires, but he seems to "live" in a romantic past of 
his own conception, which is focused upon his maternal grandfather, 
Francisco Flores, who long ago was killed by Indians. Dahlmann has 
managed to perserve a small ranch in the s South once owned by the Flores 
family; he aspires to live there one day. 

To this point, Borges' story exhibits nothing of the fantastic. But then an 
event occurs which the narrator introduces by saying, "Blind to all fault, 
destiny can be ruthless at one's slightest distraction."' Distracted while 

*l'rolessor ol English, West Georgia College 

'Jorge Borges, "The South," trans, by Anthony Kerrigan, in f;ffo/7« (New York; Grove Press, 1962,), 
p. 167; subsequent references in parentheses are to this source. 


reading a volume of that collection of fantastic tales, The Thousand and 
One Nights, as he climbs the stairs to his apartment, Dahlmann has a 
strange accident; "something brushed by his forehead: a bat^ a bird?" (p. 
168) But no, it is the edge of a door. He has sustained a serious injury which 
leads to feverish sleep broken by nightmares inspired by The Thousand 
and One Nights. Later, he is removed to a sanitarium, is x-rayer, and 
undergoes brain surgery, after which he almost dies from "septicemia and 
suffers terribly" (p. 168). We do not know how much time passes, but one 
day the surgeon tells him that soon he will "go to his ranch for 
convalescence" (p. 169). 

His departure from the world of Buenos Aires — from the culture of his 
"real" existence — is introduced by the narrator's cryptic statement that 
"Reality favors symmetries and slight anachronisms" (p. 1 69). He boards a 
train and reads from his Thousand and One Nights to pass the time, but 
soon "the joy of life distracted him" — another distraction — from the world 
of fantasy, and he "closed his book and allowed himself to live"(p. 170). At 
this point, the world of Buenos Aires and that of the traveller come 
together in his mind, and he views the passing sights "like dreams" because 
"his actual knowledge ... was quite inferior to his nostalgic and literary 
knowledge" (p. 170-171). He sleeps, or seems to, and his world appears to 
change, so that even the railroad car is not the same. 

At last Dahlmann leaves the train and goes to a country store to seek a 
ride to his ranch. Now he is operating in a culture different from that of 
Buenos Aires. Some "country louts" are drinking at a table, and an "old 
man" who "seemed outside of time" squatted on the floor (p. 172). As 
Dahlmann eats, one of the men tosses a "spit ball of breadcrumb" that 
brushed"hghtly against his face"(p. 173). Dahlmann opens The Thousand 
and One Nights "by way of suppressing reality" (p. 1 73). Another spit ball 
lands, and a confrontation occurs between Dahlmann and one of the 
drinkers, a man with "a Chinese look" who challenges him to a knife fight. 
When the owner of the store protests that Dahlmann is unarmed, the 
mysterious old man throws him "a naked dagger," and the narrator says, 
"it was as if the South had resolved that Dahlmann should accept the duel" 
(p. 1 74). Dahlmann feels that he will die and thinks, "They would not have 
allowed such things to happen to me in the sanitarium" (p. 175, italics 
Barges'). He prepares to fight "without hope" but also "without fear," for 
he felt that had he been allowed to choose his fate in the sanitarium, "or to 
dream his death, this would have been the death he would have chosen or 
dreamed" (p. 176). 

Borges uses culture stylistically in "The South" to establish a conflict in 
Dahlmann's mind, one that concerns his escape into a romantic 
conception of the past which becomes his present reality in the trip to the 
Flores ranch. The story is fantasy rather than mainstream, because in 
reality — so to speak — Dahlmann never leaves the sanitarium; his journey 

South to fulfillment occurs in his imagination. That this is indeed the case 
is indicated by Borges' nostalgic portrayal of cultural artifacts associated 
with the South: houses that "timelessly" watched the passing trains (p. 
170), "luminous clouds" (p. 170), the "transfigured" railroad car (p. 171). 
the old man, a gaucho of the type "that no longer existed outside the 
South" (p. 172), and, finally, the "Chinese look" of his adversary, an 
oriental description remindful of the features of those Indians that killed 
his ancestor so long ago in the same South (p. 173). 

A cultural conflict is also empitiyed by Borges in his humorous story, 
"Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote." Menard is said to have written 
a picaresque novel titled Don Quixote which is identical to the Don 
Quixote written by Cervantes in the seventeenth century, yet Menard's 
book is not a copy of Cervantes'. Rather, he — independently and with 
much labor — has brought forth Don Quixote as though for the first time. 
This apparent absurdity becomes fantastic when the narrator explains its 
significance in cultural terms: "To compose Don Quixote at the beginning 
of the seventeenth century was a reasonable, necessary and perhaps 
inevitable undertaking; at the beginning of the twentieth century it is 
almost impossible, "2 because the cultural milieu of Cervantes' book is past 
and that of Menard's is totally different. Therefore, when his lines are 
interpreted in view of this difference, they take on a new meaning and 
become, says the narrator, "almost infinitely richer. (More ambiguous, his 
detractors will say; but ambiguity is a richness)" (p. 52). 

As an example, the narrator cites the following passage from the Don 
Quixote of Cervantes: "... truth, whose mother is history, who is the rival of 
time, depository of deeds, witness of the past, example and lesson to the 
present, and warning to the future ..." and compares it to Menard's: "... 
truth, whose mother is history, who is the rival of time, depository of 
deeds, witness of the past, example and lesson to the present, and warning 
to the future" (p. 53). The narrator then declares, "History, mother of 
truth; the idea is astounding. Menard, a contemporary of William James, 
does not define history as an investigation of reality, but as its origin; it is 
what we think took place" (p. 53). 

The narrator also examines the styles of the two authors from a cultural 
viewpoint and finds that "the archaic style of Menard — in the last analysis 
a foreigner — suffers from a certain affectation. Not so that of his 
precursor, who handles easily the Spanish of his time" (p. 53). 

The conclusion of the story is best understood if the idea of cultural 
contrast is in one's mind as he reads, "This technique would fill the dullest 
books with adventure. Would not the attributing of The Imitation of 

-Jorge Borges, "Pierre Menard. Author of Don Quixote," trans, by Anthony Kerrigan, in Ficciones 
(New York; Grove Press, 1962), p. 51; subsequent references in parentheses are to this source. 

Christ to Louis Ferdinand Celine or James Joyce be a sufficient renovation 
of its tenuous spiritual counsels?" (p. 55) 

The creation of an imaginary culture, rather than of a world or of a 
people, is at the center of "The Babylonian Lottery." Having left Babylon, 
the narrator is able to apprehend the strangeness of the culture of Babylon 
because, now removed from it, he realizes by contrast that it is strikingly 
different from the culture of the land in which he finds himself. He clearly 
sees that "the lottery froms a principal part of the reality" of the cuUure of 

The story progresses through a history of the lottery — a cultural artifact 
which soon dominates the culture. It began when "barbers gave 
rectangular bits of bone ... in exchange for copper coins," and the 
"drawing" was held at noon; the winners "received ... silver minted coins" 
(p. 66). Lotteries of this sort did not succeed, however, for "they did not 
appeal to all faculties of men: only to their hope" (p. 66). As the lottery 
changed and grew in complexity, the group running it became known as 
"The Company" and attained an "all powerful position" replete with 
"ecclesiastical, metaphysical strength"(p. 66). The prizes of the lottery now 
influenced thinking to such an extent that when, for example, "a slave stole 
a crimson ticket ... which carried the right to have his tongue burned in the 
next drawing ... the criminal code fixed the same penalty for the theft of a 
ticket" (p. 67). 

Eventually, the people of Babylon force The Company to become 
omnipotent. A system is establish whereby lots are drawn at intervals of 
seventy nights that determine "every man's fate" until the next drawing(p. 
68). To assure that "prizes" might not be thought to come purely by 
"chance" — though the implication is that such was the case — The 
Company let it be known that it operated through "spies" and 
"astrologers" (p. 68). This revelation — whether true or false — led to a 
"juridico-mathematical" "conjecture" that "if the lottery is an 
intensification of chance, a periodic infusion of chaos into the cosmos, 
would it not be desirable for chance to intervene at all stages of the lottery 
and not merely in the drawing?" (p. 69) 

Finally, the "customs" of Babylon have "become so thoroughly 
impregnated with chance," due to the power of The Company, whose 
agents are all secret, and whose existence is now denied, that scribes make 
intentional errors, books are purposely printed with variants in each copy, 
and "a buyer of a dozen amphora of Damascus wine will not be surprised if 
one of them contains a talisman or a viper" (p. 71). The end result of the 
lottery, says the narrator, is that "it is indifferently inconsequential to 

^Jorge Borges, "The Babylonian Lottery," trans, by Anthony Bonner, in Ficciones (New York: Grove 
Press, 1962), p. 65; subsequent references in parentheses are to this source. 

affirm or deny the reality of the shadowy corporation, because Babylon is 
nothing but an infinite game of chance" (p. 72). 

By means of this carefully constructed culture based upon a "game of 
chance," Borges causes the perceptive reader to contrast his own cultural 
view with that of the Babylonians. In fact, he brings off a rather neat 
fantastic satire directed at all cultures based upon the smug religious or 
philosophical assumption that for every effect there is a cause; the lottery is 
fate, whether it be understood as the Will of Allah, the Providence of 
Jehovah, or, paradoxically, Randomness personified. The reader is also 
compelled to stand in the same relationship to his culture as the 
Babylonian removed from Babylon stands in respect to his — at such a 
distance, so to speak, that the total landscape is seen. A cultural shock is 
experienced which causes one momentarily to reconsider his basic 

Tolkien's use of culture in "Farmer Giles of Ham" is not easily seen 
because it is so basic to the telling of the story.'* The tale concerns the 
replacement of an historically dominant culture — represented by the 
King — by a culture — represented by Farmer Giles — that has long been 
subservient to it. The quest for the dragon is the mechanism which makes 
this replacement possible and, in fact, desirable, for through his bravery 
the farmer proves he is fit to be responsible for those gathered round him. 

The story begins when a giant wanders into the neighborhood and 
begins doing damage. Although his neighbors seem incapable of action, 
Giles lets fly with his anachronistic blunderbuss. Deaf and weaksighted, 
the giant thinks that the bullets are stinging flies and high-tails if for the 
hills. When the king learns of Giles' exploits he sends him as a reward a 
sword named Tailbiter, famed as a dragon killer, and so made that it comes 
halfway out of its scabbard when there's a dragon in the vicinity. Of course, 
the kmg no longer believes in worms; in fact, his traditional Christman Eve 
dish of the tail of one of the beasts is now made of "cake and almond-paste" 
(p. 23). 

All goes well until the giant tells some dragons of his adventure in that 
land of plenty whose perfection was spoiled only by stinging flies. Since he 
says nothing of knights, some of the younger worms think that they are 
"mythological," as they always supposed, while the older dragons think, 
"At least they may be getting rare ... far and few and no longer to be feared" 
(p. 25). A dragon named Chrysophylax Dives, "of an ancient and imperial 
lineage, and very rich," who, though "not over bold," was "mortally 
hungry," decides to try his luck in the territory of Ham (p. 25). 

"J. R. R.Tolkien, "Farmer Giles of Ham," in The Tolkein Reader {New York: Ballantine Books, 1966); 
subsequent references in parentheses are to this source, 
ces in parentheses are to this source. 

Chrysophylax has things his way for a time. The king is asked to send his 
knights, but since it is the end of the year and they have many banquets to 
attend and tourneys to manage they cannot get away. The situation 
becomes so desperate that at last Giles allows his neighbors to convince 
him that he, armed with Tailbiter, must face the dragon. When they meet, 
Chrysophylax thinks to make short work of the farmer — until he 
recognizes the magic sword. He tries to excape, but Giles runs him down 
and brings him to the village, where the good people would have killed 
him, had not the dragon beguiled them with promise of great reward if only 
they would set him free. Their greed aroused, they do just this, after 
making him swear a great oath on his honor to return within a few days 
with his treasure. 

Of course. Chrysophylax has no intention of doing this. Meanwhile, the 
King hears of what has happened and, since his treasury is almost depleted, 
comes with his knights and claims all the dragon ransom for himself. As 
the days pass. King and people slowly realize the dragon has played them 
for fools. At last the king commands Giles to lead an expedition to make 
the dragon pay up or else. Accompanied by knights who prove in their 
aimless discussions of precedence their cultural remove from the reality of 
knighthood, Giles come upon Chrysophylax and singlehandedly forces 
him to make good on his promise and to transport the treasure on his scaly 
back. In the meanwhile, the King believes that the knights have all been 
killed, so he returns to his city; when hehearsof Giles'conquest, he sends a 
note demanding that the treasure be handed over to him. Giles ignores this 
message and those that follow. The King at last gathers what knights he 
can find and marches to Ham to get what he feels is rightfully his. 

During the intervening time, Chrysophylax has come to respect Giles. 
He stays in the vicinity and his domination by the farmer is much admired 
by the natives. Giles goes alone to confront the king. They meet on a bridge 
and Giles informs his majesty that he has no intention of giving him any of 
the treasurer. "Finding's keeping, and keeping's having," he says (p. 71). 
And when the King, losing his royal composure, cries out,"'Give me my 
sword!' ... forgetting his plural," Giles says, "'Give us your crown!' ... a 
staggering remark, such as had never before been heard in all the days of 
the Middle Kingdom"(p. 71 ). The King would attack, but the dragon, who 
has been in the river under the bridge, rises up and scares all but the King 
away. The King now offers to fight Giles in single combat, but the farmer 
declines, saying he has no desire to harm him. Now powerless, the King 
returns to his distant castle and Giles becomes the acknowledged ruler of 
the territory. 

Political revitalization seems to be the subject of this fantastic story. The 

ulture represented by the King has ossified over the years and when put to 

♦est is found to be ineffectual. Giles represents a new man, one who by 

"e of his having been formed by a culture based upon facing anH 

solving the day to day problems of life, is capable of restablishing a rule 
that is at once firm yet fair, one that is enthusiastically received by its 
subjects. Thus a new culture replaces the old, though the trappings of the 
old remain. 

A reader's understanding of a fantasy writer's stylistic use of culture to 
create verisimilitude and develop plot should enable him to appreciate 
more the subject that is being dealt with. By this 1 do not mean that that 
certain mystification of fantasy, which is so pleasing, will be removed, but 
rather that our pleasure will be increased by an aesthetic awareness. Such 
has been the case for me in regards to the work of Borges and Tolkien. 


by Frank M. Boozer* 

Many students in the undergraduate cost accounting course have an 
unnecessary amount of difficulty in solving standard cost problems 
involving variance analysis, especially CPA and CMA exam level 
problems where incomplete information is presented. Conceptually and 
computationally, variance analysis is not difficult but can become 
complicated because of voluminous but incomplete data, relevant item 
identification and algebraic manipulation requirements. The students who 
have difficulties in computing variances concentrate on improving 
computational deficiencies and frequently compound the learning 
problem by failing to gain an understanding of critical underlying 
concepts, journal entry requirements and related theory. 

After struggling with numerous cost students through this area of 
standard cost, I developed an analytical framework which has proven ideal 
for solving the traditional four variance standard cost problem, which is a 
favorite of professional exam writers. The model presented in this paper 
has been developed for analyzing variable cost elements only and therefore 
fixed cost and related variances will not be formally discussed. Student 
response to the model had been very good, for it provides a simple 
framework that the student can easily understand and use as a basic 
reference point for extensions of cost variance analysis. 

Essentially the model is a tabular grid with horizontal and vertical 
headings. The headings are arranged in a particular format, and the known 
data are placed in the grid with each item having a unique position. 
Depending on what information is known, a particular combination of 
computations can be made to supply the missing data quickly. In 
illustrating the model, it is desirable to begin with a situation containing 
complete information. This illustration will be carried out through an 
analysis and discussion of direct labor with some general comments 
concerning direct material and variable overhead. 

Direct Labor: Analysis and Discussion 

Information given: 

Standard Direct Labor Rate $5.00 

Actual Direct Labor Rate $5.10 

Direct Labor Hours Allowed 6500 hours 

Direct Labor Hours Incurred 6100 hours 

Required: Compute direct labor price and quantity variances and 
prepare the journal entry. 

Basic Framework: 









5.00 -.*.,^ 

.^"'^''^ 6500 



■>> - 400 






The product of price and quantity is the actual and standard 
amounts respectively. 

The arrows indicate multiplication with the products expressed 
at the foot of the columns. 

Journal Entry: 

Work-In-Process 32,500 
DLPV 610 

DLQV 2,000 

Wages Payable 31,110 

At this point it is desirable to examine the model more closely, compare 
it to the traditional equation approach, and discuss some pedagogical 

1. Obviously the difference in the price of labor has been the actual DL 
hours to compute the DL price variance. The difference in DL hours 
has been multiplied by the standard price to compute the DL quantit}' 
variance. This is nothing more than the equation approach with the 
components arranged in a different form. It is certainly important to 
demonstrate and emphasize this relationship to the students. 

Traditional Equations: 

2. By multiplying AP x AQ, we have computed the actual amount spent 
on Direct Labor. By multiplying SP x SQ, we have computed the 
amount that should have been spent on Direct Labor given the 
standards and the level of output. It is important that students realize 
that the information required for the journal entry is genreated within 
the model. However, if journal entries are not required, the above 
computations may not be necessary. 

3. Students seem comfortable with the fact that the model is self-checking. 
The difference in the actual amount spent and the standard amount 
($1390) is equal to the sum of the variances ($1390). This not only 
provides a mathematical check when the complete model is used but 
visually emphasizes the fact that the variances are the differences 
between actual and standard. 

4. Students have little trouble in identifying variances as favorable or 
unfavorable becaus of the common sense notion that actual cost greater 
than standard is "not good" and vice versa; as a result signs can be 
ignored. However, if algebraic signs are used in the model, favorable 
variances will carry a negative sign and are journalized as credits. 
U nfavorable variances are positive and are debits. This information can 
be clearly conveyed through the model. The use of signs is optional. 

5. Students quickly observe that the multiplication sequence is not 
symmetrical (the change in price is multiplied by the AQ whereas the 
change in quantity is multiplied by SP). This is an excellent lead into the 
introduction of the joint variance and a discussion as to why the 
quantity variance is usually kept pure and the joint variance is assigned 
to the price variance. 

Direct Material 

Most standard cost problems require that the direct labor price variance 
be computed at the time of purchase as opposed to the time of usage. The 
model as described produces the price variance based on usage; however, 
the model can be altered to produce either variance and certainly high- 
lights the difference. 

Variable Overhead 

In analyzing variable overhead, it must be noted that the cost variances 
computed under "P" and "Q" are spending and efficiency variances, not 
price and quantity variances. This is a good time to emphasize to the 
students why this is so and to emphasize the significance of these variances. 

The real strength of the model lies in the fact that it provides a vehicle 
which can be used to solve cost variance problems rapidly where incom- 
plete data are presented. Mathematical manipulations that can be obscure 
to students using the simultaneous equation approach become clear. This 
analysis is illustrated with the following set of partial data. 

Information Given (Direct Labor, Direct \laterial, and Variable 
Overhead cost data): 

Standard DL Rate per Hour $3.50 

Standard VO/H Rate $1.75 per DLH 

Actual VO/H $102,000 

Standard DL Cost $220,500 

Actual DL Hours 60,000 

DL Price Variance $4,000 U 

Standard Price Per Pound $6.10 

Actual Price Per Pound $6.12 

Actual Cost of Material Purchased and Used $122,400 

375 Pounds of Material Were issued in Excess of Production Standards 


Solution (After the initial learning period, the components of the model 
can be abbreviated so as to shorten the solution time.): 










3.50 ^^ 

'"''"^ 63,000 




■ -^ 3,000 









, 20,000 




■"■"^"^ 19,625 



.02 P=^ 

^ +375 
















--•' ^63,000 



.05 k^^"'^ 

> 3,000 






The utilization of the model discussed in this paper has proven to be 
effective as a classroom instructional vehicle. More importantly, however, 
the approach provides a powerful solution oriented framework for quickly 
solving complex cost variance analysis problems, and is especially effective 
when incomplete data are given. Cost accounting instructors will find it 
useful to consider the model presented in this paper. 


by John M. Martin* 

In his book, Mississippi: the Closed Society, James W. Silver noted that 
there were parallels between the I850's and the 1950's. Because orthodox 
views concerning state rights and race were so strongly held in the South, 
he said, the "voice of reason" was stilled, and moderates who favored less 
extreme positions either had to go along or be eliminated.' The career of 
Jeremiah Clemens in the 1850's demonstrates the correctness of Silver's 
viewpoint. As a supporter of the Compromise of 1850 and a critic of those 
who favored resistance to it, he was driven from political life and 
ostracized by the ruling element in Alabama. 

Clemens, a cousin of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, was elected to the 
United States Senate in November, 1849, just in time to participate in 
debates over the issues that were settled by the Compromise of 1850.^ In 
the early weeks of debate, he took an advanced position in defense of 
southern rights and was hailed by the southern rights group as one of their 
own. 3 Later, however, when it appeared that a reasonable compromise 
could be arranged, he moved to a moderate position and supported the 
exchange of Texas territory for $10,000,000 and creation of Utah and New 
Mexico as territories without any guarantees for slavery." 

In the meantime, opinion in Alabama had become polarized. Some, like 
Clemens, favored a reasonable compromise. Another vocal group, 
however, partly taking its cue from Robert Barnwell Rhett, a South 
Carolina extremist, insisted that Alabamians take an uncompromising 
stand. Reaction by this element to Clemens' position on the compromise 
measures was immediate. A Montgomery group quickly drew up 
resolutions denouncing the exchange of Texas territory for money and 
demanding that the 36°30' line be extended to the Pacific as a means of 
settling the question of slavery in the territories. ^ The Montgomery 
Advertiser & State Gazette immediately charged that Clemens had voted 
for the "buying of slave territory to make it free" because an abolition 
president had drawn the sword, and it hinted that Texas bonds had 
motivated Clemens. The paper suggested, further, that Clemens had been 
misled if he thought Utah and New Mexico would ever become slave 
states.^ In public statements. Clemens vigorously denied that the 

•Professor of History, West Georgia College 
iJames W. Silver, Mississippi: The Closed SocielyOiev. York: Harcourt. Brace, and World. 1966), 5-6 
^Eufaula Democrat, December 4. 1849. 
'Mobile Herald and Tribune, March 14. 1850. 
^Montgomery Advertiser & Slaie Gazelle, September 4, 1850. 
'Montgomery Advertiser & Stale Gazelle. September 1 1, 1850. 
'Montgomery Advertiser & Slate Gazelle. August 21. 1850. 


Montgomery resolutions represented the views of more than one-tenth of 
the people of Alabama and insisted that the Texas settlement was sound.'' 
The Advertiser & State Gazette, nevertheless, refused to accept his 
explanation and declared that it would be "miscreant" in its duty as a 
member of a free press if it failed to condemn an action fraught with "such 
mischief" for the country. It charged also that Clemens had insulted the 
members of the Montgomery group by raising questions about the validity 
of their resolutions. They had not meant for the resolutions to reflect 
public opinion, only their own views. ^ Criticisms by the Advertiser & State 
Gazette were echoed in the Montgomery Atlas, the Franklin Democrat 
and the Huntsville Democrat. In language familiar to hunters, the 
Florence Gazette noted in September that the "Disunionists, Tray, 
Blanche, Sweetheart, little dogs and all" were after Clemens.^ 

In a letter dated September 16, Clemens explained his actions in the 
recent Congress and defended his views concerning the Montgomery 
resolutions. He complained that words such as "submissionist, ""coward," 
and "traitor" came too easily to the lips of his opponents and pleaded for 
more tolerance, more kindness, and more forbearance."' A sympathetic 
editor, in agreement with Clemens, suggested that fire-eaters were 
"attacking as submissionists" any who had taken "a common-sense 
position and saved the country from anarchy, civil war, bloodshed and 
fraternal strife." Such men, said the editor, could have earned praise and 
flattery if they had repudiated the Compromise." 

After remaining silent for several weeks, Clemens made a speech on 
November 4, 1850, defending his own actions, supporting the 
Compromise, and denouncing what he called disunion schemes. In 
response, the Huntsville Democrat charged that he had made an "eloquent 
submission speech," that he had glorified an "oppressive union," and that 
he had denounced loyal southern supporters as "agitators and 
disunionists." Although the speech had been seductive, it had been full of 
"errors and incnsistencies." It had been "crude, raw, and indigestible"; 
even the submissionists had made a face when they swallowed it.'^ Making 
similar charges, other southern rights newspapers found fault with 
Clemens'-^ Somewhat stoically, Clemens wrote a friend at the time that he 

"'Washington Daily Union. September 4, 1850. 

"Montgomery Advertiser & Siaie Gazette. September 4, 1 1, 1850. 

•'September 25, 1850 
"'Tuskegee Macon Republican. October 10. 1850. 
"Tuskegee, Macon Republican. October 3. 1850. 
i-'November 7, 21. 28. 1850. 
I'Mobile Daily Advertiser. January 14, 1851 


had expected to be "unsparingly assailed and denounced in certain parts of 
the state" because of his actions in Congress and his recent defense of 
Compromise. In this expectation, he concluded, he had not been 

During the short 1850-51 session of Congress, Clemens spoke out in 
favor of Compromise and incidentally commended President Millard 
Fillmore for his support of southern interests, particularly as related to 
enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law. Commenting on the speech, the 
Huntsville Democrat suggested that Fillmore had made only empty 
promises and that Clemens was catering to the Whig Party. It also attacked 
him for signing a pledge not to support candidates for office unless they 
agreed to support the Compromise. The friendly Huntsville Southern 
Advocate chided the Democrat for its "malignant enmity" toward 
Clemens and speculated that the editors wanted to see him defeated in the 
coming senate election. '^ 

Meanwhile, a new aUgnment of political parties had taken place in 
Alabama resulting in a Southern Rights Party and a Union Party. 
Concerned about re-election and about dangers of the "disunion" 
movement, Clemens made a speaking tour of Alabama on behalf of the 
Unionist cause during the summer of 1851. Following his speech at 
Tuscumbia, in which he supported the Compromise and warned against 
those who called secession a "right," an observer called the speech a 
"complete failure" and attacked him for defending a northern point of view 
and casting odium on supporters of real southern interests. The Huntsville 
Democrat questioned whether Clemens had any "hngering attachment" to 
state rights and charged that the "recreant" senator was trying to take 
Alabama over to the Whigs.'* Following a Clemens speech at Talladega, 
an observer alleged that he was trying to convince the people of Alabama 
to accept a blind adoration of the word "union." He had harangued the 
Talladega audience for two hours with a speech made up of "submission, 
sophism, poetry, and some little candor."'"' Commenting about his speech 
in Montgomery, the Montgomery Atlas called it an excellent "free soil 
speech," more harmful to southern interests than thousands of speeches 
made by free soilers. It included, said the /l//a5, a summary of all the "little 
contemptible paragraphs" from the submission presses for the past six 
months and was "especially abusive of South Carolina and the Southern 
Rights cause." Overall, it was "trash, trash, trash."'* The Advertiser & 

'^Montgomery Tri-Weekly Journal, December 23, 1850. 
"Huntsville Democrat, March 20, April 3, 1850. 
"Huntsville Democrat. June 26, 1851. 
''Huntsville Democrat. August 7, 1851. 
'•Huntsville Democrat. July 31, 1851. 


State Gazette charged that Clemens was "fully in the consolidationist 
harness" and that acceptance of his views would threaten southern 
property and the safety of southern firesides.'^ Subsequently, when 
Clemens made a speech in Huntsville in which he denounced those who 
were agitating against the Compromise settlement, the Democrat called 
him the "prime mover" of agitation and said that he was guilty of "special 
pleading, evasion, and the presentation of false issues. "-^ 

Despite the harsh criticism of Clemens and the Unionist movement, the 
Unionists won a majority in the Alabama General Assembly in the August, 
1851, election, thus giving Clemens reason to believe that he would be 
reelected to the Senate in November. The opposition press, however, 
redoubled its attack in an attempt to defeat him. One newspaper noted a 
"vile stream of detraction" following the Unionist victory. Another 
pointed out that the partisan press was attacking Clemens with unusual 
"bitterness and rankness of malignancy and hatred." Clemens complained 
in September that Southern Rights supporters were treating him as a 
"personal enemy" rather than as a "political opponent." A "wretched 
minority," he complained, assumed to have a monopoly on "all the talents 
and decency in the state." Within this disunionist movement, however, 
there existed an element of "envy, malice, meanness, and cowardice which 
would damn any cause and drag down any party. "2' In a public letter dated 
October 10, Clemens alleged that attacks on him had resulted from his 
refusal to "take a seat at the council board of Disunion, "not because of his 
support for a Whig President. After his refusal to join the Southern Rights 
cause in 1850, this group had subjected him to "invective, abuse, and 
systematical misrepresentation" without parallel in Alabama history. ^^ 
The Montgomery Daily Journal agreed that Clemens was under attack 
because he had refused "to break up and resist the Compromise acts even 
to secession" and had fought to save the Union. The rabid attack of the 
secessionists, it predicted, could lead to Clemens' defeat for the Senate. In 
similar language, the Talladega Republican said that Clemens was 
suffering abuse because he had taken the side of his country and used his 
influence "with telling effect upon the minions of disunion." True to 
predictions. Southern Rights supporters were able to bring about 
postponement of the senate election until 1853 and insure Clemens' 
eventual defeat. Meanwhile, the Southern Rights group had secured the 

I'.luly 16. 1851. 

2»Huntsville Democrat, July 31, 1851. 

2'Huntsville Southern Advocate. September 27. 1851; Huntsville Democrat, October 2, 1851; 
Montgomery Weekly Journal. October 31, 1851. 

22Huntsville Democrat. October 23, 1851; Montgomery Advertiser and State Gazette, November 4, 


support of a number of former U nionists and reorganized the Democratic 

Commenting about these developments in a public letter, Clemens 
argued that the party had been reorganized under "secession auspices"and 
that it was largely controlled by that group. In its statement of purposes, 
moreover, the new party had ignored Andrew Jackson and had repudiated 
his views. 2" The Democratic press attacked Clemens for reopening old 
wounds and increasing division in the party. The Montgomery Advertiser 
& State Gazette, for example, called him a shipwrecked Democrat, part of 
a group of "prostitutes, renegades, and traitors. "^5 His defenders, on the 
other hand, maintained that Clemens was under attack because of his 
effort "to keep out of the democratic creed the disunion projects of the 
Nashville Convention. "^^ 

In the meantime, Clemens became involved in a running verbal battle 
with Robert Barnwell Rhett, overall leader of the Southern Rights faction 
and recently elected senator from South Carolina. During debate over a 
senate resolution approving the compromise measures as a definitive 
settlement of the issues involved, Rhett spoke approvingly of such terms as 
"disunion" and "secession." Later, Clemens criticized Rhett's speech in 
language that was deliberately provocative, perhaps with the intent of 
goading Rhett into a duel.-^ 

Instead, Rhett spent about two months consulting Clemens' enemies in 
Alabama and preparing for a major assault on him. After issuing a special 
invitation to the press to hear him, Rhett delivered an emotional speech in 
which he charged that Clemens was a submissionist who had painted the 
Compromise as a source of great blessings, called resisters traitors, and 
sullied the honor of the South. Clemens, he said, had gone over to 
submission "utter and entire" and had denounced others who did not bow 
to "an ignominious surrender." Although Clemens answered with another 
provocative speech, Rhett chose not to seek a duel because of his religious 
views. 28 Writing in support of Clemens, the New York Commercial 
Register noted that secessionists had made a target of him because he had 
led the Unionist movement in Alabama. Clemens, said the Register, 
represented southern feeling but with a national spirit; he was neither a 

-'Montgomery Daily Journal. November 17,22, 1851; H\inls\\\\e Southern Advocate, Ocloberll, 1851 
Huntsville Democrat. August 8, 1851. 
^''Washington Daily Union. January 31, February 3, 1852. 
^'February 10, 1852. 

^''Mobile Daily Advertiser. February 12, 1851. 
2'Huntsville Southern Advocate, January 21, 1852. 
-"Montgomery Daily Journal. March 5, 1852; Huntsville Southern Advocate. March 17, 1852. 


sectionalist not a factionist. The New York Advertiser agreed that Clemens 
had "as much Southern feehng as any man in the South" but noted that this 
feehng was "tempered with a patriotic and national spirit and a love of 
peace." In Alabama, the Grove Hill Herald criticized the secessionists for 
their attempt to ruin Clemens' "political reputation," "blast his private 
character," and render him an "object of loathing and contempt," and the 
Marshall Eagle charged that "Secession Jacobites" were trying to bring 
about Clemens' "political ostracism. "^^ 

Although the newspaper attacks subsided during the latter part of 1852 
and throughout 1853, Clemens' career was already ruined. Prior to the 
senatorial election in 1853, a critic wrote that he was unhorsed 
everywhere." This judgment proved true, for Clemens received only six 
votes in the contest for the senate seat in the General Assembly. ^o 

Following his defeat, Clemens never again held an elective office. On 
one occasion, he ran for a seat in the state legislature but failed to secure 
election. During the next seven years, he wrote three novels and edited a 
newspaper. He wrote in 1860 that for ten years he had been widely 
denounced throughout the southern states as a "Submissionist,"a regular 
"Union-Saver." As a union man, he said, he had battled for its preservation 
and had encountered "obloquy, reproach and the alienation of friends in 
its defense."^' 

Clemens emerged again in a significant political role when he 
campaigned in 1860 in support of John Bell and Edward Everett. As 
before, he tried to steer between the extremism of the Southern Rights 
group and the position taken by the national Democratic Party. Following 
Abraham Lincoln's victory, he opposed any "rash and desperate 
experiment" by Alabama that would stampede other states into secession 
and sought the calling of a convention of all southern states to consider 
alternatives. "The Union men of Alabama," he wrote a fjiend in 
November, "have a difficult and dangerous part to play... Our hands are in 
the lion's mouth, and we must get them out as easily as may be." 
Considering the existing state of emotions, he feared that "moderate 
counsels" would go unheeded. ^^ He wrote another friend, "We have before 

-"Huntsville Southern Advocate. March 24, April 21, 1852. 

"Mohn Braggto Boiling Hall. Septembers. I85.t, Boiling Hall Papers, Alabama Department of Archive: 
and History: Montgomery; Huntsville Democral. Decembers. 1853, 

"Clemens to W. B. Wood, November 26, 1860, Huntsville Southern Advocate, December 5, I860. 
■'-Clemens to J. J. Crittenden, November 24. 1860. Crittenden Papers, Library of Congress. 


us the double duty of preserving the Union, and of obtaining redress for 
grievances which undeniably exist, and security against other agressions 
we cannot fail to see are impending." Alabama, he said, must follow a 
"determined spirit of resistance," not one of "unconditional submission." 
Issues dividing the sections, he asserted, must be settled. ^^ 

Elected to the Alabama secessionist convention, Clemens led a minority 
group which supported an unsuccessful effort for the calling of a southern 
convention instead of immediate secession and for submission of the 
secession ordinance to the people of Alabama. After both efforts failed, he 
voted reluctantly for the Ordinance of Secession, explaining, correctly, 
that he had earlier promised to go along with the state. ^•^ Later, while 
others celebrated adoption of the Ordinance, he took no part and 
disconsolately wrote a friend about his feelings of sorrow when he saw the 
"old banner" of the Union coming down.-'^ Nevertheless, he advised his 
friends that they should do nothing to "divide the people" of the state. 
Unfortunately, he said, failure of the North to offer concessions had left as 
alternatives "Submission without terms, or death by the halter. "^^ 

In March, Clemens was appointed Major-general of Alabama forces, a 
position he had earned because of earlier service in Texas and Mexico. 
With the outbreak of war, however, Alabama forces were mostly 
transferred to the Confederacy, and he was left with an empty honor. He 
was snubbed by Jefferson Davis and Leroy Pope Walker, Confederate 
Secretary of War. When he resigned his Alabama commission, they chose 
not to offer him a Confederate commission, either for personal reasons or 
his ill health." 

Incensed by this treatment, the increased demands of the Confederate 
government, and harassment and indignities suffered by Unionists, 
Clemens began to have second thoughts about his loyalties in 1862. When 
the Tennessee Valley was occupied by Union forces in the spring of that 
year, he made no effort to escape and made overtures to the Union 
commander to "learn unofficially in what way the existing controversy 
might be ended." He sought also to present the cause of southern Unionists 
m Washington but was denied permission on the grounds that he and other 
Unionists could do more good for the United States if they remained in the 

"Clemens to Wood, November 26. I860. Huntsville Southern Advocate. December 5. I860. 

"■•William Russell Smith, The History and Debates of the Convention of the People of Alabama 
(Spartanburg: Reprint Company, 1975). 28-29. 77-80, I 16-1 17. 

"Clemens to G , January 1 1, 1861, Southern Advocate. January 16, 1861. 

"■Clemens to Blanton Duncan, n.d., Montgomery Weekly Mail. February 13, 1861. 

"Montgomery Weekly Mad. January 18, March 15, 1861; Montgomery Daily Advertiser. March 20, 
1861; Horace Greely, The American Conflict: a History of the Great Rebellion in the United States of 
America (Hartford: Case and Company, 1865), I, 632; Montgomery Weekly Advertiser. April 13, 1864. 


South. ^^ His return to Unionism subjected Clemens to public and physical 
abuse. Noting that he had "gone over to the enemy," one Alabama 
newspaper commented that nothing else could have been expected, 
considering "his antecedents."^^ When Clemens was accused of suggesting 
the incarceration of several ex-Confederates, another paper reported, an 
opponent of "Yankeeing Southerners" beat him and left his face 
"frightfully disfigured."'"' Still another paper charged that Clemens had 
sounded the "depths of turpitude" and reported that he had been beaten 
"within an inch of his life" by a Confederate sympathizer.'*' 

While Federal forces occupied the Huntsville area, Clemens worked 
with Union officers, entertained them in his home, and advised them about 
policies. For such activities, he and other Unionists suffered when not 
under direct protection of Federal forces. In his novel, Tobias Wilson, 
which was based on his experiences, Clemens wrote that no union man's 
property was safe two miles from an inhabited town, for Confederate 
raiders were "thieves and murderers of the most inexcusable kind." He 
had, he wrote, been threatened and had lost 35 mules, 4 horses, all his hogs, 
sheep and cattle, and large quantities of corn and provisions.'*- 

Because of Lincoln's generous offer of reconstruction in 1863 and 
Alabamians' disillusionment with the Richmond government, restoration 
to the Union seemed possible by early 1864. On March 5, Clemens presided 
over a meeting in Huntsville called to demonstrate sentiment in favor of 
reunion. When the meeting was not well attended, a second one was held 
on March 13. One of the principal speakers, Clemens noted that the 
purpose of the meeting was to encourage the Governor to take steps to 
bring about repeal of the Ordinance of Secession. If he did not respond 
favorably, the people could assemble and act for themselves. Alabama, he 
said, had been taken out of the Union by falsehood, fraud, and crime. The 
people had been promised sound money and protection for slaves, state 
rights and personal liberty, but they had received none of these. 
Conscription laws forced men with ten starving children to serve but 
permitted those with twenty slaves to escape army service. "Thank God," 
he declared, the Confederacy would not succeed. ''^ 

^''The H ar of the Rebellion: a Compilalion ufihe Ofjuial Records ollhe inion and Confederate Armies 
(Washington: (iovernmeni Printing Office, 1883). Scries 1. Vol. X. Pt.2.0. M. Mitchell to E. M.Stanton, 
May 6. 1862, 167; Mitchell to Stanton. May 8, 1862. 174; P. H. Watson to Mitchell, May 8, 1862, 174-175. 
Hereinafter cited as Olfuial Records. 

^•'Selma Reporter. June 27, 1862. 

"^Clarke County Democrat. October M. 1862. 

"Mobile Advertiser and Register. May 24. October 25, 1862. 

^-Montgomery iVeekly Advertiser. April 13, 1864; .Icreniiah Clemens. Tobias Wilson, a Tale of the 
Great /^fiSW/iVw (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1865), 303-304. 

''Philadelphia Inquirer. March 24, 26, 1864. 


Alabama newspapers questioned Clemens' views, his motives, and his 
character. One newspaper said that he had gove over "body and breeches" 
to the Yankees, that he had probably been iinhis"full normal condition of 
inebrity" when he delivered the Huntsville speech.'*'* Another charged that 
his senses had long since been blunted by "bad whiskey and low company. " 
Perhaps, it suggested, Clemens was trying to get from Lincoln that 
attention which Davis had denied him. Nobody was surprised by any 
statements made by this "debauched and profligate politician," who had 
been put forward to vilify his own people and start the process of reunion. 
Clemens, said the paper, probably expected to be chosen reconstruction 
governor by Lincoln. ''^ Summing up the feeling of many, a Confederate 
commander in the field called Clemens "that Arch Traitor.""^ 

Later in 1864, Clemens left Alabama and went to Philadelphia. 
Although he probably went there to secure treatment for his failing 
eyesight and to supervise publication of Tobias Wilson, an Alabama editor 
suggested that his change of residence was "no doubt owing to a conviction 
on his part" that affairs in Alabama were such as to make his presence in 
the state "rather uncomfortable."'*^ 

In September, Clemens wrote from Philadelphia that Southerners had 
allowed themselves to be deceived by "selfish demagogues and 
unprincipled political leaders." They had been "long enough hugging a 
despotism to their bosoms and calling it independence." Their property 
had been "seized by the confederate government"; their fields had been 
"laid waste by a reckless soldiery," and their children had been "dragged 
from their firesides and sacrificed in the hectacombs to the God of War." 
Still, they had not protested because one murmur was sufficient to "excite 
a suspicion of their patriotism" and bring with it "robbery, extortion, 
insult and injury in every form."'** 

In October, Clemens wrote a letter to a friend in Alabama which was 
later published in bound form. Confederate leaders, he said, had led 
Southerners "from the surrender of one right to another — from 
independence, prosperity, and happiness, to misery, humiliation, and 
slavery." They had promised that the rights of states would be 
"scrupulously regarded," individual liberty protected, and freedom of 
speech and press guaranteed. Instead, they had trampled the rights of 

"''Clarke County Journal, April 21, 1864. 

"'Montgomery Weekly Advertiser, April 27. May 4, 1864. 

^''Official Records, Series I, Vol. XXXll, Pt. 3, James H. Clanton to T. H. Watts, April 5, 1864, 750. 

"'^Clarke County Journal, July 14, 1864. 

"'Philadelphia Daily Evening Bulletin, September 13, 1864. 


states underfoot and had seized property and persons without regard to 
law. If Jefferson Davis wanted soldiers, Clemens declared, he sent "his own 
minions to run down and catch hapless citizens." If he wanted provisions, 
he sent out a press gang to "rob at will." No proprietor of a newspaper, said 
he, dared publish sentiments favorable to reunion, and friends of the 
Union spoke only in whispers or retired to back rooms. Neither states nor 
individuals had rights "save at the will of the Dictator" who controlled the 
Confederacy. Only the "blind and pliant tools of the Autocrat at 
Richmond" had a hopeful future in the South. If the rebellion succeeded, 
"instant robbery and merciless proscription of the old Union Men," would 
follow. Already, he had suffered personally as a member of that 
"proscribed class. "''^ 

Speaking in support of Abraham Lincoln in November, 1864, before a 
Philadelphia audience, Clemens said that Jefferson Davis would not 
accept peace without "independence for the South and humiliation of the 
North." A supreme despotism controlled the South. Whatever 
Southerners thought, they were "as powerless as a child in the grasp of a 
giant." If southern editors were one-tenth as critical of Davis as the 
northern press was critical of Lincoln, decared Clemens, they would regret 
that "ever a type was manufactured." Northerners, he warned, should vote 
for Lincoln and not run the risk of electing a peace candidate. 'o 

Still concerned about the fate of Unionists, Clemens wrote President 
Andrew Johnson in April, 1 865, only a few days defore his death, warning 
the President not to put his faith in old Confederate leaders in Alabama. 
When they were in power, he said, they had "heaped obloquy on Union 
citizens" and denounced them as "traitors. "They had oppressed Unionists 
"when treason was in the ascendant" and should not be allowed to hold 
power now that "the Union cause" was triumphant. If he were asked to 
serve in office, he did not want secessionists as his colleagues; if he were an 
ordinary citizen, he did not want them as his masters. 5' 

Clemens lived long enough to experience the Union victory, but he did 
not live to take part in Reconstruction. He had suffered much: political 
exile and ostracism in the pre-war period, and harassment, loss of 
property, and exile during the war years. 

*^ Letter from the Hon. Jere. Clemens (n. p., 1864), Clemens to October. 1X64, 3-15. 

'"Philadelphia Daily Evening Bulletin, November 4, 1864. 

s'Clemens to Andrew Johnson, April 21, 1865, Johnson Papers. library of Congress; Philadelphia 
Daily Evening Bulletin, May 23, 1865. 



by Deborah I. Offenbacher* and Constance H. Poster** 


In The Reality of Ethnomethosology, Mehan and Wood ' take issue 
with Alfred Schutz'^ analysis of "multiple realities", particularly with his 
concept of the "paramount reality" of everyday life. Using the first person 
singular for what, we presume, is their joint opinion, Mehan and Wood 

Schutz argues that other realities exist, but that they derive 
from the paramount reality . . . My view of reality is different. I 
do not wish to call one or another reality paramount. It is my 
contention that every reality is equally real. 

In a previous paper (offenbacher, 1977)^ we have similarly argues that 
alternate realities may be equally real. Yet this observation need not 
contradict Schutz' position. What Schutz sought to explore was not the 
nature of reality as it may be defined by philosophers or 
ethnomethodologists, but reality as it is "taken for granted" by the 
majority of people in modern society. Despite the recent interest in new 
religious and quasi-religious movements, altered states of consciousness, 
paranormal phenomena and the like, the reality of everyday life still 
appears to be the paramount reality for most Americans. In fact, one of the 
odd features of contemporary science fiction is the tendency to project a 
mirror image of the reality onto the inhabitants of the far reaches of the 

In the light of the above, we would suggest that the respective positions 
of Schutz vs. Mehan and Wood do not represent mutually exclusive 
alternatives but rather an interesting paradox. Though all realities are 
equally real, most of our contemporaries appear to take if for granted that 
the reality of everyday life is not only the paramount reality but the only 
"real reality" there is. Whatever need for transcedence may exist in the face 
of that paramount reality is, in the apt phase of Peter Berger' only "a 
rumor of angels". 

•Department of Sociology, Brooklyn College, CUNY 
'♦Assistant Professor of Sociology, West Georgia College 

'Mehan, Hugh and Houstin Wood, 1975. The Reality of Ethomethodology. New York, John Wiley. 

-Schutz, Alfred, 1962. Collected Papers Vol. I: The Problems of Social Reality The Hague, Martinus 

'Offenbacher, D.I., 1977. "A Neglected Dimension of the Sociology of Knowledge: Perspectives on the 
Non-Rational." Paper presented at the first annual meeting of the Association of Humanists Sociologists 
New York, Spring 1977. 

■•Berger, Peter I., 1969. A Rumor of Angels. Garden City, N.Y. Doubleday. 


To explore some of the implications of that paradox, we turn to a basic 
weakness in the treatment of reality in both Schutz and Mehan and Wood, 
and, indeed, in sociology at large. Whatever the relative status of different 
realities, no reality is simply a social contruct that arises ex nihilo in the 
social process. As pointed out by Hannah Arendt^ (in a posthumously 
published article) there is a "feeling of realness" which belongs to our 
biological apparatus". Yet, as Dennis Wrong^ reminded us more than 
fifteen years ago sociologists tend to forget that "in the beginning there is 
the body." As a result, we tend to produce not only an oversocialized 
conception of man", as Wrong asserts, but an oversocialized conception of 

The Dialetic of Nature and Society 

In The Social Construction of Reality, Berger and Luckmann refer to 
the "organismic presuppositions and limitations" of the sociology of 
knowledge which derive from the dialectic between nature and society": 

This dialectic is given in the human condition and manifests 
itself anew in each human individual . . . Externally, it is a 
dialetic between the individual animal and the social world. 
Internally, it is a dialectic between the individual's biological 
substratum and his socially produced identity.^ 

While we fully concur with the above formulation (which reflects 
Mead's distinction between the biological foundation and the "I" and the 
social nature of the "Me") we would suggest that the internal dialetic of 
nature and society is not only a matter of "the resistance of the biological 
substratum to social moulding" (Berger and Luckmann 1966:167). The 
process of socialization itself and the phenomena we summarize under the 
heading particular characteristics of the human brain and of the central 
nervous system. Indeed, the "world openess" of man, this uniquely human 
dilemma which Gehlen sees as the foundation of instutionalization( Berger 
and Kellner, 1965)^ may well be rooted in the number and connectivity of 
the neurons in the association areas of the human brain (Rose 1973:144).^ 

There is thus a second dimension of the dialectic between nature and 
society which is essential to the sociology of knowledge: the dialectic 
between mental activities as they derive from the universal biological 
properties of the human organism and the socio-cultural dimensions of 

^Arendt, Hannah, 1977. "Reflections (Thinking Part 1)" The New Yorker, November 21, pp. 56-140. 

••Wrong, Dennis, 1962. "The Oversocialized Conception of Man in Modern Sociology". American 
Sociological Review, 26:183-193. 

'Berger, Peter I., and Thomas Luckmann, 1966. The Social Construction of Reality. GiLxdtnCAy ^fi ^ ., 
Doubleday. pp. 165, pp. 167, pp. 24, pp.1. 

*Berger, Peter I., and Hansfried Kellner, 1965. "Arnold Gehlen ans the Theory of Institutions". Social 
Research. 32:110. 

'Rose, Steven, 1973. The Conscious Brain. New York, Alfred Knoft. pp. 144. 


human thought and experiences as they are mediated by language. The 
psychologist Jerome R. Bruner observes: 

Most of what has emerged from studies of Africans, Eskimos, 

aborigines and other groups, shows that the same basic mental 

functions are present in adults in any culture. What differs is 

the development of these functions: what is considered as 

appropriate strategy suited to the situation and task . . . The 

investigation of many psychologists and anthropologists 

confirm that there is little that is remarkably different about 

underlying mental processes in different cultures. Differences 

occur only in the way they are combined and used in thought, in 

categorization and in handling language, (emphasis in 


The neglect of the universal biological foundations of mental processes 

as a vital organismic presupposition for the social construction of reality is 

not surprising if one remembers how heavily the work of Berger and 

Luckmann relies on the phenomenological perspective of Edmund 

Husserl. In Husserl's writings, knowledge is treated as an achievement of 

acts and operations of consciousness independent of their physiological 

base. "The transcendental study of consciousness," notes Husserl, "does 

not mean nature-research and may not presuppose this as a premise, since 

from its transcendental standpoint Nature is in principle placed within the 

brackets."" Yet if we deal with the sociology of knowledge in terms of a 

dialectic between nature and society or between the biological and mental 

dimensions of man(a position which derives not from Husserl but from the 

ideas of Mead and Marx incorporated in the work of Berger and 

Luckmann) the biological foundations of mental operations can no longer 

be bracketed. 

The problems arising from a failure to consider the biological 
substratum of human knowledge become evident in the way in which 
Berger and Luckmann deal with "finite provinces of meaning": 

Compared to the reality of everyday life, other realities appear 
as finite provinces of meaning, enclaves within the paramount 
reality marked by circumscribed meanings and modes of 
experience . . . This is evident from the illustrations already 
given, as in the reality of dreams or that of theoretical thought. 
Similar "communications" take place between the world of 
everyday life and the world of play . . . The Theatre provides an 
excellent illustration of such playing on the part of adults.^ 

'"Bruner, Jerome S., 1978. "Review of A.R. Lurie's Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social 
Foundations", Human Nature, January, pp. 84-90. 

"Husserl, Edmund, 1963. Ideas. New York, Collier Books, pp.141. 


Seen from the perspective of everyday life, that is, from the world as 
taken for granted in contemporary Western society, these observations are 
valid. Yet from the perspective of the universal biological foundations of 
mental activity, the analysis of Berger and Luckmann neglects an 
important distinction. Compared to the reality of everyday life, finite 
provinces of meaning are equally contingent, recognized as real only as 
long as we are directly engaged in them. Yet they originate in different ways 
and are not equally subject to modification by human intentionality and 

The theatre as a "finite province of meaning" is a sociocultural 
phenomenon. It is a product of human intentionality and we could 
conceivably eliminate it by declaring it illegal; placing sanctions on 
playwrights, actors, audiences, etc. The memory of our dreams, on the 
other hand, is rooted in spontaneous processes. We cannot interfere with 
these biological rhythms without the use of means which — in the long 
run — would de detrimental to the human organism. Similarly, while it is 
possible to manipulate the content of dreams to some extent (Witkin: 
1969)'% censorship of dreams would be a far more difficult undertaking 
than the censorship of theatrical productions. 

In other words, "multiple realities" or "finite provinces of meaning", as 
suggested by Schutz or Berger or Luckmann, represent a mental 
topography, a map of different regions of reality or meaning which we 
inhabit at different times. However, when we approach the same 
phenomenon from the perspective of the dialectic of nature and society, 
this pluralistic structure gives way to an ongoing process of confrontation 
between our biological sense of realness and the social construction of 

Biology and Reality 

According to the Thomas theorem, what people define as real will be 
real in its consequences. Similarly, the reactions of non-human organisms 
to their environment reflects a sense of biological realness, that is, an 
awareness of something external to the organism to which that behavior is 
a response. If we accept Berger and Luckmann's definition of reality as "a 
quality appertaining to phenomena that we recognize as having a being 
independent of our own volition" (Berger and Luckmann 1966:1)^ we 
might extend the Thoman theorem to other forms of life by the proposition 
that "those features of the environment to which an organism responds are 
real for that organism." 

A biological sense of realness is thus rooted in the physiological 
equipment of all forms of life and no organism that depends for its survival 

i-Witkin, Herman A.. 1969. "Influencing Dream Content", in Milton Kramer, ed.: Dream Psychology 
abd the New Biology of Dreaming. Springfield, III. Charles C. Thomas. 


on interaction with the environment can exist without it. To the amoeba, 
exhibiting "avoidance behavior", the obstacle ehciting that response is as 
real as is the stock market report to the investor rushing to the phone to 
speak to his broker. However, since a biological sense of realness is 
dependent on the nature of the sense organs and other anatomical 
structures through which the relevant information is gathered and 
processed (including the brain and central nervous system), the reality of 
man is not the same as the reality of the amoeba. In fact, as the biologist 
Jakob von Uexkull has pointed out, the anatomical variations from 
species to species indicate that there may be as many realities as there are 
species on this planet.* (quoted in Cassirer 1944:23-24)'3 

Man's experience of reality reflects the complexity of his neurological 
equipment and of the variety of mental operations of which it is capable. In 
contrast to the amoeba, man confronts not only phenomena in the world 
around him but the symbolic creations of his own mind. In fact, he can 
externalize his own sensations or mental operations to the point where 
they are experienced with a biological sense of realness as forces in the 
world around him; a phenomenon which has led Julian Jaynes'"* to some 
speculative but highly interesting theories about the nature of the ancient 
gods. Moreover, due to man's capacity for symbolic thought, he can 
postulate the existense of phenomena or entities which he considers to be 
real (such as spirits or certain subatomic particles) even though they are 
not presented to him through the evidence of his senses. In short, not only 
the external environment but any conceivable product of human thought 
or imagination can appear to have a being independent of our own volition 
and thus become a phenomenon the reality of which may have to be 

The complexity of such determinations is compounded by what Konrad 
Lorenz has termed "a quantum jump in evolution": the emergence of 
reflective consciousness. "Reflection, man's greatest discovery in the 
history of the human mind," writes Lorenz, "was immediately followed by 
his gravest mistake—that of doubting the reality of the external world. "'^ 
Hence, the fundamental difference between the reality of the amoeba and 
reality as experienced by the philosopher Rene Descartes, is not that the 
latter could conclude cogito ergo sum, but that he could doubt his own 
existence in the first place. In that sense, while realness is an experience 
grounded in the biological heritage of all living organisms, the possibility 
of "unrealness" is most likely a unique product of the complexity of man's 
central nervous system which makes reflective consciousness possible. 

"Cassirer, Ernst, 1944. An Essay on Man. New Haven, Yale University Press, pp. 23-24. 

'"Jaynes. Julian, 1977. The Origin of Consciousness In The Breakdown Of The Bicameral Mind. Boston, 
Houghton Mifflin. 

"Lorenz, Konrad, 1977. Behind the Mirror: Search For a Natural History of Human Knowledge. New 
York, Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich. pp. 14. 


The biological substratum of the social construction of reality thus 
provides for a variety of mental operations which, in their juxtaposition, 
constitute a quandary for the human knower that has no parallel in the 
animal world: 

1) the experience of biological realness, that is, the sheer giveness of 
sensory experience which man shares with other forms of life; 

2) man's capacity to externalize his own sensory or mental processes; 

3) man's capacity to postulate the existence of phenomena which 
cannot be verified by sensory experience and might even be contrary 
to the evidence of his senses; 

4) the capacity to redefine reality through attributing different 
meanings to the same events by changing the meanings of symbols; 

5) the capacity to reflect on all of the foregoing and to question their 
reality, that is, to wonder whether any of these phenomena exist 
anywhere independently of the human mind. 

Just as the biological fact of man's "world openness" to which we 
referred earlier, calls for the structuring and routinization of social life 
through the process of institutionalization, so the complexity of the 
biological substratum of human experience and thought calls for 
adjudication through the social construction of reality and a socially 
shared stock of reliable knowledge. In this process, social determinations 
of fact and reality—which are but products of the human mind— are called 
upon to pass judgment not only with respect to external reality but with 
regard to the products of human thought as well. Hence, as noted earlier, 
the social construction of reality, is not a creation ex nihilo, but a process 
of adjudication in which the human brain produces both the prisoner in the 
dock and the jurist on the bench. 

Modes of Knowing 

One of the basic departures of quantum physics from the classical model 
of science derives from the proposition that we cannot know the world 
independently of man the knower. If that is correct, then human 
knowledge— the end product of the encounter between the knower and the 
known— cannot be evaluated apart from the qualities which the human 
subject brings to the engagement with the object of knowledge. These 
qualities include not only a host of culturally-derived assumptions and 
presuppositions but also the biological substratum of those mental 
processes which make human knowledge possible. 

The complexity of that substratum, which we tried to indicate above, 
suggests that there must be not one, but a number of different ways of 
knowing, Knowledge derived from a biological sense of realness, for 
example, is not the same as knowledge derived from reflection or what the 
philosopher, Ernst Cassirer, terms "the theoretical world view." Cassirer 



Whatever we call existence or reality is given to us at the outset 
in definite forms of pure experience... Though the theoretical 
world view has in many ways modified this foundation and 
overlaid it, so to speak, with formations of a different mode and 
origin, it has by no means displaced them.'* 

The relationship between these different levels or modes of experience is 
not only one of modifications and overlays but often a temporal sequence 
of contradictory modes of knowing. For example, in pure experience or 
with a biological sense of realness, (as we have been using the term), I may 
know that my grandfather is sitting in his accustomed chair near the 
fireplace. Upon reflection, however, I will know that I have experienced a 
hallucination since my grandfather died long ago. Similarly, in our 
dreams, we may know that we are walking the streets of Paris. Upon 
waking reflection, however, we will know with equal certainty that this 
could not have been the case. 

Philosophers have long pondered this question of the relationship 
between what is given to awareness in a state of pure experience or a 
biological sense of realness, and what we designate as knowledge in 
ordinary language. Unfortunately, within the limits of this paper, we 
cannot review the history of these philosophical speculations which have 
involved such polarities as intuitive vs. derivative knowledge; immediate 
vs. mediate knowledge; tacit vs. effective knowledge; subjective vs. 
objective knowledge, etc. In the last analysis, a Merleau-Ponty has pointed 
out the problem of knowledge is not a component of the act of knowing. It 
is a judgment made by consciousness in its reflection upon itself. 

For the philosopher, the reflective judgment which determines what 
shall or shall not be termed knowledge relates to such universal questions 
as the nature of consciousness and truth. Yet the sociologist has to face the 
fact that what is considered knowledge in one society (on whatever 
grounds) may not be so considered in another. We have, therefore, chosen 
to use two terms which respectively reflect man's universal sense of 
biological realness and the historical variability of intersubjectively 
validated bodies of knowledge. We have termed the first "spontaneous 
personal knowledge" and the second "socially validated knowledge." 

The term socially validated knowledge refers to that body of shared 
beliefs, assumptions or facts which are accepted as true by society at large or 
by any of its subcultures. By spontaneous personal knowledge, on the other 
hand, we refer to any recognition of distinct and meaningful patterns which 
we take for granted on no other authority or evidence but the fact that they 

"•Cassirer, Ernst, 1957. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms: Vol. 3. New Haven Yale University Press 
pp. 62. 


are clearly present to our awareness. Such patterns may be stimulated by 
sense impressions such as the image of a tree or a familiar voice; or they may 
be related to internalstimulisuchasdreamsorhallucinations. Ineithercase, 
what concerns us here is not their origin, but the fact that these visual or 
auditory patterns are meaningful and real while attended to. 

In and of itself, spontaneous personal knowledge is neither true not 
false, real or hallucinatory, rational or irrational, in the customary sense of 
these terms. The concept of spontaneous personal knowledge claims no 
more than that this perception, this idea, or this premonition is present to 
our awareness and that it presents itself without any intention or reflection 
on our part. It is non-rational not because it is not in accord with reason 
(which it may or may not be depending on the individual case) but because 
reason was not involved in its production. Hence, any state .nt 
concerning what we experienced as spontaneous personal knowledge can 
be false only if we ourselves misrepresent that experience. All other 
standards of reality or truth are irrelevant in this context. 

Once we reflect upon it or relate it to others, spontaneous personal 
knowledge does, of course, become subject to social validation and to 
tenets of socially constructed realities. Moreover, such standards of 
validation may be internalized to the point where they act as gatekeepers, 
that is, where they affect the probability that certain autonomous mental 
processes or their manifestations will penetrate into consciousness. For 
example, while from a physiological point of view, dreaming is a universal 
human trait, the tendency to recall these nocturnal mentations seems 
positively correlated with the value placed on dreams by a given culture or 
subculture. Similarly, we would expect hallucinations to be more frequent 
in societies which encourage communications with the supernatural. Yet 
socially constructed realities and the tenets of social validation enter not 
only in to the frequency with which certain phenomena are experienced 
but into their content as well. Christian mystics are unlikely to have visions 
of guardian spirits as we find them among certain Indian tribes and the 
dream reports of patients tend, over time, to reflect the interpretative 
scheme of the psychoanalyst. 

The content of spontaneous personal knowledge is thus subject to 
transformations and overlays derived from the social and historical 
n of the knower. Yet its formal properties, what we might call its cognitive 
style, is not a product of culture but of the universal biological substratum 
of mental activity. This distinction between the content and form of 
different types of mental operations is significant for our understanding of 
the relationship between spontaneous personal knowledge and the social 
construction of reality because it is often the cognitive style rather than the 
content which makes for the difference between sanity and madness. 
However, it is only with recent advances in neurobiology that these formal 
stylistic properties of different types of mentations have been linked to 
their physiological base. 29 

The Languages of the Mind 

In our common sense understanding of mental activity, we tend to view 
mental operations as products of human intentionality. We conceive of 
our minds as active while we are purposefully engaged in thought, and is 
inactive while we are unaware of being so engaged. However, the current 
literature in neurobiology and neurochemistry, the study of altered states 
of consciousness, and the new biology of dreaming, suggests that we must 
conceive of mental operations as a continuous process which oscillates 
between different physiological configurations along a natural bio- 
rhythm. "The brain is following its own laws," writes the philosopher 
Suzanne K. Langer. "It is actively translating experiences into symbols in 
fulfillment of a basic need to do so. It carries on a constant process of 
mentation."'^ Similarly, the psychologist, Rosalind D. Cartwright 
observes that mental activity "appears to be continuous throughout the 
twenty-four hour day cycle although the language by which it is carried 
forth differs in different states."'^ 

This perspective suggests that there is a continuous base line of 
autonomous mental activity to which organisms return when not engaged 
in scanning or acting upon their environment, or more generally, in that 
state of focal awareness which we term thinking. Some of these 
autonomous mental operations are available to retrospective review by 
reflective consciousness through the memory of our fantasies, dreams, 
hallucinations and the like. Others remain forever outside the reach of 
reflection though their influence may occasionally become apparent in 
intuition, slips of the tongue, a face or a tune we may suddenly recall 
without any apparent reason, and similar phenomena. Yet irrespective of 
what can be retrieved in reflection or seeps of its own accord through the 
highly permeable boundaries between consciousness and the unconscious, 
it appears that mental activity is continuous in one form or other and that 
the shifting patterns of its formal properties or "languages" derive from 
different physical configurations or "brain states." The latter, in turn, may 
depend on such factors as degrees of alertness, sensory control, 
overstimulation, sensory deprivation, the use of drugs, other chemical 
imbalances or damages to brain structures, etc. In this context, conscious 
thought may be seen as a kind of "override system" by which focal 
attention takes command of the ongoing stream of mental activity and 
subjects it to control of our intentions and purposes. However, conscious 
and unconscious process need not be mutually exclusive. The mind's 
capacity for "parallel processing" can accomodate more than one language 

"Langer, Susan 1., 1957 Philosophy In a New Key. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Liniversity Press, pp. 

'"Cartwright, Rosalind S., 1969. "Dreams As Compared lo Other Forms of Fantasies", in Milton 
Kramer, ed.: Dream Psychology and the New Biology of Dreaming. Sprmgfield, 111. Charles C. Thomas. 
pp. 369. 


at a time through the different channels, and our fantasies may proceed 
together with the task at hand. 

What we term rational thought is thus only one of the different 
"languages of the mind" and it, too, depends on a particular physiological 
constellation. However, as noted earlier, the physiological substratum 
determines only the form and not the content of our mental activities. To 
illustrate this point, we offer the following summary from a paper by the 
psychologist, Arthur J. Deikman'^ (with few points added from a related 
paper by Julian Silverman)2o which contrasts two "languages of the mind": 
the first, the equivalent to the mode of knowing which derives from 
reflective consciousness and focal awareness; the second, more in line with 
what we termed a biological sense of realness. In this latter case, however, 
the mode of awareness which Deikman describes is achieved intentionally 
rather than spontaneously and the resulting form or cognitive style 
represents a rather exceptional type of "pure experience." 

Reflective cnsciousness or the "active" mode of awareness is 
characterized by such physiological traits as increased baseline muscle 
tension; greater reliance on the striate muscle system; and a predominance 
of beta waves in brain functioning. It is a state geared towards active 
manipulation of the world and domination of the environment through 
such characteristics as focal attention; object based logic; heightened 
boundary perception; and the dominance of formal characteristics over 
the sensory. In other words, mentations tend to be focused, rational, 
analytic, engaged in discursive logic, more concerned with the specific than 
the universal properties of phenomena, and more interested in their 
meaning and usefulness than their sensory qualities. Thinking is structured 
in terms of cause and effect relationships, and there is a sense of being in 
control of one's mental processes and a readiness to shift from one object 
or task to another as need arises. 

In contrast, the "receptive" mode of awareness in which reality is 
perceived in a state of meditation, is dominated by the sensory-perceptual 
rather than the muscular system; baseline muscle tension in decreased'and 
brain activity tends towards alpha waves. The cognitive style of this 
modality of awareness is more diffusely attuned to the environment; 
boundary lines between phenomena tend to be attenuated; and there is 
often a sense of merging with a particular object of meditation or the 
universe at large. Sensory impressions dominate over formal analytic 
perceptions and there is little articulation of ego boundaries. Time, space, 
causality and other categories of reflective consciousness lose their power 

'■'Deikman. Arthur .1., 1973. "Biomodal Consciousness" and "Deautomation and the Mystic 
Experience", in Robert E. Orenstein. ed ; The Nature of Human Consciousness. New York. Viking Press, 
pp. 67-86 and 216-233. 

-'"Silverman, Julian. I96X. "A Paradigm Eor The Study of Altered States of Consciousness", British 
Journal of Psychiatry. 1 46; I 20 1 - 1 2 1 «. 


to structure the perception of reality. Incongruities and opposites may co- 
exist without any logical conflict and there is a sense of losing or 
relinquishing control, an attitude of "letting it" rather than "making it." 
There is often a heightened barrier to ordinary stimuli and increased 
responsiveness to stimuli previously blocked from awareness. Body images 
may change and scanning of the environment becomes passive and 
relational rather than active, analytic and segmental. 

Homo sociologicus, as conceived by the sociologist, is conversant with 
only one of the "languages of the mind": reflective consciousness, or what 
Deikman terms the "active mode of awareness. "This is not surprising since 
social action is central to the subject matter of sociology. Yet other idioms 
of the mind as we find them reflected in fantasies, intuition, hallucinations, 
or the memory of our dreams are also more than random firings of 
activated neurons. They may be alien to the discursive structure of our 
everyday thought and language because they originate in a different 
physiological state; yet they are not a tale told by an idiot. In fact, many 
artists and scientists have reported that after intense preoccupation with 
certain problems, a solution was suggested by a dream or seemed to 
present itself out of nowhere during a walk in the woods or a ride on a 
trolley car. 

Apparently, in these cases, a problem which had been temporarily 
abandoned by reflective awareness continued to be processed in a different 

It is an unfortunate aspect of Freud's brilliant heritage that he 
devaluated what was his greatest gift to Western civilization: the 
rediscovery of those alternative languages of the mind which he summed 
up under the heading of "primary processes." Despite or because of his 
pioneering work in the exploration of the unconscious (that dominion of 
the mind least subject to rationality) Freud saw man's best hope in the 
"dictatorship of reason." However, half a century later, the anthropologist 
Gregory Bateson, observed:^' 

In the cliche system of Anglo-Saxons, it is commonly assumed 
that it would be somehow better if what is unconscious were 
made conscious. Freud, even, is said to have said, "Where id 
was, there ego shall be," as thought such an increase in 
conscious knowledge and control would be both possible and, 
of course, an improvement. This view is the product of an 
almost totally distorted epistomology and a totally distorted 
view of what sort of thing a man, or any other organism is. 

In the context of this paper, the question is not whether the unconscious 
should be made conscious, but what happens when it presents itself to 

^'Bateson, Gregory, 1972. Steps Towards An Ecology of Mind. San Francisco. Chandler, pp. 136. 


consciousness spontaneously through fantasies, intuition, the memory of 
our dreams, hallucinations and the like. Though many Americans are 
fascinated by such phenomena as ESP, UFO's, and "close encounters of 
the third kind"22, and while "consciousness expansion" still remains 
popular in some circles, the mainstream of American society prefers its 
reality and knowledge to be legitimated by sound common sense, 
pragmatism, and operational utility. For example, in the 1950's, there was 
a movement of some educators to remove fairy tales from school reading 
lists on the grounds that they would confuse children as to the nature of 

Like other civilizations before us, we search for answers among the stars 
rather than in the mystery that man is to himself. Feeling lonely and 
dwarfed among the galaxies, we direct our radiotelescopes to scan the 
heavens for extraterrestial intelligence. But what about the extraordinary 
intelligence that speaks to us with the "other languages of the mind"? "It 
was only a dream," we may say; or "it was only a fantasy," as if such modes 
of knowledge were a lapse from the proper use of our mental faculties. Yet 
since all languages of the mind are rooted in natural biological processes, 
the situation seems somewhat analagous to a society in which it is agreed 
that legs are for walking and one might mention apologetically that one 
has "only" run or jumped. 

The Social Destruction of Reality 

From the perspective of spontaneous personal knowledge, the 
difference between the various "languages of the mind" is irrelevant. 
Whatever is given as self-evident to awareness, regardless of its content or 
formal properties, is endowed with a biological sense of realness. It is only 
in reflection or through the application of socially-shared standards of 
reality that we affix such labels as facts, illusion, fantasies, or dreams to 
different modes of knowing and to the different products of our mental 

The social construction of reality may thus be seen as a labelling process 
by which spontaneous personal knowledge is sorted into the appropriate 
categories of social validation. The dog that barks under my window is 
real; the dog that barked in my dreams is not. The image on the TV screen 
is real; the figure of Christ as it appears before me is a hallucination. Yet, in 
a sense, the social construction of reality is also a destruction of the reality 
of the dream dog and of the Christ figure as I have experienced them on the 
level of spontaneous personal knowledge. 

Given the complexity of the biological substratum of our mental 
activities, the contingencies of rational action, and the requirements of 
social life, the social destruction of spontaneous personal knowledge is, to 

!-Spielberg, Steven, 1977. Close Encounters Of The Third Kind. New York. DelL 


some extent, inevitable. Yet we must keep in mind that the social 
construction of reality, which is in the agent of that destruction, is not like 
the conquest of a new frontier or seed spread over a barren field. It is more 
like a slum clearance project in an urban neighborhood. What we defin as 
real collectively may become a bulldozer that relentlessly levels what we 
have experienced as real in spontaneous personal knowledge. 

The process of levelling is facilitated by certain linguistic practices. For 
example, as the psychologist, Paul Barkan^^ has pointed out, theutterances 
of a schizophrenic would sound perfectly normal if they were presented as 
memories of a dream. Similarly, in his Philosophical Investigations, 
Wittgenstein^-* defines dreams as accounts of past events which are 
prefixed by the phrase "I dreamt"; a prefix which in our own society is 
meant to indicate that the events about to be related did not really happen. 
In a different culture, of course, the same prefix might indicate the 
opposite, that is, the socially validated conviction that such accounts 
represent a higher order of truth or reality that what is evident in everyday 

Linguistic formulas such as "I dreamt that," "I imagine that" and the 
like, point to an aspect of communicative competence which has received 
little attention by sociologists: the ability of the speaker to indicate the 
status of a given communication with respect to its socially validated 
"accent of reality." Concerning this basic feature of any speech situation, 
Jurgen Habermas observes:^' 

Every speech implies the claim of inducing concensus on that 
which really is (as) distinguished from that which subjectively 
only appears to be the propositional content. This presupposes 
a differentiation between a public world or intersubjectively 
acknowledged interpretations and a private world of sole 
feelings and impressons. 

In terms of the conditions outlined by Habermas, madness may be seen 
as a failure in communicative competence, that is, a failure to distinguish 
between intersubjectively acknowledged interpretations (as they derive 
from the social construction of reality) and spontaneous personal 
knowledge which may be in conflict with these interpretations. Yet if every 
speech implies the claim of concensus on what shall or shall not be defined 
as real, must we conclude that certain types of spontaneous personal 
knowledge are "unspeakable" or that they can be introduced only with the 
proper disclaimers such as the prefix "I dreamt that" or "I imagined that"? 

-'Bakan, Paul, 1976. "The Right Brain Is The Dreamer", Psychology Today. November, pp. 66-68. 
-"•Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 1953. Philosophical Investigations. New York, Macmillan pp. 148a. 
-"^Habermas, Jurgen. 1970. "TowardsaTheory of Communicative Competence", in Hans Peter Dreitzel, 
ed; Recent Sociology tt2. New York, Macmillan, pp. 105-148. 


The problem with Habermas' observations is not that he is wrong but 
that he is right. Although from the point of view of spontaneous personal 
knowledge all realties are equally real, the rules of "communicative 
competence" are the ever-present representatives of the social construction 
of reality which assign second class status to spontaneous personal 
knowledge in every speech situation. They may or may not be internalized 
to the point where they can annul convictions derived from spontaneous 
personal knowledge. In the majority of cases, however, there will be a 
tendency to devaluate what is clearly devaluated by our linguistic 
practices. Even so, spontaneous personal knowledge remains the other 
side of homo duplex who, though living in society, in never fully of that 
society and destined, in the end, to die alone. 

"Complementary" Realities 

The social destruction of spontaneous personal knowledge derives from 
the fact that Western man tends to think dichotomies. Either something is 
real or it is not. Yet Eastern thought is more open to the ultimate unity of 
all human modes of knowing. Chuang Tzu, who taught the doctrines of 
Taoism around the third century B.C., notes^^. 

Everything can be "that"; everything can be "this"... Therefore 
it is said, "that" comes from "this" and "this" gave birth to 
"that" — which means "that" and "this" give birth to one 
another... Thus, the sage does not bother with these 
distinctions but seeks enlightenment from heaven. So he sees 
"this" but "this" is also "that" and "that" is also "this". . . When 
there is no more separation between "this" and "that", it is 
called the still-point of Tao. 

While Eastern philosophy cannot be transplanted into contemporary 
Western society, modern physics suggests another approach to the 
problem of multiple realities which comes closer to the realization that 
"this" can also be "that". Different experiences of reality as they are rooted 
in different physiological states might be conceptualized as 
complementary manifestations of the same phenomenon, similar to the 
concept of complementarity developed by Niels Bohr. Although one might 
argue that such an analogy is largely metaphorical, certain similarities 
between Deikman's description of the two "languages of the mind", which 
we cited earlier, and the wave-particle phenomenon in physics are notable. 
Deikman's analysis indicates that the cognitive style of the "active" and the 
"receptive" mode of awareness respectively are indeed complementary in 
the sense that there is no overlap between them; they cannot be 
experienced simultaneously; and they show us the same phenomena in a 
radically different form. Hence, just as the physicist argues that both the 

^•■Chuang, Tzu, 1974. Inner Chapters. New York, Vintage Books, pp. 2a. 


wave and the particle phenomenon together are essential for our 
understanding of the nature of light (even though they cannot be observed 
simultaneously) so we would argue that all experiences of reality taken 
together are vital for our understanding of the human phenomenon, even 
so they cannot be experienced simultaneously. 

The concept of complementary realities challenges our taken-for- 
granted notions concerning the dominance of the reality of everyday life. 
We would point out, however, that such a challenge has already come from 
a different direction. The concepts of time and space as developed in the 
theory of relativity, for example, are of a totally different order than those 
to which we are accustomed in our everyday affairs; yet we accept both 
versions as real within their respective dominions. In fact, the farther 
science probes into phenomena which are of an infinitely larger or 
infinitely smaller magnitude than those with which we deal in the ordinary 
course of events, the more likely we will be to find that our paradigms of 
reality are relative to the nature of the phenomena under consideration. 
The astronomer Sir Bernard Lovell notes^^. 

Although the laws of motion and gravitation inherent in 
Newton's concept govern our daily life, they are incomplete 
and unsatisfactory when we try to explain the dynamic 
conditions of the universe. 

We would similarly suggest that paradigms of reality which are 
applicable to society as a whole may be "incomplete and unsatisfactory" 
when applied to the subjective experience of the individual. Just as we do 
not denigrate the physicists' concept of space-time because it does not fit 
the timetable of our local railroad, so there is no reason to denigrate 
spontaneous personal knowledge because it does not fit into the 
coordinates of the world at work. Rather, what seems to be called for is a 
reconsideration of our paradigms of reality. 

The field of sociology could make an important contribution towards 
such a reconsideration by exploring what we have termed here in the social 
destruction of reality and the ways in which the complementary nature of 
different realities could be articulated more constructively. On the 
theoretical level, this would imply a broadening of the conceptual base of 
the sociology of knowledge to develop a more balanced picture of the 
dialectic of nature and society and of the interplay between the biological 
substratum of mental activity and the social construction of reality. The 
work of such European scholars as Max Scheler, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, 
and Jean Piaget comes readily to mind for this purpose. Yet the empirical 

"Lovell. Sir Bernard, 1975. "Whence: We Are What We Know About Where We Came From", New 
York Times Magazine. November 16, pp. 271 1. 


exploration of the issues indicated in this paper need not wait for such a 

Ethnomethodology is that branch of sociology which studies how 
members make settings of organized everyday activity "accountable". We 
suggest, that it could also address itself to the ways in which spontaneous 
personal knowledge is made "unaccountable" in such settings or 
denigrated by our accounting practices. In a sense, such a topic would 
constitute the "anti-matter" of ethnomethodology as it is currently 
perceived. Yet if ethnomethodologists have developed the skill to make 
practical activities observable, could they not also develop the skill of 
making reportable what cannot be reported adequately under the rules of 
communicative competence to which we referred earlier? Most 
importantly, however, what seems required here is an understanding of 
how the ways in which we make settings accountable collectively, relates to 
the ways in which individuals "account" to themselves for those aspects of 
spontaneous personal knowledge which are defined as "not real" by 

Like everything in life, the social construction of reality has its price. Yet 
sociologists have never explored what that price is; how we learn to take it 
for granted; and whether there is a point at which this price becomes too 
high for the individual and/ or for society at large. It may be the answer to 
questions such as these which will challenge (more effectively than any 
philosophical or theoretical formulation) the usefulness and legitimacy of 
our present paradigms of reality. 



by Carole E. Scott* 

One of the tangibles people have been rushing to swap money for in 
recent years is commodity money. Coins are the only way people of limited 
means can speculate in precious metals, and the rapid appreciation of gold 
and silver a couple of years ago lured many people into such speculation. 
Coins made of precious metals appeal to the more conservative investor if 
they have numismatic worth because this offers some downside protection 
if the price of bullion plummets as it has recently. Bullion speculation may 
take place either via coins with numismatic value or coins like the 
Krugerrand or Maple Leaf, which have no numismatic value. Some people 
buy coins made of precious metals, not to speculate, but because today's 
high rate of inflation has convinced them we are on the verge of an 
economic collapse which will make money with no intrinsic value 
worthies. Others are attracted by the high rates of return they hear one can 
earn via appreciation for numismatic reasons. 

The following advertisement by the New England Rare Coin Galleries 
which appeared in Barron's explains what has attracted some to coin 
collecting: "How many of today's investments :iave averaged better than 
20%) compound return rate over the past 20 years? 2(% over the past 5? How 
many will perform well in bull and bear markets? More and more 
frequently, financial experts are recommending portfolios that include 
investment-quality rare coins — one of the safest high performers. Rare 
coins can easily be placed in Keoghs and IRAs, and find ready liquidity in 
an eager world market."' 

Until recently coin collecting was largely a hobby, but some have long 
claimed that coin collecting can be quite profitable. For example, 
Solomon Brothers estimates that in the 1968 to 1978 decade rare coins 
appreciated at a compound annual rate of thirteen percent — well above the 
inflation rate at the time. David Bowers of Bowers and Ruddy, one of the 
largest and most prestigious rare coin dealers, claims that rare coins' prices 
are rising at an average rate of fifteen percent a year. Business Week 
reported that during the 1969 to 1979 decade government issue, collector- 
quality coins appreciated from 200 to 400 percent, that is, from twelve to 
seventeen percent annually. ^ 

Coins are clearly inferior to stocks and bonds in several respects. A 
return is earned only via appreciation. Coins are less liquid than are 

^Barron's, August 14, 1978. 

^Business Week, "Liquidating Your Investment in Collectibles," June 1 1, 1979. 


securities. Banks do not generally advance money for the purchase of coins 
and alternative lenders are scarce. When a loan can be obtained, it is 
normally relatively expensive. ^ The coin collector has storage and 
insurance costs the investor in securities does not have. 

Two of the main attractions coins as an investment have that securities 
don't are that the supply of all coins other than those being minted this year 
will never rise and that, due to the large number of hobbyists, declines in 
demand are limited. Some will consider the ease with which profits from an 
investment in coins are hidden from the Internal Revenue Service to be a 
significant advantage. 

Not too long ago coin collecting could be engaged in by watching the 
change passing through one's hands. Today it is extremely unlikely that 
coins worth more than their face value can be found in circulation. 
Gresham's Law is alive and working. Therefore, collectors must either buy 
from each other or from dealers. Collectors meet each other through coin 
clubs and shows. There are a number of coin magazines and newsletters in 
which they can advertise the coins they wish to buy and sell. Larger cities 
have a number of coin dealers who will buy or auction coins collectors wish 
to sell. Auction houses charge a fifteen to twenty percent commission on 
sales. Dealers frequently buy and sell through the mail. Dealers, too, 
advertise in the coin magazines and newsletters. After gold and silver 
prices exploded, dealers began advertising in the general press. 

Very few American dealers specialize in foreign or ancient coins; thus, 
the bulk of the coins sold by dealers in the United States are U.S. coins, 
mainly those minted by the government. 

Coins are minted both by governments and private mints. In early 
America privately-minted coins circulated. Coins minted in recent years by 
private mints are not money and seldom have any numismatic value. Their 
value is dependent on the worth of the metal they are made of. 

Grades and Pricing 

The price a dealer or a collector will pay for a coin will vary with the 
condition of the coin and the condition of, respectively, his stock or 
collection, assuming the coin's numismatic value exceeds its melt-down 
value. For many years coins were divided into far fewer and less exacting 
defined grades than is the case today. Today the official American 
Numismatic Association (ANA) grading system has sixteen grades 
ranging from about good to perfect proof. (Good means that the coin is 
very well worn.) There are three grades of proof, three grades of 
uncirculated, and ten grades of circulated. (A proof coin has a mirror-like 
surface and is not intended to be circulated. If not treated carefully, its 
value will decline.) 

^New York Times, "Credit Woes Plague Collectibles Fans," December 10, 1978. 


Each grade has a numerical value. While in-between grades are possible, 
it is difficult to get agreement even among experts aboun whether a coin is, 
say, a 62 or a 63. Agreement is much more likely for the various grades, 
which are more than one unit apart. A coin's grade is based on its poorest 
side. Different opinions about a coin's grade are not unusual, as a good 
deal of subjectivity is involved, and, of course, a buyer will benefit from 
under evaluating a coin. Many sellers guard against this by offering their 
coins to several buyers. 

During the trial of Georgia banker Bert Lance a bank officer testified 
that a coin collection used as collateral for a loan was appraised by a 
leading Atlanta dealer at $21,228. However, when bids were taken on the 
collection, this dealer bid $36,000, which was the highest bid. Thus, it is 
plain that two persons with identical collections could experience quite 
different rates of return. A short while after the collection was sold for 
$36,000, the price of gold rose substantially, and it was estimated that the 
collection could have then brought around $216,000. Clearly, timing of a 
sale can have a tremendous impact on the rate of return earned. The 
possible rate of return which can be earned is quite high. 

A coin's numismatic value is determined by demand and supply. 
Demand is affected by a variety of factors. How much appreciation do 
collectors anticipate? What coins are catching the hobbyist's eye? How 
many collector's are there? How many are engaged in the different types of 

There are two ways for hobbyists to collect coin: by type or series. Type 
collecting involves collecting one coin from each type issued. Series 
collecting involves collecting sets of coins of different denomination.^ 

While mint records tell how many of each type and date were minted, 
only in the case of the extremely rare old coin can one estimate very closely 
how many remain in existence. A very high price indicates a coin is thought 
to be in short supply. Over a number of years the very high price can be 
expected to bring out all coins still in existence. Since to get the best price, a 
coin must be offered to several buyers, word gets around as to how man> 
coins there are in existence. Of course, additional coins could be dug up 
later or brought up from the ocean bottom. 

Because the Philadelphia mint issues the most coins, numismatics claim 
a given coin is more valuable if it was minted in a branch mint like Denver 
or, especially, San Francisco. Coins with struck-over dates or any other 
rare imperfections or features, such as the designer's initials, have a greater 
value than coins which lack these features. Beauty is also said to play a role. 
For example, the Saint-Gaudens double eagle is said to draw a premium 
because it is the most beautiful coin ever minted by the United States 
Government. (This is a twenty-dollar gold coin minted from 1907 to 1933.) 


The availability of coins differs somewhat regionally and differences in 
availability from region to region can cause some price differentials. Local 
demand may also vary. There is greater local interest in commemorative or 
other coins with local significances, and this, too, can cause price 
differentials. Thus, sometimes a quick profit can be made by buying in one 
place and selling in another. 

Numismatics claim coins which are most likely to be high priced and 
experiencing the greatest appreciation are those coins which are relatively 
scarce. These coins — called key coins — are fewer in number than are the 
other coins in the various possible sets of coins. Numismatics also advise 
investors to go for quality. 

Price Guides 

The American Numismatic Association, which will authenticate coins, 
publishes the Blackbook Price Guide of the United States Coins. The 
Blackbook Price Guide reports average retail prices for several grades and 
an average buying price for good and higher grade circulated coins. 

The most relied upon price guide is R. S. Yeoman's Guide Book of 
United States Coins. Yeoman also publishes a Handbook of United States 
Coins. The red-covered Guide, or Red Book, provides retail prices, while 
the blue-covered Handbook, or Blue Book, provides wholesale or dealers' 
prices. Data for these publications is gathered several months before 
publication, which is usually in July of the year appearing on the cover. 
Uncirculated coins' prices are not reported. 

Dealers will tell you that coin prices are very volatile; thus, one cannot 
expect to buy or sell at guide book prices. (Coin prices are volatile; yet, 
when the price of silver plummeted in March 1980, coin prices did not. 
Dealers said silver's price must stay there for weeks before there would be a 
response. Gold coin prices also did not plummet when the price of gold did 
early in 1980. (What dealers would pay for gold and silver coins did, 
however.) If a dealer has purchased gold or silver coins when the price of 
gold and silver is high, he resists very strongly lowering the coins' prices 
even though the metals' prices have declined. 

The Blackbook provides tables showing the melt value of silver and gold 
coins at various prices. Dealers discount these values by from fifteen to 
twenty percent. Blackbook prices for silver dollars are in line with the 
range in which silver was selling when this book was published. 

Which Coins Are The Best Investment? 

Proof coins are collectors' coins. They are struck for the benefit of 
collectors. For many coins there exist no proof specimens. No proofs were 
struck of some types or in some years. Proof coins dated prior to 1855 are 
very rare. They are the most expensive coins to invest in. If made of gold or 
silver, after a few years the investor can rest assured their value will not fall. 


Proof coins not made of gold or silver are unlikely to prove superior to 
money market instruments in terms of rate of return, and obviously, they 
are less liquid. If made of gold or silver, however, appreciation can be 
expected to exceed money market instruments by a substantial margin. 
Most proof coins appear to have, at retail, appreciated at a ten to sixteen 
percent annual rate. If sold for 80 percent of retail value, few would net less 
than a ten percent annual rate of return. Very few appreciate at retail at 
twenty percent or more. There is less variation in the rates of return on 
proof coins than on other grades. As a whole, proof coins are both more 
profitable and less risky than other grades. 

The prices in the Red Book do not support the widely-held belief that the 
best coins to invest in are the higher-priced or key coins. The claim that 
they are was tested be selecting from the 1965 Red Book the highest- and 
lowest-priced coins of each denomination minted by the federal 
government, excluding commemorative coins. Quality could not be held 
constant, as all grades are not reported for each coin, and the grades 
reported on are not consistent. Most of the coins were very fine quality. All 
the others were extremely fine. Frequently several dates shared the lowest 
price. When this happened, the coin with the highest mintage was selected. 
The 1965 prices were compared with 1980 prices. 

The highest rate of return was 9.08 percent for the lowest-priced gold 
coins! The next highest rate was 7.62 percent for the lowest-priced silver, 
nickel, and copper coins. The lowest rate of return, 6.45 percent, was for 
the most-expensive gold coins. Since these are rather expensive coins, 
many people may be kept out of this market by price considerations. A 
paucity of buyers could account for the low rate of appreciation of the high 
priced coins. While purchasing the lowest-priced gold coins required an 
outlay of only $35 1 .50, the highest-priced gold coins required an outlay of 

Assuming that a person sold the coins for 80 percent of their Red Book 
prices, the 9.08 percent return would decline to 7.47; the 6.45 percent to 
4.87. He would not be likely to get this much from a dealer. For example, 
for extremely fine, gold Indian Head half eagles ($5) minted from 1908 to 
1919, the Blue Book value for all those minted is 70.73 percent of the Red 
SooA: value in 1980. If this was the percent of the Red Book \a\\XQ2. person 
received for the lowest-priced gold coins, the rate of return would drop 
from 9.08 percent to 6.59 percent. 

The lower rate of return on the most expensive or key coins has an 
obvious possible explanation. Each coin is part of a set. Each coin in a set is 
a complementary good relative to every other coin in the set. Therefore, 
changes in the demand for a set will have an identical effect on the demand 
for each coin in the set. The prices of these coins will vary because their 
supply differs. The higher-priced coins will be relatively less affected by 
any given increase in demand. 


The most expensive coin one can invest in is not a coin minted by the 
federal government. The highest amount ever paid for a coin was the 
$725,000 paid for a Brasher doubloon in November 1979. These gold coins 
were minted in New York in 1787 by a private individual. Only six are 
known to exist today. 1 have not been able to find an earlier sale price on 
this particular specimen. In July 1979 a lesser quality doubloon sold for 
$430,000."* The most ever paid for a silver coin was the $400,000 paid for an 
1804 U. S. silver dollar in March 1980. I do not know what price it sold for 
earlier, but there were sales of this type coin in 1960 and 1961 for, 
respectively, $28,000 and $29,000. If the one sold for $29,000 sold for 
$400,000 in 1980, the annual rate of appreciation was 14.81 percent. If the 
seller received 80 percent of the $400,000, the yield would drop to 13.47 
percent per year. Thus, extremely rare coins appear to perform like proof 

To test the claim that the lower grades are inferior investments, the 
annual rate of return an investor would have earned if he had purchased 
either good or uncirculated Buffalo or Indian Head nickels minted during 
the 1919 to 1934 period was determined. The prices of fifty-four coins were 
considered. Fifty-five were minted during the period. The one left out cost 
far more than all the rest put together, and, so was considered separately. 
At 1965 prices a person could have bought the good grade nickels for 
$161.15. In the 1980 Red Book they sold for $206.15. Thus, the annual 
average rate of appreciation was only 1.66 percent. The 1980 Blue Book 
valued these coins at only $106.45. Thus, if sold at wholesale, the seller 
would have experienced a thirty-three percent loss on the fifteen-year 
investment. The excluded coin experienced a 4.93 annual rate of return at 

Based on the data considered for this paper, one can only conclude that 
the higher grade coins are superior investm.ents to those of lower quality. 
Investing in coins not made of precious metals is not very profitable. Both 
nickels and cents were relatively unprofitable over the 1965 to 1980 period. 
It was not rare for the price of nickel or a cent to decline over the period. 
Silver and gold coins appreciated far more and did not fall in value. Only 
by investing in them would one have much chance of doing better than in 
stocks, bonds, or time deposits. (Their superior performance was not 
produced by a rise of their melt value above their numismatic value.) 

It was possible to earn better rates of return than have been mentioned 
so far. For example, the 191 1 Barber or Liberty Head half dollar was listed 
for $27.50 in 1965 and $500 in 1980; thus, it appreciated at a 21.33 percent 
annual rate! It is interesting to note that in the 1975 edition of Fell's U. S. 

'Smithsonian. "Coins Go Up, Up as Fabled Collection Is Sold at Auction," March 1980. 


Coin Book, the 1912s Liberty Head half dollar was identified as a key coin 
likely to appreciate more than most coins. Yet, it sold for $32.50 more than 
did the 191 1 in 1965 and sold for only $10 more in 1980! 


The findings of this study of Yeoman's prices from 1965 to 1980 are in 
close agreement with those of Solomon Brothers, which made the low 
estimate quoted in this paper. It is possible that the higher estimates were 
based on retail prices, though this would be misleading, as one is unlikely 
to sell at retail. 

If coins are bought at retail and sold at wholesale, which will have to be 
done if random, low-quality coins are involved, coins are a poor 
investment. Only coins made of silver or gold are a good investment, and 
then only if they are of better than fine quality are the odds in the investor's 
favor of making a better return than in securities. It is best to invest in the 
lower-priced coins of a given quality. Rate of return averages higher and 
more diversification is possible. Downside protection is great for proof of 
uncirculated quality coins. Extremely fine quality coins are also likely to 
return more than do securities and provide much more downside 
protection than stocks do once held long enough to cover an auction 
house's commission. 



by Steven L. Tanner* 

What can be said about the significance of the poet? Heidegger was 
concerned with this and entitled an essay, "What are Poets for?" The poet 
obviously is many things to many people. However, the poet that I am 
concerned with is the one who is singularly possessed with transforming 
the given language into a universal corpus. The intention is one of 
revealing that which may lie hidden. For my purposes the poet is part 
surgeon, one who performs aesthetic surgery, one who performs a manual 
art, as well as one who is part soothsayer. In the words of Rimbaud: 

The poet becomes a seer by a long, immense, and thoughtout 
disordered state of all tne senses (deregiement de tous les sens). 
All forms of love, suffering, madness, he looks for himself, he 
exhausts within himself all poisons in order to keep only the 
quintessences. Ineffable torture wherein he needs all faith, all 
superhuman strength, wherein he becomes above all others the 
sick one, the criminal one, the accursed one-and the supremely 
learned one!-for he arrives at the unknowable . . . Thus the poet 
is truly the thief of fire, 
(my emphasis) 

The process of the poet as artist, as the one who excercises intuitive 
skills, is one of understanding. The poet's skill comes with a particular 
awareness of the world. In this process of understanding, the poet truly 
senses the dichotomy of man posed over against all else. For Heidegger, 
the poet exists while "the evening of the world's age has been declining 
toward its night." There is in his essay, the very real sense that the gods 
have defaulted and left man to undertake his own path to the holy. It is the 
poet's task to lead on this path. Throughout the essay, Heidegger quotes 
the poet Holderlin at length, as in the following: 

. . .The heavenly powers Cannot do all things. It is the 
mortals Who reach sooner into the abyss. So the turn is With 
these. Long is The time, but the true comes into Its own. 

Heidegger concludes from these lines of Holderlin, that the poet is, "He 
among mortals who must sooner than other mortals and other wise than 
they, reach into the abyss. " It becomes clear from this that it is certainly the 
poet's mission to "reach into the abyss" and reveal that which is hidden. 

♦Graduate student in Sociology, West Georgia College 

'Heidegger, Martin, 1971. "What are Poets For?", Poetry. Language, Thought. New York, Harper and 
Row, Publishers. 

-Breton, Andre, 1969. Manifestoes of Surrealism. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. 


For Heidegger that is a recurring theme. 

1 have used the metaphor, the poet as existential surgeon, for the 
authentic poet is he/ she who takes the given language and repairs the body 
of hved experience. Andre Breton declares that "The most effective means 
he had of doing this is poetic intuition." in this sense it is possible for the 
poet to cut through that which is presented in the mundane world, that 
which Heidegger called the inauthentic, excising the afflicted parts or 
reconnecting disjointed parts in order that there be a continuance of the 
whole. What happens during the process, the creation, the surgery as it 
were, quite obviously has to do with the use of language, whether it is used 
as metaphor, allegory, or as Terrence Des Pres ^ says in his article 
"Emblems of Adversity," as "political poetry." Des Pres states that in 
"political poetry", "What we recover ... is nothing less than ourselves, our 
humanity gone forfeit and then returned." Robert Bly corroborates this 
expression in saying that 

A true political poem is a quarrel with ourselves, and the 
rhetoric is as harmful in that sort of poem as in the personal 
poem. The true political poem does not order us either to take 
any specific acts: like the personal poem, it moves to deepen 
awareness. ■* 

Inasmuch as the poet uses the language as intuitive revealing, it is a 
dialectic, a phenomenology of body/ world, being-in-the-world, and a 
returning from the 'abyss'. Patrick Burman states that 

Much of modern poetry strives, through the media of words, 
pauses, beats, sounds shapes on the page, etc. to plumb to the 
depths of awareness and experience — but despite its diving 
down to primordiality, it continues to bob up to the surface of 
language. To press the analogy just a little further, language is 
the life-giving oxygen that at one and the same time keeps the 
poet from the mysterious depths and yet allows him to descend. 
Language frees and constrains. Language, for the creative poet, 
is a source of presuppositions that are creative springboards to 
the apprehension of hidden words and levels of experience and, 
most importantly, of their connectedness. 

In speaking of Heidegger's interpretation of the Heraclitean Logos, 
Gerald Bruns,^ says that Heidegger's metaphor, "Language is the house of 
being", relates to the central idea that "Man is preeminitely a being-in-the- 
world for whom existence takes on meaning and reality only as he opens 

'Des I'rcss lerrence, 1981. "Emblems of Adversity". Harper's (March 19X1) 
^Bly. Robert. 1980. "Leaping Up Into Political Poetry". National Forum (Fall 1980). 
^Bruns. Gerald 1.. 1974. Modern Poetry and the Idea of Language. New Haven ans London Yale 
Univeristy Press. 


himself up to the being of his finite situation." Futhering this notion, Bruns 
says that "This metaphor belongs to Heidegger's interpretation of the 
Heraclitean Logos, according to which word and being are said to enjoy a 
luminescent communion made possible by man's entry into the world." 
Here, in this light, the poet takes on not only the creation of language in 
poetic form but cuts open the body of lived experience so that in Brun's 

Language here appears to have been returned to a mythic 
universe in which the word supports, by virtue of its own 
reality, the world of things. For it is Heidegger's argument that 
the relationship in which man and world confront one another 
is both essentially and historically linguistic in character, which 
is to say that it is authentic human speech which opens up a 
world before man and, at the same time, opens man to the 
world and to the being of the world. What is important to 
notice, however, is that it is the speech of the poet (and the poet- 
thinker) that constitutes authentic speech. Indeed, if, as we 
walk through the world, we find ourselves as though in a 
colloquy of words and things, it is because our world is a field 
disclosed by the poet — a field, that is, which the poet has 
established in being. 

The revealing through language of the poet's experience of self- 
reflection takes on a critical perspective. The poet's creation, if it is 
authentic, becomes a radical act. The poet reaches down into the body of 
lived experience and conjoins the levels of awareness, i.e., body and mind. 
Thus the poet connects the world to self and thereby establishes, as Husserl 
would have it, the ground for being. In his "Ode to Walt Whitman", Lorca 
so aptly writes. 

And you, beautiful Walt Whitman, sleep on Hudson's banks, 

with your beard toward the Pole and your hands open. 

Bland clay or snow, your tongue is calling for comrades 

that keep watch on your gazelle without a body. 

Sleep; nothing remains. 

A dance of walls agitates the meadows 

and America drowns itself in machines and lament. 

I want the strong air of the most profound night 

to remove flowers and words from the arch where you sleep, 

and a black boy to announce to the gold-minded whites 

the arrival of the reign of the ear of corn.^ 

'Lorca. Federico Garcia, 1955. "Ode to Walt Whitman "The Selected Poems of Federico Garcia Lorca. 
New York, New Directions. 


We might ask, upon reading poetry, where does the stuff of poetry come 
from? I would say that for the most part, it comes from the poet's sense of 
immediacy and often times a profound sense of alienation and solitude. It 
is an ever coming to grips with reality. Robert Nugent has written an 
eloquent and sensitive literary interpretation of the French poet, Paul 
Eluard. Nugent says of the poet that 

His aloneness becomes most apparent when he is faced by 
another person, who also lives a present situation of solitude. It 
is this experience that frees him, not so much from solitude 
itself, as from the anguish of solitude . . . Life is an immediacy, 
especially an immediacy of solitude, most evident in the 
experience of love. And. paradoxically because of love, this 
solitude beings men together.^ 

I would like to use two verses from one of my own poems in order that I 
might make a personal poetic statement about the poet's awareness. 

There is no name for what I sense 

to be true, I reside in it, 

speak to it but cannot say its name 

it is not spirit, not sacred 

not absolute, nor rendered unto heaven. 

Yet, there it is 

I embrace the day and night of it 

like an lingering odor 

I am caught by it 

for the moment. 

It is an image seared into memory 

returned to bring me a thought 

to hold me close. 

Burman writes in his concluding remarks on the poet and on how he/ she 
comes to write poetry, that it is, "In poetry especially, replying as it does on 
inspiration, a chance image, a memory, an emotion evoked, poems are 
born out of a receptivity to inner and outer worlds and how they mesh. The 
poet, in his waiting-for-poems-to-come, is endlessly attentive to how the 
outer world of apparent objectivity can be taken into the inner realm of his 
highly subjective creative talent to issue forth as a once-again objective 
phenomenon, a poem." 

The creative and the committed poet, I would say, is usually someone set 
apart, someone who cannot effectively disavow or turn away from the 
"calling". Most often the poet lives a somewhat estranged existence, 
appearing as an eccentric to the public. There are notable exceptions such 
as Wallace Stevens, who was an insurance man. But for the others, poetry 

'Nugent, Robert, 1974. Paul Eluard. New York: Twayne Publishers. Inc. 


is more fully a way of life. Evan Watkins, in speaking of W.S. Merwin's 
poetry, says that in the making of the poem, "escape itself is already a 
memory, unpunctuated by the fleeting, present awareness which shapes 
the poem at the awesome edge of hearing what is felt cannot be written and 
yet cannot be escaped." Following this same thought, Robin Skelton 
discusses the importance of the Muse in a poet's life in this way: 

The concept of the Muse presents difficulties to many people. 
The word has archaic associations, and may even suggest a 
deliberately fanciful obscurantism on the part of the poet who 
uses the term. For many people it is simply a shorthand 
expression for the creative impulse, or for inspiration. For a 
large number of poets, however, the word has real meaning and 
almost awesome power. The Muse is the commanding force in 
the poet's life and requires continual attention, service, and 

Such a statement will strike some readers as an absurd inflation 
of reality. Some poets, even, may wince at it. and object to its 
romantic crudity, its melodramatic assertiveness. Nevertheless, 
that which some poets label as 'the muse experience' is central 
to poetic creation, and it is this experience which forces the poet 
to discipline his life in ways which non-poets may think 

At this point I would like to return to the poet/ surgeon image. There is, I 
believe, a guiding image for both the true and creative poet as well as for 
the physician-surgeon. The image is one of vision, of seeing beyond, a 
penetration of the concealed. There is inherent in this vision, a certain skill 
which comes from a unity of body and mind. The symbol of Aesculapius, 
the Roman god of medicine, would fit this enduring image. For the poet 
the image would be that of Hippocrene, the'Tountainof the horse."Thisis 
the fountain in Greece which is used to refer to poetic inspiration. For both 
poet and surgeon there is a discipline, as well as an intuitive grasp of what 
needs to be done. 

In the sense that poetry and surgery are radical "projects" they are 
joined. That they are often at the critical essence of the world, i.e., life and 
death, whether real or metaphorical, furthers the analogy. That they are 
finally alone in their act, that is, each one performs an incredibly dehcate 
act of restoration, and in the actual doing are singularly possessed in that 
moment of actuality — this then is their connectedness. 

"Skelton. Robin, 1975. "The Poei's Catling. London; Heinemann. New York: Barbes and Noble. 
'Watkins, Evan, 1978, The Crilical Act. New Haven and London; Yale University Press 



by Patricia W. Stokes* and Jimmy C. Stokes** 

In an era when the public sector lashes attack after attack on the 
American education system's apparent lack in teaching Johnny to write, it 
is comforting to know that research shows that we are accomplishing much 
of what we say we aspire to achieve: we take students where we find them in 
grade eight and help them to advance throughout their high school career. 
Not only do they advance, but they do so to a statistically significant 

A recent study, (Stokes, 19 78)' was undertaken in the Carrollton City 
Schools to determine whether or not interactions exist among three factors 
of student composition: judged quality of writing, organizational skills, 
and average number of words per T-Unit. This study revealed the steady 
growth of the students; writing abilities through the high school 
experience. One hundred and twenty students, heterogeneously grouped 
and evenly divided into eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders, wrote four 
compositions in class as part of classwork for their English course. 

The coded, but unsigned, papers were submitted to three qualified 
judges of secondary student composition. The General Impression 
Marking System (Cooper, 1977)^ was used by the judges to evaluate the 
student papers. The judges used a scale of 1 (low) to 4 (high) in rating the 
papers for quality; and, on a later examination after a second random 
distribution, for organizational skills. The reliability of the judges' ratings 
was found to be 0.759, well within an acceptable range. 

The researchers calculated the average number of T-Units in each paper 
according to the method developed by Kellogg Hunt and developed by 
Mellon^ and O'Hare''. A T-Unit can be defined as a main clause and any 
clausal or less-than-clausal structure attached to it. 

•Director of Instruction and Personnel, Carrollton City Schools 
••Associate Professor of Chemistry, West Georgia College 

'Stokes, Patricia W. The quality of student composition as predicted by average number of words per T- 
Unit and organization skills. (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 19 78). 

^Cooper, Charles R., and O'Dell, Lee. Evaluating writing: Describing, measuring. Judging. Urbana. 
Illinois: NCTE, 1977. 

^Mellon, John C. Transformational sentence-combining: A method for enhancing the development of 
syntactic fluency in English composition. NCTE Research Reports. 1969. 10 (Stock No. 16306). 

*0'Hare, Frank. Sentence combining: Improving student vk-riting without formal grammar instruction. 
NCTE Research Reports. 1973, 15 (Stock No. 15959). 


The data was then submitted to a Duncan's Multiple Range test. 1 he 
results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that significant growth in quality 
results from eighth to tenth grade and from tenth to twelfth grade. Similar 
significant growth in organizational skills was demonstrated. Though 
growth in sentence maturity as measured by average number of words per 
T-Unit exists between eighth and tenth grades, it is not statiscally 
significant. There is, however, significant statistical growth from tenth to 
twelfth grades. 

Therefore, our seniors are writing papers of significantly better quality 
than when they were in grade eight; they have significantly better 
organizational tools and have significantly increased the complexity of 
their sentence structure. 

Table 1 
Main Effects by Level 



SD Minimum Maximum 

Quality (n= 120) 


5.0 7* 





Organization (n: 







9.0 7* 





Average Number of Words Per T-Unit (n=120) 

8 11.00 3.24 6 

10 11.49 3.02 3 

12 12.41* 2. 78 4 


* at .05 level of significance, using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. 


The next matter of concern is whether or not we have taught them the 
kind of writing they need for everyday tasks such as writing job reports, 
letters of appUcation, and memos to employees. Or, have we turned them 
into some English teachers' dreams of budding short story authors or 

To answer these concerns each of the four compositions was written in a 
different mode: one was a narrative, one an argumentative (persuasive), 
one an expository (explanatory), and one a descriptive piece. When the 
ratings assigned by the judges for quality of writing and organizational 
skills were analyzed by mode and by grade level, the results showed that in 
all but one instance (twelfth grade argumentative writing) there was steady 
improvement from grade eight through grade ten to grade twelve. 

As far as quality of writing goes, Table 2 shows that the only instance in 
which there was a significantly higher rating in one mode over the others 
was in grade eight. These students could write significantly better quality 
papers in the story-telling mode, narrative. However in both the tenth and 
twelfth grades, these ratings have equalized well, while steadily increasing. 

It should be noted here, too, that the mean ratings on the twelfth grade 
level are remarkably close to the maximum raing of twelve. At the same 
time the mean of the eighth grade is close to the minimum rating of three. 
(These minimum and maximum scores are obtained by adding the lowest 
possible score, 1, and highest possible score, 4, of all three judges.) 

Table 2 
Quality of Writing by Mode by Grade Level 



SD Minimum Maximum 

Grades (n=120) 

Descriptive 4.70 

Argumentative 4.97 

Expository 4.77 

Narrative 5.83* 

Grade 10 (n=30) 
Descriptive 6.10 

Argumentative 6.87 
Expository 6.30 

Narrative 7.33 






































Grade 12 (n=30) 
Descriptive 8.83 

Argumentative 7.93 
Expository 8.67 

Narrative 8.67 

*at .05 level of significance, using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. 

When organizational skills are examined, however, an unusual finding 
occurs, as demonstrated in Table 3. Eighth graders organize significantly 
better papers, statistically speaking, when writing in the narrative mode. 
But the tenth grade papers show no statistical difference in narrative and 
argumentative or expository writing. Descriptive papers, however, show 
statistically significant low ratings for organization in grade ten. The same 
kind of pattern holds for twelfth grade papers with the interesting swing to 
low organizational skills in argumentative writing. Nonetheless, 
organizational skills increase in each mode from grade level to grade level 
with that one exception of argumentative papers in the twelfth grade. 

Table 3 
Organizational Skills by Mode of Grade Level 

Mode Mean SD Minimum Maximum 

Grade 8 (n=30) 

Descriptive 5.67 

Argumentative 6.00 

Expository 6.33 

Narrative 7.27* 

Grade 10 (n=30) 

Descriptive 6.53* 

Argumentative 8.33 

Expository 8.03 

Narrative 9.10 






































Grade 12 (n=30) 
Descriptive 9.20 

Argumentative 8.13* 
Expository 9.40 

Narrative 9.53 

*at .05 level of significance, using Duncan's Multiple Range Test 

Table 4 
Average Works Per T-Unit by Mode by Grade Level 

Mode Mean SD Minimum Maximum 

Grade 8 (n=30) 

Descriptive 10.03 

Argumentative 12.70 

Expository 11.73 

Narrative 9.53 

Grade 10 (n=30) 
Descriptive 1 1 .77 

Argumentative 13.07 
Expository 10.93 

Narrative 10.20 

Grade 12 (n=30) 
Descriptive 12.03 

Argumentative 13.67* 
Expository 12.13 

Narrative 11.80 

*at .05 level of significance, using Duncan's Multiple Tange Test 






































The data in Table 4 shows that the complexity and length of sentence 
structure, as measured by average number of words per T-Unit, shows a 
gain in words-perT-Unit for all modes from grade level to grade level, with 
one exception. Average number of words per T-Unit decreases from grade 
eight to grade ten, but rises dramatically to grade twelve. At none of the 
levels does this fluctuation acquire a statiscally significant point, either 
high or low, when compared to the length and complexity of the sentences 
in the other modes. Only argumentative writing on the twelfth grade level 
has a statiscally significant higher number of words-per-T-Unit. Oddly 
enough, this is the same mode which showed a statiscally significant lower 
rating as to organizational skills. It would be easy to assume that lack of 
organizational skills fostered a need, a need covered with wordiness rather 
than clarity of thought and purpose. An evaluative look at the papers 
indicates that the writers had many ideas to express when writing in the 
argumentative mode. So many, perhaps, that they endeavored to hurry 
and get all the ideas on paper without pausing to examine the ideas and 
logically organize them for presentation. This would explain the 
significantly lower rating in the organization of argumentative pieces by 
twelfth grade writers. It would also explain the significantly higher number 
of words per T-Unit as the students tried to "cram" it all into a few 
sentences with entangled ideas. Nevertheless, this research was not 
designed to measure such explanations for the phenomena. 

Much research has been done in the field of improving composition 
through sentence-combining exercises. It has been proven in recent work 
of such researchers as Warren Combs of the University of Georgia that 
such exercises can improve the sentence structure of writers, making the 
sentences more complex and longer. It was out of the strain of research of 
which Dr. Combs is the most recent major contributor that this research 
was fostered. It seemed illogical that longer and more complex was 
necessarily better when looking at the whole of the written work. Perhaps 
as the sentence-combining research continues, some effort should be made 
to investigate further the evidence presented in this paper that as 
composition quality goes down, average number of words per T-Unit goes 

What the research represented in this paper can conclude is that no one 
form of writing is being stressed in high school at the expense of other 
forms. Johnny is learning to write better and better papers in a variety of 
modes while he is in school, and he is writing papers judged to be closer and 
closer to the ideal rating. 

It should be noted that the research was conducted with all students of 
all abilities, ambitions, and backgrounds. All high school graduates are 
not writing at the top of the scale, nor are all of them getting the lower 
ratings. They are, however, as a group, learning to do a better and better 
job with their tasks as they progress through high school. 



Bailey, Robert T., (EdS, Secondary Education, August 1980) 




Using two classes of 19 and 21 students each, this study attempted to 
discover if the use of popular music in teaching contemporary United 
States history would result in a significant gain in achievement and attitude 
as compared with the use of the traditional textbook-lecture method. Null 
hypotheses were used. 

The two classes were given the Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, 

and the mean scores for the control group and the experimental group 
were computed. The t-test for the difference between the means 
determined that there was a significant difference in the two groups in 
regard to mental ability at the beginning of the study. 

Remmers' Any School Subject Survey was given as an attitude pre-test. 
Text booklet A, from Harper and Row's A People and A Nation, was 
given as a pre-test for measuring achievement in contemporary United 
States history. 

A five-week experimental period followed with the control group being 
taught by the traditional textbook-lecture method. The experimental 
group was taught with popular music as the central focus of instruction. 

At the end of the experimental period Remmers' Any School Subject 

Survey and A People and A Nation's test for contemporary United States 
history were administered as post-test. Mean gains in attitude, as 
demonstrated by scores on the pre-test and post-test, were calculated. The 
t-test found that there was no significant difference in attitude gained at the 
.05 level of significance. 

Because of the significant difference in mental ability of the two groups, 
an analysis of covariance test on the gains in the pre-test and post-test 
scores of the achievement test was conducted using mental ability as the co- 
variant. There was no significant difference in achievement of the control 
and experimental groups at the .05 level of significance. 

The hypotheses were accepted. It was concluded that teaching 
contemporary United States history with popular music does not produce 
a significant gain in attitude or achievement. 


Beavers, Sharon Seago, (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 




This study attempted to determine if there would be a statistically 
significant difference between the mean gain score in attitude and in 
subject matter knowledge between two eleventh grade United States 
history classes. One class, the experimental group, was taught in a closed 
space classroom, and the other class, the control group, was taught in an 
open space classroom. Null hypotheses were used. 

The standardized midterm test for chapters one through nineteen of The 
Rise of The American Nation was administered to both groups as a pretest 
and a posttest. "A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Any School 
Subject," developed by H. H. Remmers, was administered to both groups 
as a pretest and a posttest. The experimental process lasted for a twelve- 
week period. Identical materials and teaching methods were employed. 
The only difference in treatment between the experimental and control 
groups was that of open space and closed space physical environment. At 
the end of the treatment mean scores for pretest and posttest subject 
knowledge and mean scores for pretest and posttest attitude were 
computed for both groups. 

An analysis of covariance procedure was used to test for difference in 
mean gains in students' knowledge of United States history and to test for 
differences in mean gains in students' attitude toward social studies. Both 
null hypotheses were accepted. 

Therefore, it was concluded in this study that it made no significant 
difference in attitude or knowledge gained in United States history 
whether two groups of social studies students wer taught in a closed space 
or open space physical environment. 

Brown, Kay G. (Ed.S., Elementary Education, March 1980) 





This study was designed to analyze what effects the inquiry approach to 
teaching science has on science achievement. There were 54 six grade 
students in the study, all of whom attended the Alabama Street School in 
Carrollton, Georgia. 


The Analysis of Covariance was the statistical test used to test the raw 
data. The dependent variables were achievement and retention. The two 
teaching methods used to teach the science unit were the independent 
variables. The Intelligent Quotient (I.Q.) scores were used as the covariate. 
Two null hypotheses were tested, one was not rejected and the other 
hypothesis was rejected. 

The reuslts of the study showed that children taught science in a process- 
inquiry approach scored significantly higher at the .05 level of significance 
in achievement as compared to children taught bu the traditional-textbook 
method. The results also showed no significant difference on the delayed 
posttest between the two groups. 

Bussler, Ron A., (EdS. Secondary Education, August, 1980) 



This study sought to determine if a planned program of career education 
made any significant difference in test scores of two different eighth grade 
classes each of which had taken the career development section of the 
Georgia Criterion Reference Test. The 1978 control group had received no 
formal career instruction before taking the test, whereas the 1979 
experimental group had received such instruction. A second problem of 
the study was to determine if there were differences in relationship of sex in 
reference to the test scores on the career development section of the 
Georgia Criterion Reference Test. 

Both the 1978 and the 1979 Georgia Criterion Reference Test in career 
development consisted of the same twenty objective items. Each student of 
each group, however, was required to answer only ten of the objectives. 
The objective questions differed from student to student. 

In addition to the above mentioned test, both groups were given the 
Iowa Test of Basic Skills to determine mental ability. The t-test statistic 
was computed to determine if there was a difference between the means of 
the two groups. The mean score of the experimental group was 
significantly higher than that of the control group; 

For each of the twenty items of the test, chi-squares were computed to 
determine if there were differences in the way each group (males and 
females and the experimental group and the control group) answered each 
item. These chi-squares showed that on one of the twenty items girls 
answered the item significantly higher than the boys. Also, on one of the 
twenty items the experimental group answered the item significantly 
higher than did the control group. In both instances, on the other criterion 
items, there were no significant differences. 


Chambers, William Vernon, (MA, Psychology, August, 



Personal constructs are described by the author as sentences that 
function descriptively, prescriptively, postcriptively, and as experiences in- 
themselves. A parallel is made between construct theory and music theory. 
Grid techniques are presented that reflect the history and the rationality of 
the modulations of constructs. 

Compton, Bobby W., Jr., (EdS, Secondary Education, June, 


The purpose of this study was to make a comparative ananalysis of the 
recidivism rate for juveniles at the Rome Regional Youth Development 
Center prior to and after the implementation of a behavior modification 
program. Null hypotheses wer used. 

Students were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 
those students who were admitted to the institution from 1968 through 
1971. This group did not receive the treatment of behavior modification 
techniques. The experimental or treatment group consisted of those 
delinquent students who were admitted from 1972 through 1975. This 
group did not receive the treatment of behavior modification techniques. 
The third group consisted of all those students who were admitted during 
the period of 1968 through 1971 and who also returned during 1972 or 
later. This group was admitted prior to the implementation of the behavior 
modification program, but was also subsequently admitted when the 
behavior modification program was in effect. This third group was labelled 
the control-treatment group. 

The analysis of variance was conducted with group, sex and race as 
independent variables and the rate of recidivism as the dependent variable. 
A total of eight hundred seventy-four cases were processed covering a span 
of eight years. Regarding the means of the rateof recidivism of the groups, 
it was found that there was a significant difference at the .05 level with the 
highest rate associated with the group that received the behavior 
modification treatment. Regarding the rate of recidivism means of the 
sexes, it was found that there was also a significant difference at the .05 
level with males having the higher rate. There were no significant 
interaction among the independent variables. It was concluded that the 
behavior modification techniques may tend to increase the recidivism rate 
for delinquent youth. 


Copley, Gary L., (EdS, Secondary Education, August 1980) 




The purpose of this study was to compare views of students, parents, 
teachers, and school administrators of Gordon County concerning the 
objectives for the secondary social studies program. Students and parents 
of students enrolled at the two senior high schools in Gordon County, 
Fairmount High School and Red Bud High School, were used as the 
student and parent population from which the sample was selected. From 
these groups, the sample was randomly selected. All social studies teachers 
in grades five through twelve in Gordon County were asked to participate. 
All principals and assistant principals in Gordon County were used as 
subjects. The administrators in the Gordon County Board of Education 
office, who have input into the development of the social studies 
curriculum, were asked to participate. The four groups rated the 
importance of fifteen objectives of the secondary social studies program 
which had been extracted from the writing of leading social studies 
educators. In order to determine if statistically significant differences 
occurred for each of the fifteen objectives, chi squares were computed 
between the six groups: students-parents, students-teachers, students- 
administrators, administrators-teachers, administrators-parents, and 
teacher-parents. The results revealed that a significant difference occurred 
on ten objectives between students and parents, on one objective between 
students and administrators, on three objectives between students and 
teachers, and on two objectives between parents and administrators. It was 
concluded that significant differences did exist among t .e four groups 
compared concerning the objectives of the secondarj social studies 
program. A second chi square was computed between the ale and female 
student groups to see if there was significant statistical di ference among 
the rating distributions of male and female students. A significant 
statistical difference was found on one objective. There was little d. (Terence 
overall found in the way male students and female students rated the 

Cousins. Barbara, (EdS, Elementary Education, August, 1980) 





The purpose of this study was to determine if directive strategies for 

enhancing positive attitudes toward reading does influence attitudes 


toward reading and reading achievement. The study was designed to 
determine if subjects in the experimental group who received the 
instructional approach for fostering positive attitudes toward reading and 
would score significantly higher on positive attitudes toward reading and 
reading achievement compared to the subjects in the control group who 
did not receive this approach. 

The subjects in the study were thirty third grade students who were 
enrolled in the Title I Remedial Reading Program at the Cartersville 
Elementary School, Cartersville, Georgia. 

Six hypotheses were tested. Four of the hypotheses concerned within 
group gains of attitudes toward reading and reading achievement. Two of 
the hypotheses concerned a comparison between the experimental and 
control groups of change in attitudes toward reading and reading 
achievement gains. 

To determine change in attitude toward reading the following three 
measures were used on pretests and posttests: the Thomas H. Estes 
Reading Attitude Scale which obtained a measure of attitude from 
responses made by students on the attitude scale; the Rowell Attitude 
Scale that obtained measure of attitude according to responses made by 
the students' classroom teachers from observation of students' reading 
behaviors; the third measure was obtained by computation of the 
combined scores of the Thomas H. Estes and the Rowell Attitude scales. 

Reading achievement gains were determined by pretest and posttest 
scores made on the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test. 

The hypotheses were tested by using the correlateu t-tert for statistical 
analysis of within group gains. For comparing differences between groups 
the analysis of covariance was used. The pretest score was the covariate 
and the posttest score the dependent variable. The group was the 
independent variable. The level of significance for rejecting the null 
hypotheses was established as .05. 

Results of the analyses indicated a significant difference of positive 
attitudes toward reading in favor of the experimental group which received 
the directive approach for enhancing positive attitudes toward reading. 

Dulaney, Rhonda Matthews, (EdS, Elementary Education, 
August, 1980) 





This study proposed to ascertain the attitudes of students, parents and 
teachers toward homework. Student, parent and teacher homework 


questionnaires were administered to gather information for the study. 
After the data were tabulated, the results were used to establish 
recommendations/guidelines to foster healthy student attitudes toward 
homework and to improve homework's value. 

The following areas were investigated: 

1. An analysis of the responses of students to items on the student 
homework questionnaire. 

2. An analysis and comparison of the responses of boys and girls to 
items on the student homework questionnaire. 

3. An analysis of the responses of parents to items on the parent 
homework questionnaire. 

4. An analysis of the responses of teachers to items on the teacher 
homework questionnaire. 

5. An analysis and comparison of the responses of teachers, students 
and parents to selected items on the homework questionnaire. 

The subjects for the study were 1 37 sixth year students, 87 parents and 24 
teachers at a middle school in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The school 
has approximately 720 students in grades six through eight in a suburban, 
upper-middle income community. 

The data presented are a tabulation and analysis of the student, parent 
and teacher questionnaires. 

It appears that students, parents and teachers hold, in general, healthy 
attitudes toward homework and consider homework to be beneficial and 

Duncan, Ruth Debord, (EdS, Early Childhood Education, 
August 1980) 





A study was conducted to investigate the effects of teaching 
kindergarten children and to determine if there is a significant difference in 
the scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Test of the children who attend 
the morning session with the children who attend the afternoon session of 
two suburban Atlanta area elementary schools, during the 1979-80 
academic year. 


This study provided a basis to support or reject the null hypothesis that 
children who attend the afternoon session of kindergarten will make 
similar scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Test as the children who 
attend the morning session of kindergarten. The Metropolitan Readiness 
Test was given to the children during the last week of April. The children 
had been in school for a period of eight months. The t test and the mean test 
were used to compare the scores of the two groups of children. Results 
showed no significant difference on five of the readiness subtests and the 
two math subtests. The morning class scored a higher score on the test for 
visual matching, test number three. The t test showed a significant 
difference on test number three with the difference being 035. On the 
composite scores for reading and math readiness, there were no significant 

A recommendation was made for further studies using an entire county 
for the comparison of children attending the morning and afternoon 
sessions of kindergarten. It was also recommended that a breakfast 
program be established at all schools since nutrition plays such an 
important part in a child's learning. It was also advised that the children 
should have a pre-test and a post-test. 

Flowers, Sharon Bookout, (EdS, Secondary Education, 
August 1980) 






The purpose of this study was to determine whether because of a ninth 
grade level introduction to social studies course in Whitfield County, there 
was an increase in student interest in social studies. 

The students used in the study were 56 high school students from 
Southeast Whitfield High School in Dalton, Georgia. Thirty-two of the 
students had completed four years of high school and, in the beginning of 
their ninth grade, they had taken the introduction to social studies course. 
A control group consisting of 24 students who, when they entered the ninth 
grade, did not take the introduction to social studies course. Both groups 
were given the H. H. Remmer's "A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Any 
School Subject," Form A., to determine their initial interests in the social 
studies. The test was administered two times to both groups: (l)upon 
entering the ninth grade and (2) at the end of the first quarter of the ninth 
grade. The experimental group was tested a third time. This was four years 
later at the end of high school. 


At the end of the first quarter of the ninth grade year, a comparison was 
made for both the experimental group and the control group. This 
comparison was made of the gain scores in interest in the social studies 
from the beginning of the ninth grade to the end of the first quarter of that 
year. Another comparison was made between the mean gain scores for this 
time period of the experimental group and the control group. Also, a 
comparison of gains in interest in social studies was made for the 
experimental group between the beginning of the ninth grade and the end 
of four years of high school. Comparison was also made between the males 
and females in relationship to their interest in social studies. 

The experimental group, when compared with the control group, did 
not show any significant difference in interest in the social studies at the 
end of the first quarter of the ninth grade. Neither the experimental group 
nor the control group showed any significant gains in interest in the social 
studies between the beginning and end of the introduction course. At the 
.05 level, there was a significant increase in interest in the social studies 
made by the experimental group by the end of four years of high school. 
There was no significant difference in interest in the social studies between 
male and female students. 

Fountain, Anita M., (EdS, Elementary Education, August, 




The purpose of this educational study was to assess the effects of the 
contingency management system, Project Success Environment, on the 
rate of discipline administered by an elementary school principal. Data on 
behavioral incidences over a six-year period were compiled and examined 
to determine the longitudinal effects of the positive reinforcement system 
used in a northwest Georgia rural school. 

The sets of records for the control year and for the five experimental 
years were compared utilizing the chi square method at a selected .05 
significance level. Six discipline areas were also examined for each of the 
years. They were: student conferences and warnings, parent conferences, 
suspensions, paddlings, written assignments, and other disciplinary 

The results of the study exhibited a significant level of effectiveness on 
maintaining student discipline over the five-year period. The calculations 
for each experimental year's totals revealed a significant reduction and 
also revealed a trend toward a continuing decrease in student discipline 
cases handled by the principal. An examination of the areas of discipline 


showed a significant reduction in each category with the exception of 
parent conferences. 

The overall reduction in the discipline cases over the five-year period 
demonstrated the positive effects of Project Success Environment upon 
student behavior. It is therefore recommended that in order to preserve the 
effectiveness of the program, the techniques should be continued, with 
more emphasis on academic behaviors. Systematic record-keeping 
procedures should be maintained, for the effects of the program may have 
further implications in the future for those who have participated and for 
other schools that wish to improve the social and academic behaviors of 

Hague, Nancy, (EdS, Early Childhood Education, March 






The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the early 
childhood graduate education program at West Georgia College on the 
teaching processes of its graduates from June, 1979, to June, 1980, who 
had earned a masters degree and had returned to teaching. Evaluative 
questionnaires developed by the early childhood education department 
were completed by graduates and their supervisors to determine the skills, 
characteristics, and behaviors in the teaching processes. The positive 
results are shown by raw score, percentages, mean scores, and the 
percentage relationships of matched pairs of supervisors and teachers. The 
conclusion from the study is that the early childhood graduate education 
program has positive effects upon the teaching processes of the graduates. 

Moore, Suzanne, (EdS, Elementary Education, August, 






This project was designed to study the role of the volunteer teacher and 
his problems, to determine his inservice needs, and identify his attitudes 
towards Christian education. The subjects were the volunteer teachers of 
the Cathedral of Saint Philip in Atlanta, Georgia. The length of the study 
was seven months. 


Questionnaires to assess the volunteer teachers on inservicc u^^ 
attitudes toward Christian education, and general information were used. 
The results were tallied to form group profiles, using raw scores and 
weighted scores. 

The conclusions made as a result of this study indicate: 

1. A majority of volunteer teachers have attended the Cathedral of 
Saint Philip over eleven years. 

2. There were dominant topics which volunteer teachers want covered 
in future inservice training. 

3. Inexperienced teachers have different inservice needs than 
experienced teachers. 

4. There was no one approach to Christian education that most 
volunteers adhered to.. 

5. Participants who chose the same approach to Christian education 
have common inservice needs. 

James, Robert Louis, (EdS, Secondary Education, March, 


The purpose of this study was to provide a resource guide for teaching 
the history of Polk County, Georgia. At the present time, there is no 
resource guide for this purpose. 

The heart of this resource guide is a compilation of sources of local 
history in Polk County. There are biographical sketches on people whose 
knowledge and experiences equip them to discuss selected areas of Polk 
County history. These individuals reside in Polk County and are available 
and seem willing to share their particular knowledge. 

Also included are depositories of information. These depositories 
include courthouses, city halls, newspapers, libraries, city directories, and 
historical societies. 

Other sources of local history included are historic sites. These include 
churches, cemeteries, historic markers, and historic homes. 

Finally, there are five taped interviews with four people who collectively 
cover a wide range of topics in Polk County history. 

The emphasis in the study was that of finding and annotating 
depositories of information and interviewing selected individuals who 
have special knowledge of some aspect of Polk County history. 


Johnson, Forrest Clark, III, (MA, History, August, 1980) 



The purpose of this work is to examine the development of LaGrange, 
Georgia in the Nineteenth Century from a small, frontier county seat in 
1828 to an important, modern Georgia city in 1900. In tracing LaGrange 's 
history, the paper accentuates social, economic, cultural, and 
governmental growth within the urban pattern. The value of studying this 
single town is to learn more about Southern urbanization since relatively 
little research has been devoted to the growth of smaller Southern cities. 
We gain greater understanding of the larger scheme by closely examining a 
tiny part of it. We see patterns in LaGrange which reflect those of the 
town's region — the Georgia cotton belt — and which are universally typical 
of urbanization. Additionally, we gain a perspective of the variances which 
made LaGrange exceptional by seeing how its people handled the urban 
process. State history is enhanced through this study because 
consideration is seldom given to the western section of Georgia in general 

There were many encumbrances in compiling this chronicle, particularly 
concerning primary documentation. City records and local newspapers 
prior to 1874 have been lost or destroyed. There were a few issues of the 
LaGrange Reporter extant for the the years 1868-1870. Fortunately, the 
available newspapers frequently gave information concerning matters 
predating the papers themselves. The balance of primary information 
came from living people and their family papers, census records, 
courthouse records, and papers in the state archives. Poring through, 
extracting, and compiling these records was laborious. Many hours of 
searching would often produce but a single, usable fact. Secondary sources 
were valuable, but few and hard to locate. The one county history, written 
by a non-native in 1933, was full of important data but not cohesively 
arranged. The book was habitually misleading and often vague or shallow 
in areas beyond the author's personal experiences or recollection. State 
histories, especially those written in this century, seldom discuss or 
incorporate specific information or data concerning West Georgia or 
LaGrange and therefore their conclusions did not fit my topic. 

The people who helped me, and to whom I hereby acknowledge my 
appreciation and great debt, were numerous. Many contributed to the 
accumulation of my knowledge on the subject but I must limit mention of 
all but the principal ones, who are: Col. James W. Boddie; Mrs. Enoch 
Callaway, Jr.; Mr. Fuller E. Callaway, Jr.; Mrs. Mary Jane Hill Crayton; 
Misses Katherine and Pearl Dozier; Mrs. Edgar H. Dunson; Mrs. John D. 
Faver; Mrs. Reuben Garland; Mr. and Mrs. Curtis Glass; Mrs. Cato 
Green; Dr. Waights G. Henry, Jr.; Mrs. Ethel Dallis Hill; Mrs. Talmadge 


Alfred Hogg; Mrs. F. C. Johnson, Sr.; Mrs. Pierce T. Lee; Mrs. Arthur E. 
Mallory, Sr.; Mrs. Raymond W. Martin; Miss Tommie C. Martin; Mr. 
Kenrick W. Mattox, Sr.; Dr. and Mrs. Emory R. Park; Mrs. Raleigh Park; 
Mrs. Edward E. Strain, Jr.; Miss Theodora Thomas; Mrs. Arthur 
Thompson; Mrs. Forrest Truitt, Sr.; and Mrs. John D. Westervelt. These 
people and others shared their family papers, oral traditions, 
remembrances, and knowledge with me and gave me many interesting 
insights into LaGrange history. 

I owe a great debt to Mayor Gardner Newman, and the LaGrange city 
council for making city records available to me after hours and to Mr. 
Christopher Boner and the staff of Coleman Library, particularly Mrs. 
Mary Lou Dabs, for invaluable assistance. Much of my research would not 
have been possible without the facilities which the Fuller E. Callaway 
Foundation and the Callaway Educational Association provide; I thank 
them. Also, I wish to thank the staff of LaGrange Memorial Library, Mrs. 
Donald R. Curry of Troup High School, and the people at the Georgia 
Department of Archives and History in Atlanta, with special thanks to the 
Surveyor General's office. I am indebted also to Mrs. Elizabeth W. 
Traylor, Clerk of Court, Troup County, and her staff, as well as Judge Ely 
W. Hanson, Probate Judge of Troup County, and his assistant, Mrs. 
Virginia B. Coker, for their immense aid. 

I wish to give special thanks to Miss Paula A. Smith of LaGrange and 
Mrs. Richard A. Folk of Carrollton for their help with editing, to Mrs. 
Susan F. Johnson of LaGrange for the typing, to Miss Vicky Myers of 
Carrollton for the map work, and to my faithful cousin Mary Martin 
Davis Bowen, whose agony throughout this project has nearly equalled my 

Last, though far from least, I extend my gratitude to the faculty of West 
Georgia College, specifically to my committee. Professor Theodore Fitz- 
Simons, Dr. J. David Griffin, Dr. Robert R. Myers, and Dr. Richard R. 
Folk. Without these four men this study would have lacked depth and 
meaning; they would not let me be satisfied with second-rate work. 
Professor Fitz-Simons and Dr. Griffin were extremely helpful suggesting 
additional sources and interpretations and Dr. Myers contributed greatly 
by suggesting alternative insights and approaches. I owe Dr. Folk, in 
particular, a great and unpayable debt for his years of work, faith, and 
encouragement. Dr. Folk has been for me as Virgil was to Danta — a guide 
through Hedes. 


King, Kay Brown, (EdS, Elementary Education, March, 






The following study was conducted in order to determine the effect of 
television viewing on reading achievement and to determine the existence 
of a relationship between viewing hours from grade to grade. Students 
from the Main Elementary School were involved in the study. 

A questionnaire requiring information on the student's weekly number 
of television viewing hours was issued to all students in grades one through 
six to be completed by the student's parents and returned to the teacher on 
a voluntary basis. In relating television viewing to reading achievement, 
only those students who had taken the Georgia Criterion Referenced Test 
during the 1979-1980 school term and who had returned the questionnaire 
were used. This included students from second, third, fourth, and sixth 
grades. Special education students were not used. Scores from the reading 
section of the Georgia Criterion Referenced Test were obtained from the 
school's composite record of the test results and recorded on the students' 

The Pearson Correlation Coefficient test was used to compare television 
viewing hours and reading achievement scores. Findings indicated a 
nonsignificant positive correlation between these two variables. A 
Crosstabulation and Chi-square test also yielded a nonsignificant 

In determining the relationship between viewing times of each grade, all 
students from grades one through six who returned the questionnaire were 
used. This included special education students. The mean viewing time 
from each grade was computed and compared. No consistent increase or 
decrease in viewing time was found from grade to grade such as existed in 
similar research studies. However, in agreement with other studies, the 
peak viewing time was found to occur in the sixth grade. 


McKibben, William Park, (EdS, Administration and 

Supervision, August, 1980) 





As is the case with many school systems in the State of Georgia, the 
Carroll County School System is faced with the situation of having many 
varied needs in the area of maintenance services but only limited service 
from the existing maintenance department. 

The many facilities owned and operated by the Carroll County School 
System are all cared for and repaired by the county maintenance 
department. These facilities are very diversified in nature, including 
classroom buildings, lunchroom facilities, gymnasiums, county offices, 
and numerous outbuildings and storage units. 

The maintenance department of the Carroll County School System 
makes every efort to adequately service the above mentioned bacilities 
with its equipment and personnel. The mamtenance personnel do a good 
job with minor school repairs, yard care, and maintenance and 
landscaping services. 

However, the Carroll County Schools are faced with problems that 
could possibly be remedied through some different maintenance 
procedures. Through this study the school system maintenance operation 
has been surveyed, showing the present maintenance department, the cost 
of personnel salaries and benefits, general department operation, 
equipment operation, and costs relevant to the department in general. 

A comparison of the costs of present maintenance department 
operations and outside contractual services was established. A system of 
partial county maintenance and limited outside contractual services was 
also surveyed. 

It has been shown how the individual schools can better train their 
existing custodial personnel to do a more adequate job in the various 
facilities. This was done in terms of cost and efficiency. 

There were some hmitations to this project in the beginning. Some 
contractors were hesitant to estimate costs for contractual services that 
they might be called upon to perform, but a system to overcome this 
problem was derived and explained in the research project. 

The emphasis of the project was to compare contractual maintenance 
services with the present system of county maintenance to determine the 
most cost effective usage of personnel and funds. 


Data was collected from county records, cost surveys, personal 
interviews, and relevant research in similar areas. Any costs and pricing 
rates cited in this project were current only during the 1979-1980 school 
year. Each system must survey costs as they relate to their particular needs. 

McMillen, Patrick Bertram, (EdS, Special Education, March 





In the late fall of 1978, the decision was made by the Catoosa County 
Board of Education to move the hearing impaired children of the county 
from a regional center for exceptional children into the mainstream of the 
regular school program. 

The purpose of this study was to describe how a plan was developed and 
implemented to accomplish this. 

Seven hearing impaired children, ranging from five to sixteen years of 
age, were involved in a mainstreaming plan developed at Battlefield 
Elementary School, a school having 400 students and serving kindergarten 
through the sixth grades with twelve regular and two special education 

A review of the current literature and research was conducted which 
helped form the base for the implementation plan at Battlefield. A step by 
step description of the plan was outlined in the study. 

The conclusions reached were that a gradual evolutionary approach 
with a four-phase program of mainstreaming hearing impaired children 
into the regular classroom appeared to be the most successful in the 
Catoosa County situation. Secondly, the degree and extent that a hearing 
impaired child was mainstreamed largely depended on the individual 
readiness of the child, as determined by the educational team working with 
the child. Thirdly, the primary goal of the program was the preparation of 
hearing impaired children to be able to participate in the hearing world. 
Fourthly, an intensive program of orientation and training with the 
regular and special education staff, the students, the parents, and the 
community facilitated the chances for success. Lastly, a strong 
commitment to the concept of mainstreaming and the development of 
strategies to accomplish that end also contributed to the success of the 
Catoosa County program. 

The study was limited due to its locahzed nature and small numbers of 
children involved. The strategies, plans and conclusions found in this study 
may not be suited for every school system, and therefore should noi be 


generalized. On the other hand, it is feU that due to the recent trends in the 
education of the handicapped the study has significance because it is a 
practical application of current theories. It is possible that the Catoosa 
County experience would be helpful to others who might wish to 
mainstream their hearing impaired children. 

Murphy, H. Lynn, (EdS, Elementary Education, March, 





An experimental research study was conducted to decide if the 
implementation of movement education activities would result in an 
increased level of reading readiness at the end of the kindergarten 
experience. Group One was given the usual kindergarten experience with 
the added treatment of selected movement education activities. Group 
Two received the usual kindergarten experience only. Group One and Two 
were considered to be equivalent because their assignment to classes was a 
result of random selection. Both groups were taught by the same teacher. 

A four area reading readiness test was administered as a posttest-onlv 
control group design. The t test was selected as the analysis to compare the 
gains of the two groups. While the experimental group appeared to have a 
greater gain than the control group, the gains were not great enough to be 
considered significant. The result of the statistical comparison revealed 
that the implementation of movement education activities in the 
kindergarten does not necessarily result in increased levels of reading 

Murray, Barry W., (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 





The main problem of this study was to determine whether or not a 
difference in the level ofeconomic understanding existed between business 
education teachers and social studies teachers. Secondary problems of the 
study were to determine whether or not a difference in the level of 
economic understanding existed between elementary school teachers and 
social studies teachers, elementary school teachers and business education 
teachers, and between male and female teachers. 


The population of this study was composed of two hundred and four 
experienced teachers from the metropohtan Atlanta area who participated 
in workshops on economic education held from 1966 to 1977 at Georgia 
State University. Of these, fifty-six were males and one hundred and forty- 
eight were females. The sample consisted of one hundred and five social 
studies teachers, forty-four business education teachers, and fifty-five 
elementary school teachers. 

The data were collected from records of economic education workshops 
at the Center for Business and Economic Education, Georgia State 
University, Atlanta, Georgia. The Test of Economic Understanding, Form 
A, developed by the Joint Council on Economic Education, was used to 
measure the level of understanding of economic concepts. The statistical 
technique used to test for differences between the groups was the t-test for 
independent means. 

The findings indicated no significant difference at the .01 level in 
economic understanding between business education teachers and social 
studies teachers. Elementary school teachers' level of economic 
understanding was significant!)' lower than that of social studies teachers 
and business education teachers. Female social studies and business 
education teachers were less knowledgeable about economics than were 
their male conterparts. 

Owens, Vera Y., (EdS, Elementary Education, March, 1980) 






The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Oral 
Communication and Total Communication on vocabulary development 
based on test results from the Vocabulary Sub-test of the Stanford 
Achievement Test. 

The subjects for this study were randomly selected from the composition 
of Fifth Year classes 1971-72 and 1977-78. These time periods represented 
the children taught orally and the children taught utilizing Total 
Communication during their first five years of schooling. 

For comparison the subjects tested in the spring of 1 972 were assigned to 
the Oral Group while those tested in the spring of 1 978 were assigned to the 
Total Communication Group. Twenty-four test scores were assigned to 
each group. 

The mean , standard deviation and difference in the mean were 
computed. The significance of the difference in the mean was arrived at 


through appHcation of the t-test. The difference proved to be significant 
beyond the .01 level of confidence. It was concluded that utilizing Total 
Communication with the deaf will very likely result in higher vocabulary 
development than will Oral Communication alone. 

Sanders, C. Wayne, (EdS, Elementary Education, August 






The Reading/ English Rotation Project was designed to improve 
reading skills of students two or more years behind in reading 
achievement. Forty-six sixth grade students fro Rockmart Middle School 
in Rockmart, Georgia qualified for the thirty minute classes daily of 
Reading, English, and Title 1 Skills Lab. All three classes worked together 
to teach needed reading skills. Three teachers and aides coordinated 
instruction as much as possible in order to reinforce these skills. 

Pre-assessment and post-assessment scores from the California 
Achievement Test were used in the analyses. Two sets of scores were used, 
and both came from the reading section of the test. The grade level score 
was used to determine the average reading growth of the subjects prior to 
the sixth grade by dividing the pre-assessment grade level by the number of 
years the student had been in school. This was contrasted with the growth 
made by the student during the sixth grade. A t-test analysis on the 
difference between the two sets of scores was made. The second set of 
scores was taken from the obtained scale scores. These scores allow for 
comparison of all levels of the California Achievement Test. An Analysis 
of Covariance with IQ as the covariate and the difference in scores as the 
dependent variable was applied to determine any significant difference in 
gains among the three groups. The level of significance was established at 

Results from the analyses showed that all three groups improved in 
reading achievement, but only two were significant at the .05 level. The 
growth was significant for the total sample of students involved in the 
study. There was no significant differences in gains among the three 
groups. These statistics indicate that the Reading/ English Rotation 
Project was successful in helping most of the low achievers improve their 
reading skills significantly over prior growth. 


Schumacher, Joseph £., (MA, Psychology, August, 1980) 

Since the dawn of man and the emergence of intellectual consciousness, 
the phenomenon of suicide has initiated not only a paradoxical confusion 
in those who attempt to understand, but also continues to elicit a spiritual 
significance in those who attempt to indulge. 

To the early Greeks, those who "died before their time" were called 
"biaiothanatoi," and considered magical. The teachings of Doogen, the 
founder of the Soto Zen Sect, state "that realization of the fullest meaning 
of life comes only through self-sacrifice and through the negation of 
intellectual apprehension" (Tsunoda, 1958). Suicide has always been an 
accepted means of protest in Japan. Those who consider suicide a plausible 
alternative have been found to prefer literary geniuses like Arthur 
Schopenhauer, Albert Camus, Ryuunosuke Akutagaua, and Osamu 
Dazai who are highly suggestive and extremely accepting of suicide 
(Dazai, 1 969, p. 284). They are also found to possess a lack of concern with 
social welfare and tend to view life in its absurdity. 

Suicides are numerous in Shakespearean plays, and consequently color 
the entire realm of romantic theatre. An audience or literary critic find no 
fault with that, undoubtedly because suicide is a convenient manner of 
ending to which authors have long habituated us. Nevertheless, whenever a 
suicide is impinged upon our awareness we are astonished anew. For in this 
manner of taking leave of one's fellow man, there seems to be a 
disconcerting mixture of free choice and of inevitability, of resolvement 
and of passivity, of lucidity and of bewilderment. 

Suicide holds a significant position in history, ethics, literature, and art. 
We cannot doubt its influence on our lives. Philosophers and theologians 
have been concerned with its moral character, while physicians, lawyers, 
and scientists continue the battle to ground its ambiguous and spiritual 
nature. The phenomenon of suicide has undoubtedly produced realms of 
literature and hoards of statistical studies that only help to confuse the 
issue and heighten the curiosity in those for whom suicide is a possibility. 

Viewed from death certificates, insurance reports, and statistical 
surveys, suicide is the simple and logical consequence of ill mental health, 
discouragement, humiliation, rejection, revenge, or frustration. 
Amazingly, it is not that these explanations are continually ofered. but that 
they are so readily and unquestionably accepted in a world where science 
and everyday experience alike confirm the untrustworthiness of the 

A current discernible trend that may well be a reflection of a growing 
psychology concern in our culture to investigate such an activity in an 
empirical fashion, is to seek to understand the motivations underlying 


behavior within the milieu in which they occur. The following three works 
that appreciate the statistical and cultural perspective are a necessity to the 
eclectic suicidologrst. They are: Suicide: A Sociological and Statistical 
Study (1963) by Louis I. Dumblin; Suicide in Different Cultures (1975), 
edited by Norman L. Farberow; and Status Integration and Suicide {\96A) 
by Jack P. Gibbs and Walter T. Martin. 

Since suicide has been documented as one ofthe first ten causes of death 
in the United States, this country and, in fact, the whole civilized world, is 
challenged to prevent this wastage of life and the suffering and loss 
associated with it. The curative powers of religious faith and ecstacy, 
sympathetic counseHng, and psychiatric psychotherapy have been 
faithfully available to those who seek it. Current authors (e.g., Louis 
DubUn, .1963; Edwin S. Shneidman, 1957; and Norman L. Farberow, 
1961) feel that it is essential that the general public, the clergy, social 
workers, and doctors learn to recognize the symptons of depression, 
despair, isolation that may assist in the prevention of a suicide. 

Be aware of the fact that the author adopts a more permissive view of 
death and accepts the possibiUty of suicide as a plausible alternative for 
particular individuals; but do not assume that the act of self-destruction is 
advocated or even encouraged. The author's view may indeed be a radical 
one, but deserves the right to be acknowledged in light of human rights. 
Because the author believes that anyone contemplating the notion of 
suicide is attempting to enlighten his awareness, which is in any case a 
frightening one, those individuals deserve the right to be supported. 
Anyone interested in creating a crisis program is urged to read Suicide and 
Crisis Intervention (1973) by Sheila A. Fisher, Ph.D. Anyone compelled to 
contemplate a suicidal act and desire emotional support, see Appendix A 
for a Hsting of crisis centers around the United States. 

The first chapter, A Collective Morality, is an attempt to outline our 
collective relationship with suicide in regard to its morality. Philosophical, 
theological, legal, and medical viewpoints were considered as the most 
influential systems of thought in our time. The assumption that these 
systems dogmatically constitute their particular viewpoint toward suicide 
without regard to individual situations, existential choice, or 
condonement of an acceptable view of death was verified. In light of strict 
moral standards, inconsistencies within each particular system were 
revealed and a new way of viewing suicide was considered. 

The second chapter. An Attempt to Understand, reviewed the scientific 
investigation of suicide. Emile Durkheim, Sigmund Freud, and Karl 
Menninger were considered to be the experts in the field. A critique of 
traditionally accepted explanations regarding the understanding of the 
suicidal processes, focused on apriori assumptions, generalizable 
diagnosis, prediction, and prevention. It was concluded that any particular 


system attempting to explain human behavior must rely upon certain 
theoretical foundations that form the basis to make their assumptions. The 
notion of intentional suicide holds no place within these systems of 
thought and thus threaten the foundation they rest upon. 

The final chapter, A Portrait of a Suicidal Style, expresses the author's 
own personal conceptualization of how suicidal behavior should be 
investigated. As such, a view of death must be incorporated before any 
attempt at understanding is begun. Secondly, the individual must be 
respected as unique, situated within a unique set of circumstances, before 
any generalizations or assumptions can be made. The phenomenology of 
suicide rests in the description of disposition. Despair, insecurity, and 
engulfment were elaborated upon as being basic to the suicidal's rationale. 
These are by no means exhaustive. Finally, suicide as an escape from 
freedom and the notion of rebirth and authenticity were touched upon, 
only to initiate thought and huristic questioning. 

The intention of this thesis is to call forth the dogmatism that exists 
within our most respected systems of thought and present an interesting 
alternative. The phenomenon of suicide exists as a logical alternative to 
those who are blind to any other way of being-in-the-world. Suicide may 
be understood as an authentic act in reference to individuality, self- 
directed decision making, and creativity. In place of the restrictiveness of 
prevention I propose a more flexible program; one that accepts a view of 
death, respects individual rights, and sincerely believes in the spirituality of 
life and death. This is considered to be more influential and empathetically 
supportive to the frustrated suicidal individual. 

Shot well, William Edward, (EdS, Administration and 
Supervision, August, 1980) 


This study was an effort to compare student concepts of their school's 
environment in an integrated and non-integrated school. The integrated 
school was Henderson Junior High School, Georgia. The non-integrated 
school was Dawson County High School, Georgia. 

Three hundred and nine students in the eighth grade classes at both 
schools responded to a questionnaire which reflected their attitudes about 
certain school situations. Fourteen subscales of the Learning Environment 
Inventory (LEI) were used to identify desirable and undesirable 
characteristics in the respective schools. Henderson Junior High had the 
larger eighth grade class with its 221 students. 

There was a statistically significant difference in eight of the fourteen 
subscales compared. The F-ratio test was used to determine the level of 


significance at the .05 level. 

In this study integration had no adverse effects on school environment. 
In fact the integrated school had many more desirable characteristics than 
did the non-integrated school. This study possibly indicates that the 
organizational structure, quality and quantity of curriculum offerings, and 
the student's involvement have more effect on school environment than 
does integration. 

Sims, Lee R., (EdS, Administration and Supervision, June, 





Change is essential for the productive growth of an education system. 
This study was needed to determine what methods were being used by 
North Georgia Administrators to bring about change in their schools and 
to determine if the changes were effective. 

A one-page, ten-question questionnaire was developed and mailed to 
138 principals in the North Georgia area. The questions on the 
questionnaire dealt with the incidence of change in the past and the 
prediction of incidence of change in the future, the amount of planning 
that was done and will be needed to bring about change in the future, the 
type of change method used by principals, the amount of success principals 
have had in bringing about the desired change and the effectiveness of 
these changes. 

Questionnaires were returned by 115 principals. The problem solving 
method of bringing about educational change was the method most used 
by North Georgia principals. 

North Georgia principals indicated that a great deal of planning has 
been done in the past five years. Principals indicated that they had success 
in producing the desired effects through change. 

A variety of responses to the frequency of change in the past and in the 
1980's was given. Principals indicated that Changes would occur a little 
more frequently in the I980's. 

The overall conclusions of ranking change sources in the past were the 
same s the overall ranking of change sources in the I980's. 

Desire of the school was first; mandates from the state were second; 
mandates from the local level were third; mandates from the federal level 
were fourth; and community pressure was fifth. 


Principals overwhelmingly indicated that more planning would be 
necessary in the future to bring about educational change. 

Slate. Donald Lee, (EdS, Elementary Education, March 





The purpose of this research project was to compare the achievement of 
students whose language arts instruction was centered around their basal 
reading program with that of students being taught in a traditional 
language arts program using the reader, language book, and speller in 
separate sequences. 

One hundred and one third grade students at Lithia Springs Elementary 
School were given the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (reading and 
language subtests) on September 25, 1978, and at the end of the year on 
May 14, 1979. Complete data was obtained from 43 students in the control 
group and 46 students in the experimental group. 

The students in both groups were taught their language arts program foo 
two hours each day for 140 days. The control group followed the 
traditional method of instruction using separate reading, language and 
spelling books. In the experimental group, the basal was the central 
textbook for teaching reading, language and spelling skills. 

The hypothesis tested in the study was that there would be no significant 
difference in reading or in language achievement between students taught 
using a basal-centered language arts program and students taught in a 
traditional program. 

The data obtained concerning reading and language achievement were 
analyzed by using the analysis of covariance. Significance was measured at 
the .05 level using a two-tailed F test. The difference in scores between the 
groups was not significant on either the reading or language tests; 
therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected. The results indicated no 
difference in the effectiveness of basal-centered versus traditional language 
arts instruction. 


Smallwood, William Earl, (EdS, Elementary Education, 
August, 1980) 





This study was an attempt to compare the achievement of students who 
were taught geometry by three different methods. 

During the eight weeks period from March 17, 1980 through May 30, 
1980, three sixth grade groups at Ringgold Intermediate School, 
Ringgold, Georgia were matched for ability and aptitude. This matching 
was accomplished by noting mean IQ and aptitude scores. Then, within 
each of three possible pairings of the three groups, individuals were 
matched pairwise on the basis of their ability and aptitude. The three 
teachers involved in the study taught their group for five fifty minute 
periods each week over an eight weeks period. 

One group of fifteen subjects became the experimental group which was 
taught using only the Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) 
program. The control group, consisting of fifteen subjects, was taught 
using the text Mathematics for Mastery published by Silver Burdett 
Company. The comparison group, consisting of fifteen subjects, was 
taught using both the text and the DMP program. 

A pretest over circles and angles was administered to each group at the 
same time by their teacher. A posttest similar in form, though more 
extensive, was administered to each group simultaneously at the end of the 
study by their teacher. An analysis of co-variance was the statistical 
method used in the study. IQ was the covariate. Gain was the dependent 

It was concluded that the comparison group using both the textbook 
and the DMP methods scored higher than did either the experimental 
groups using only the DMP methods or the control group using only the 
textbook methods. The difference was significant at the .05 level of 


Souza, Katherine McLeod, (EdS, Secondary Education, 
March, 1980) 



This study was conducted to determine what effect, if any, the use of a 
skills-based reading program, published by Houghton Mifflin, had on 
achievement on the reading section of the Eighth-Grade Georgia 
Criterion-Referenced Test. The chi-square technique was used to test for 
significant difference on each test objective between the comparison 
group, the eighth-grade class of 1977 which had no separate reading 
instruction in seventh or eighth grade, the Experimental Group A, the 
eighth-grade only. It was also used to test for significant difference between 
the comparison group and Experimental Group B, the eighth-grade class 
of 1979 which had reading in the seventh and eighth grades. The test data 
reported to the school by the Georgia Department of Education were 
evaluated for three successive classes at a middle school in Cobb County, 
Georgia. The study concluded that the use of the Houghton Mifflin 
Reading Program did not have a significant effect on reading scores on the 
Eighth-Grade Criterion-Referenced Test. 

Swann, James Rocky, (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 


The purpose of this study is to make available to Taylor County social 
studies teachers a resource guide which can be used in the preparation of a 
unit or a course on Taylor County history. Since there has not been very 
much interest in the past in local history, it is hoped that Taylor County 
social studies teachers will use this guide when gathering and writing local 
history to build an interest in local history among the young people. At 
present there is only one history of Taylor County available. Hopefully this 
guide will be beneficial in preparing new histories of Taylor County and in 
providing students with new insights into their own past. 


Sweatman, Carol C, (EdS, Administration and Supervision, 
March, 1980) 




The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of staff 
development on the improvement of teacher competencies as measured by 
the Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments. 

The null hypotheses stated in Chapter I were rejected by the results 
shown in Tables I and II. The staff development offered by Griffin CESA 
had a positive effect on the scores of teacher competencies as measured by 
the Teacher Performance Assessment Instrument. This was shown by the 
improvement measured by the total scores of the treatment group (Table 
I), by the improvement of the scores in specific areas in which staff 
development was taken by the treatment group (Table I), and by the 
percentage of teachers who improved their scores after participating in 
staff development (Table II). 

Vickery, Edward R., (EdS, Administration and Supervision, 
June, 1980) 


Schools cannot exist apart from the communities in which they serve. 
Decisions made by the schools concerning the education of children affects 
the community in many ways, and it is important that citizens be informed 
about the school's programs and that their input is sought when decisions 
are to be made. 

The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of citizens in 
Catoosa County about their schools. Questionnaires were mailed to a 
random sample of 30 1 persons on the Catoosa County voters' registration 
list. A total of ninety-five questionnaires was returned; and responses from 
these were analyzed and tabulated on the basis of age, sex, educational 
level, school district, time of residence, and the number of children in 
Catoosa County public schools. 

Questions used on the survey instrument were patterned after those used 
en a national survey by George Gallup in order to allow a comparison of 
local attitudes with those nation-wide. 

Results of the study indicate that local citizens rate their schools and 
teachers about the same as the national group, assigning them a grade of 
*'C." Catoosa County citizens indicated that schools today are not 
providing students with an education equal to that of earlier schools. 


Citizens rated discipline problems in the schools and the use of drugs 
and alcohol as the two biggest problems facing our schools today. They 
expressed by a larger margin that schools do not provide students with 
adequate moral and ethical training. 

Respondents were equally divided on whether the schools should 
continue to offer a wide variety of courses or whether they should offer a 
few, more basic courses. They were basically in agreement that extra- 
curricular activities were important and felt that adequate attention was 
being devoted to these activities. They were in agreement that vocational 
education should be a part of the high school curriculum and also that a 
college education was important. However, they did not express 
satisfaction with the schools' college preparatory program. 

A great majority of respondents indicated that the schools did not 
provide them with enough information about the schools. Most of the 
information they do receive was reported to come from friends and 
students which indicates a clear need for an organized systematic program 
of public information. 

On the basis of the findings of this study, recommendations made to the 
school system were ( 1 ) that there is a need for the school system to develop 
a method for continuously determining the attitudes and opinions of 
citizens about specific issues in our schools; and (2) that a systematwide 
public relations program should be implemented to better inform the 
public about their schools. 

Wingo, W. Bruce, (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 1980) 



This paper is an explanation of the reasoning behind and the process of 
writing a new textbook dealing with the study of Georgia. It considers the 
problems facing junior high school teachers who are forced to teach a 
subject without the proper text. The paper then details the steps and 
rationale behind the actual writing of a textbook designed for junior high 
school students. Finally, the paper offers advice to teachers who decide to 
write material for the classroom. 


Claxton, Robert H. 

Series editor. West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences. 

Associate Editor, Annals of the South Eastern Council on Latin American 
Studies (1980-1981). 

"Climate and History: An Introduction," Environmental Review 
Bibliographic Supplement III (1979-1980), pp. 89-103 

"Drought in Nineteenth Century Venezuela," paper presented October 1 1, 
1980, Pacific Coast Council on Latin American Studies, Laguna Beach. 

"Notable Late-Season Guatemalan Rain Storms in Historic Perspective," 
paper presented November 24, 1980, South Eastern Division, Association 
of American Geographers, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg. 

Powell, Bobby 

"Simulating Solar Eclipses" with George Bagwell, The Science Teacher 46 
(April, 1979), 42. 

"Combinations of Third-order Elastic Constants of Lead," with M.J. 
Skove, Journal of Applied Physics 57 (June, 1980), 3433. 

"Finite Deformations in Lead Filamentary Crystals," with M.J. Skove, 
Bulletin of the American Physical Society 25 (February, 1980), 129 

"A New Observatory" with Don Ethridge and Dennis Holt, Georgia 
Journal of Science 38, (April, 1980), III. (abstract) 



/, /y 





A Unit of the University System of Georgia 


Volume XIV 

May, 1982 



Volume XIV May, 1982 


OF/ ''':^^/^'£& 

Readability of Introductory Accounting Textbooks — 
G.A. Swanson and Al Hartgraves 

India's Struggle To Eliminate Poverty — 

Lee Jan Jan 6 

Tonal Contrasts in the Imagery of Robert Frost — 

Charles L. Daniel 12 

Charisma in Literature: An Examination of Fictional Charismatic 

Leadership — Daniel Brantley 16 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 25 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty 

as of January 1, 1981 71 

Copyright c 1982, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S. A. 

Published by 

Maurice K. Townsend, President 
John T. Lewis, III, Vice President and Dean of Faculties 

Learning Resources Committee 
Daniel Juengst, Chairman 

Charles Beard Paul Masters 

Spencer Hamada Elizabeth Phillips 

Lynn Holmes Constance Poster 

Wayne Kirk J.B. Smith 

Benjamin Kennedy Lloyd Southern 

Thomas Lightsey Burdette Wantland 

Jimmy C. Stokes, Editor 
Martha A. Saunders, Associate Editor 
Mark J. LaFountain, Assistant Editor 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for faculty 
research and to make available results of such activity. The Review, 
Published annually, accepts original scholarly work and creative writing. 
West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for contributors' views. 
The style guide is Kate L. Turabian's, A Manualfor Writers. Although tne 
Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, 
other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major recitals 
and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted are not 
listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and appears in 
the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all master's theses 
and educational specialist's projects written at West Georgia College are 
included as they are awarded. 


by G. A. Swanson* and Al Hartgraves** 

A problem confronting accounting educators is the disproportionately 
large number of student failures in introductory accounting courses. 
(Similar problems are faced by educators in several other disciplines.) 
Many reasons are offered to explain this problem: inexperienced and ill- 
prepared graduate students often teach the course; better qualified 
teachers are not challenged by this course; non-accounting majors do not 
see the relevance of debits and credits to their planned careers; the 
textbooks are difficult to understand, etc. Any scientific examination of 
the introductory accounting course failure problem will invariably lead to 
investigation of the three main components of the classroom learning 
situation: the students, the teachers, and the instructional materials. All of 
the elements which make up the accounting education scenario can be 
empirically analyzed; however, this research is aimed only at examining 
certain critical aspects of the textbooks used in teaching introductory 

If accounting is, in fact, the language of business — as we accounting 
educators like to declare to our beginning accounting students — then our 
instructional materials should be written to reflect this fact. At most 
colleges and universities the introductory accounting course is taught at 
the sophomore level and is usually the first experience the student has in 
the study of business topics. Concepts and terms introduced in this course 
are essential to the understanding of other business disciplines. If the 
introductory accounting course is to be successful in its mission, first, the 
textbooks used in the course must be written on a level compatible with the 
reading level of the students and, secondly, must be written to teach the 
language most often used in the world of business and industry. 


The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected textbooks used in 
introductory accounting courses for compatibility with student reading 
levels and for compatibility of word usage with vocabulary used in the 
practical application of business administration. 

No attempt was made to establish the actual reading levels of the sample 
texts. Instead, we felt that it would be more meaningful for our purposes to 
use the scores from selected readability tests to compare the relative 
difficulty of the materials. 

To evaluate the degree to which selected entry level texts use the 
language that the students will face in the job market, we compared the 

'Assistant Professor of Accounting, West Georgia College. 
** Assistant Professor of Accounting, Emory University. 

word usage in the texts to the business use word frequency list developed 
by Devern Perry. 

We are indebted to Professors Don Reese and Ray Smith of the 
University of Tennessee for the use of their copyrighted "Analysis of Text 
Material" computer program. Dr. Reese provided us with expert 
consultation on the analysis of the textual material. 

Background on Readability Studies 

Readability measurement has been investigated and applied in 
educational research for many years, using many different techniques. 
Probably the most popular technique used in recent years is the Flesch 
Reading Ease Score which measures written material based on average 
sentence length and difficulty of the words used as measured by the 
number of syllables.' Using a formula, a score is assigned to the reading 
material which can be translated into the education level required to read 
the material with ease. Numerous validation studies of the Flesch 
readability formula have been conducted which slow high correlations 
between readability as measured by the formula, and readership, readng 
speed, comprehension, and retention. 

The major weakness in the Flesch technique is its failure to consider the 
appropriateness of the words used. Theoretically, a given passage could 
score very highly using the Flesch technique, but in fact be totally 
incomprehensible by the reader. 

The Dale readability technique evaluates readability based on average 
sentence length and whether or not the words used in the reading material 
are on a list of the 3,000 most often used words.^,^ Like the Flesch score. 
The Dale score is interpreted by comparing it to an education level scale. In 
validation studies the developer found that his formula predictions 
correlated .92 with judgments of readability experts, and .90 with the 
reading grades of children and adults. A major weakness of the Dale 
technique in evaluating reading material in business literature is that it is 
based on a vocabulary of three thousand words used in general 
conversation and communication. 

As a part of a study at the University of North Dakota, Devern Perry 
developed a list of 12,109 different words used in business letters,'* ranking 
the words according to frequency of use. It is not intended to be a list of 

'Flesch, Rudolph. How to Test Readabiliiy. New York: Harper* Brothers, 1951. 

-Dale, Edgar and Chall, Jeanne S. "A Formula for Predicting Readability," Educational Research 
Bulletin, January 21, 1948, pp. 1 1-20, 28. 

'Dale, Edgar and Chall, Jeanne S. "A Formula for Predicting Readability: Instructions," f^/ufor/ow 
Research Bulletin, February 18, 1948, pp. 37-46. 

<Perry, Davern Jay. "An Analytical Comparison of the Relative Work Combination Frequencies of 
Business Correspondence with Phrase Frequencies of Selected Shorthand Testbooks." Unpublished 
dissertation. The University of North Dakota, 19 

technical words, but includes such words as "the" and "your" which are 
used with frequency in business correspondence. A break-down of the list 
into the most frequently used 200 words, 500 words, 1,000 words, and 
5,000 words gives the researcher greater precision in evaluating the 
vocabulary of the reading material. The study included 2,061 business 
letters with a total of 317,396 running words. 


The three tests of readability and word selection, previously discussed, 
were applied to a total of twenty one-hundred-word textual samples from 
six leading introductory textbooks. Three samples were selected from each 
of the six textbooks, three of which were two-semester textbooks and three 
of which were one-semester financial accounting textbooks. 

The following section presents the results of the three readability and 
word selection tests: the Perry Test, which evaluates only word selection; 
the Flesch Test, which evaluates readability based on number of syllables 
per word and number of words per sentence; and finally the Dale Test, 
which evaluates readability based on word familiarity, number of syllables 
per word and the number of words per sentence. 

Perry Test 

The Perry Test results are presented in Exhibit I which shows the percent 
of the words in each sample which are included in Perry's first 200 words, 
500 words, 1,000 words, and 5,000 words. Sample I of the Niwonger and 
Fess text in Exhibit I would be interpreted as follows: 57% of the words 
included in the sample are found in Perry's list of 200 most frequently used 
words, 69% of the sample are found in the list of 500 most frequently used 
words, etc. One of the difficulties in using the Perry list is the lack of 
definitive standards for evaluating test results. The best available standard 
is Perry's original list in which he found that the 10 most used words 
comprised about 25% of the total words, the 100 most used words 
comprised about 50% of the total words, and the 1,000 most used words 
comprised about 75% of the total words. Applying Perry's original list to 
the accounting textbook sample tests (Exhibit 1), it was observed that 
about 50% of the sample words were included in the Perry 200 word list. 
This finding suggests that, when compared with the Perry 100 word list, the 
textbooks samples compare unfavorably with the 50% standard. However, 
when compared with the Perry 1,000 word list, the textbook samples 
compared favorably to the standard of 75%. Two-semester textbook 
samples overall reflected somewhat higher percents than did the one- 
semester texts, thus indicating better word selection by the two-semester 
textbook authors. 

Flesch Test 

The Flesch Test results are presents in Exhibit II, along with a 
presentation of the Flesch Formula. Note in the formula that the variable 
values for the number of syllables per 100 words and the number of words 

per sentence are subtracted from the constant 206.835. Therefore, the 
greater number of syullables and the longer the sentences, the lower the 
Flesch score. Accordingly, the lower the Flesch score (the reading ease 
score), the more difficult the reading material. 

Unlike the Perry tests, which seemed to favor two-semester books on the 
basis of word selection, the Flesch tests indicated slightly greater reading 
ease for the one-semester text overall, but the difference is too slight to be 
conclusive. The overall difference is caused primarily by the substantial 
spread between the Flesch scores for Niswonger/ Fess and Hobbs/ Moore. 
The other texts scored quite closely to their sister publication (i.e., 
Meigs/Meigs with Meigs/Johnson and Welsch/ Anthony with 
Pyle/ White Larson). 

Dale Tests 

Exhibit III presents the Dale Tests of the text samples. The Dale Test 
evaluates readability against a standard vocabulary and on the basis of 
sentence length. Notice in the Dale Formula on Exhibit III that the 
variable values are added to the constant of 3.635; thus, unlike the Flesch 
Score, the higher the Dale score, the more difficult the reading material. 
The Dale tests indicated a higher level of readability (lower score) for the 
two-semester texts than for the one-semester texts. More important is the 
finding that under the Dale test every sample tested resulted in either a 
"difficult" or "fairly difficult" rating. These would be comparable to " 11 -1 2 
years" and "13-15 years" of reading achievement, respectively. 

General Remarks 

The most striking finding of this research is that the readability tests 
conducted reflect generally a level of reading difficulty that is beyond the 
reading skills of a large portion of the students taking introductory 
courses. Conclusive data are not available concerning the reading level of 
college students; however, every source examined on this issue indicated 
that a substantial percentage of all college students possess a sub-college 
reading level. The research presented in this paper suggests that most 
students would be incapable of reading many accounting textbooks. 

For purpose of evaluating the relative readability of alternative 
textbooks, this research also suggests that caution should be exercised in 
the use and interpretation of readability models. As evidenced here, the 
various accepted models do not always produce similar results. 
Consequently, we would suggest that in selecting and utilizing a model, 
one should be certain that the measurement objectives and the readability 
model used are compatible. 

Another caveat should be mentioned. Undue reliance should not be 
placed on any readability test; there are many important learning features 
of textbooks which none of the accepted readability measures takes into 
consideration. Moreover, there are many non-textbook factors (such as 
supplementary materials) which may have an important impact on 

Several observations and recommendations are appropriate in view of 
the findings of this study. First, it should never be assumed that textbooks 
are readable by the average student. On the contrary, evidence indicates 
that many textbooks are too difficult for the intended student audience. 
Consequently, it is important for college faculty and administrators to 
exercise care in selecting textbooks to ensure that the difficulty level of the 
text material matches the reading competency of the students. 

Textbook authors play the critical role in determining the readability 
level of textbooks. 5 Authors, therefore, should be particularly sensitive to 
the reading competency of their intended audience and should adjust their 
textual compositions accordingly. Textbook publishers also have an 
important role in providing readable textbook materials. Although most 
publishers often use readability tests to evaluate proposed new textbooks, 
there is no evidence to suggest that publishers place high priority on 
ensuring that textbooks are written at the appropriate readability level. 
Most publishers base their acceptance of textbooks on the reviews and 
recommendations of other faculty who are usually not qualified to 
evaluate the readability of the material. We would recommend that 
publishers take a more formalized approach to the evaluation of textbook 
readability and that the reading level of new textbooks be determined by 
the publisher and published in textbook promotion materials. 

The readability problem obviously is not limited to specific courses or 
disciplines; faculty and administrators in all disciplines should be aware of 
the potential problem of incompatibility of text material and student 
reading skills. Two of the tests illustrated in this article (the Flesch and 
Dale Tests) can be used to evaluate readability in all disciplines. The Perry 
Test, however, would be most appropriate only for business related 
disciplines. With the aid of computer programs, evaluation of readability 
is significantly simplified, making it practical for colleges and universities 
to adopt readability level evaluation requirements for all new textbook 

'Osborne, Donald L. and Barnes, Michael. "Reading Levels of Freshman and Sophomore students and 
the Readability of Their Textbooks," Reading Improvement, Summer 1979, pp. 158-162. 


by Lee Jan Jan* 

When people who come from developed countries look at India, their 
immediate impression is one of vast poverty. They see the majority of the 
people suffering from hunger, ill health, and misery. They see the whole 
country as technologically backward, people as uneducated or ignorant, 
the government as disorganized and incompetent, religions and 
philosophies as outmoded, impractical, and unable to adjust to the 
survival of the contemporary world, and thus as a hindrance to progress. 

The reactions to the above impression depend on the individual. Some 
see great opportunity for business exploitation; the situation may provide 
a market for low quality products, dated machinery or technology, while it 
provides cheap labor and natural resources. Some worry that vast poverty 
may be a good breeding ground for communism. The lack of technology to 
defend the country may eventually lead it to become an incorporated part 
of the communist block, which will present a great loss to the free world 
because of its massive land and population. Some feel the living conditions 
of the people are intolerable and inhumane. Some drastic improvements 
need to be made, whether they come from the western industrial, 
capitalistic model, or a bloody revolution along the Chinese communist 

With a group of fifteen college teachers the author participated in a 
summer program titled "Social and Economic Development through 
Science and Technology" in India. The program was sponsored by the 

U.S. Educational Foundation in India, and the U.S. Department of 
Education, and was managed by the Fulbnght House in India. As a group 
we travelled through India for six weeks, visiting factories in the cities, 
farm and cottage industries in rural areas and holding seminars with 
academic and research institution faculties. We also visited different 
governmental agencies and their projects. 

Indeed, the author saw the kind of poverty that is well known: for 
example, people living in the streets in Calcutta with only a faucet on the 
sidewalk providing water for their drinking, cooking, and other 
necessities. It rained the night we arrived in Calcutta. Those people had tc 
roll up their belongings and stand under the eaves. The author also saw 
families living under upside down boats on the beach in Bombay, against a 
background of skyscrapers. There were also families living for years in the 
lobbies and on the platforms of railroad stations in Bombay and Delhi 
with no hope of finding a place to stay. In the rural areas most people were 
living in straw huts, with mud walls and floors, a few pots and pans for 
carrying water and cooking, and a bed roll to sleep on. 

•Assistant Professor of Sociology, West Georgia College 


According to Professor Nilakantha Rath, joint director of the Gokhale 
Institute of Politics and Economics (GIPE) at Pune, 40% of India's 
population live under a condition of subsistence, which means they can 
only survive and do not have adequate nutrition. Fish and meat are beyond 
the means of the majority of the people. The annual per capita income was 
about $146 in 1975-1976. 

The problem of poverty as seen by Professor Rath exists because 70% of 
India's population depend on agriculture for a living and land resources 
are limited, with no virgin land to be developed. The alternative, to 
increase per acre unit production, is not very successful because of the lack 
of technology and irrigation. The agricuUural growth rate has been 2.6% 
for the past thirty-year period. Unemployment is very high. Professor 
Rath considers the current estimation of unemployment inadequate and 
grossly underestimated. According to the Statistical Outline of India there 
are 12.7 million currently registered job seekers. Professor K. Dandekar, 
also of GIPE, thinks the problem of poverty and unemployment is 
certainly aggravated by an ever growing population, from 641 million in 
1978-1979, to 654 million in 1979-1980, an increase of 13 million in one 
year's time, while food grains production was down from 131.4 million 
tons in 1978-1979 to 122 million tons in 1979-1980. To alleviate the 
problem, Professor Dandekar indicated that population control through 
family planning is the most urgent measure. Family planning had not been 
very successful until the 1975 Emergency was declared; when 
administrative efficiency was tightened and coercive measures were used, 
the effectiveness of family planning improved appreciably. Overall, before 
the Emergency, the percentage of couples protected from pregnancy by 
sterilization was 12.4% and by all methods together was 15.7% while 
during the Emergency, the percentage of couples protected by sterilization 
was 20.4% and by all methods was 23.5%. After the Emergency the 
percentage decreased: 19.8% of the couples were protected by sterilization 
and 21.6% by all methods. However, this and other policies of the 
government caused Mrs. Gandhi and the ruling Congress Party to lose the 
1977 election. Professor Dandekar felt force, as used in the Emergency, 
could work only to a certain degree, and once relaxed, old habits tend to 
return. She also hoped that all political parties could come together at least 
on certain programs such as family planning, and let elections not be fought 
on issues of such importance to the country. Also needed is a commitment 
by political parties that certain freedoms of the individual will not be 
tampered with; people can be helped in desired directions with constant, 
gradual educative processes. Meanwhile the infant mortality rate has to be 
reduced; female literacy and the status of women in the household and 
society have to be raised. 

Professor Patvardhan and Professor Rath of GIPE discussed the 
possibiity of increasing production by using science and technology. The 
problem here was that the proper science and technology have to be 
developed and transmitted to the people who use them. The expedient way 


is by importing the science and technology that suit the needs of the 
country to begin with; later through imitation, assimilation, adaptation, 
the way may eventually lead to indigenous science and technology. 
However, there are many pitfalls in this approach. Imported technologies 
are primarily designed to suit the domestic demand and conditions in 
developed countries, in particular the life styles and capital-rich labor- 
scarce situation. When transferred to developing countries these 
technologies tend to restrict the employment that is generated by 
investments in industrialization; this increasing unemployment, 
particularly in rural areas, aggravates inequalities and poverty. 

Developed countries have met the minimum needs of the majority of 
their population. They are now focused on increasing levels of affluence, 
concentrating on luxury products, which are ever changing in appearance 
and form, but similar in function and content. As a result of this type of 
consumption, unnecessary resource depletion becomes inevitable. The 
experience of developing countries with this type of technology shows that 
when foreign technologies take root, they can succeed only in creating 
small pockets of developed-county-like environments amidst vast areas of 
deprivation. The benefits of the imported technology tend to be restricted 
to small sections of the population without trickling down to the poor 

Another problem is that reliance on pure growth in terms of gross 
national product, without consideration of the specific nature of the goods 
and services that are produced and of the sections of society that enjoy 
these products, has often meant increasing disparities between the rich and 
poor, and between urban and rural areas. One should not neglect the social 
(distributive) justice which is a necessary element that accompanies 

Developing countries seeking political independence and self-reliance 
have to keep in mind the following when they are importing technology: ( 1 ) 
the tendency of the technology suppliers to use it as a tool to influence or 
control the recipients in all other aspects of their activities; and (2) the 
tendency of the technology supplier to exploit and restrict the growth of 
indigenous technology, when collaboration is under the restrictive 

There are also debates on what type of science and technology should 
have priority. Faculty members and researchers we talked to held different 
views. Some felt that the kind of technology that would directly benefit the 
people in general should have the higher priority. For example, researchers 
in the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad stress bio-gas 
technology, which enables multiple and efficient use of waste material, like 
cowdung. Because it is indigenous, simple and useful, it can benefit the 
people in general, especially the people living in rural areas, who are the 
majority. It can also cut down the reliance on imported oil. Some more 
extreme researchers working with this technology view the highly technical 


sophisticated space program and some fundamental research as irrelevant. 
But scientists and faculty members working at the Indian Space Research 
Organization and Space Application Center in Ahmesdabad, Tata Institute 
of Fundamental Research, BhaBha Atomic Research Center in Bombay, 
amd Jadavpur University in Calcutta, defend their position by arguing 
that India needs to keep pace with the world's scientific development. India 
also needs to retain and develop its scientists by providing them with a 
congenial working and learning environment. Otherwise India will suffer 
as even more severe brain drain than currently exists. Besides, scientific 
and technological independence can be achieved only by developing sound 
indigenous fundamental science, and national security is tightly tied to 
space programs. 

In the process of making science take root and flourish in a country and 
benefit the population, not only does a scientific or technological elite 
group have to be established, the general public also has to be made aware 
of the issues in order to provide support. The public also has to be educated 
to be able to utilize the technology. Education becomes again a 
prerequisite to the success of development of science and technology. 

In education the first problem encountered in India is the diversity of 
languages and low literacy rate. According to Pundalik, Professor of 
Sociology at the University of Poona, there are sixteen linguistic states in 
India, with sixteen major languages and 2,000 dialects. There are six 
official written languages, not including English which is also an official 
language. The literacy rate is about 40%, which means individuals who 
know any one of the above mentioned official written language would be 
considered literate. Two percent of the population know English. Many of 
the elementary schools we visited first teach pupils in their particular local 
language, and beginning in fourth grade, introduce English. 

The diversity of language makes unitorm education and evaluation of 
achievement more difficult and costly. In addition, the low literacy rate 
makes knowledge and technological information diffusion and 
transmission through mass communication media difficult. India also 
faces the same problem as developed countries — the uneven distribution of 
qualified teachers leaves the rural areas underserved. Currently 80% of 
school age children enter primary school; 10% of them enter high school; 
and 70% of the high school graduates enter college. Formal education is 
one of the most important routes for the advancement of social status. 
Because of India's liberal arts tradition in higher education, there is a 
surplus of intellectual elites, but a shortage of technical personnel. 

A single unified language certainly has advantages, but due to political 
and other technical factors it is not possible in the foreseeable future. It 
also may have undesirable effects. Language is the main vehicle in carrying 
on the culture. Therefore the elimination of other languages may also 
eliminate some of those distinct cultures, resulting in a significant loss of 
the richness of Indian culture. 

Besides all the practical considerations in the development of science 
and technology to solve the problem of poverty, there are also 
philosophical considerations. India basically has a non-materialistic 
culture, as exemplified by the late Mahatma Gandhi. He believed the 
economic progress in industrial civilation clashed with real progress. Real 
progress is spiritual and moral growth, and this is the path that leads to 
happiness, because happiness is largely a mental condition. The modern 
industrial civilization can only increase material comforts, which are not 
conducive to moral growth, because they lead to an ever expanding pursuit 
of material desire and a system of life-corroding competition and 
propagation of immorality. 

The legacy of this cultural tradition can be seen among the people we 
met on the streets and the people we visited in their homes. The 
conversations usually centered around some religious or philosophical 
issue, sometimes politics, but rarely concerning material things. Some of 
the homes we visited belong to very rich families. They were owners of 
factories and big hotels, but the home and furnishings were very simple. 
Those people certainly have the money to live more extravagantly. The 
reason for not doing so was not that they do not know differently; they do, 
as they have travelled to the U.S. and some other parts of the world and 
have seen luxurious things. They chose not to, because of their 
philosophical and religious beliefs. They believed in minimizing material 
gains and keeping life simple. This general attitude is not compatible with 
technological development. 

India's frame of reference about time is a very expansive one. They feel 
change, if it ever happens, should be gentle and gradual. It probably takes 
generations. They do not believe in drastic changes. The peace-loving 
Hindu religion and Gandhi's doctrine of non-violence certainly prohibit 
violent or bloody change. 

Even though India has a tradition of empire and a caste system, the 
empire was never strongly united. The people in different states and local 
villages have their own autonomous organizations, governing their own 
business. The caste system now actually serves the function of helping 
lower caste people gain upward mobility by block voting and social 
reform. However, the caste system is gradually breaking down, due to 
social mobility (horizontal and vertical) and governmental regulations, 
such as the Untouchability Offences Act of 1955, which prohibits any kind 
of social, occupational, or business discrimination. 

India is working on its problems. Our group saw governmental projects 
in revitalizing the slum areas in Calcutta. We saw community organization 
work in the villages near Bangalore. We saw different irrigation and 
agricultural projects. We saw bio-gas, crop improvement, and nuclear and 
space research in different institutions. The most impressive aspect is the 
enthusiasm and pride the people take in what they are doing. 

In visiting the industries, we talked to the employers and emplo>«es. 


There appears to be more harmony than conflict between them. Employers 
seem to have a genuine concern for the employee, and therefore more 
devotion from the employees. In visiting schools, we saw bi-lingual 
instruction and children proud that they have the ability to speak more 
than one language. 

These are very encouraging signs. India will find its way, at its own pace. 
There is no need for people from the so-called developed countries to come 
in to make hasty suggestions about what India should do, while ignoring 
their own social problems such as poverty, discrimination, environmental 
pollution, and energy depletion at home. India is not going to be an 
aggressor, as it has never been one. India is also too big to be conquered. 
India is not going to become a communist country either, because India's 
culture is not compatible with violence and dictatorship. 


Tonal Contrast in the Imagery of Robert Frost 

by Charles L. Daniel* 

That Robert Frost was skilled at creating imagery is apparent to even the 
casual reader of his work. Good imagery was so important to him that 
often he constructed a poem around a central image, and he used imagery 
as a vehicle to carry meaning. An examination of his imagery shows several 
aspects to be important, but none is more important than the visual. His 
imagery leads the reader to see clearly and realistically. Further 
examination of this aspect reveals an interesting use of some qualities of 
color to produce the impressions he sought. 

Basically, Frost's visual imagery relies on tone more than on hue. That 
is to say he relies more on light and dark or white and black to create his 
imagery than on other colors in the spectrum. He was fond of the black and 
white drawings of his friend, J. J. Lankes, and seemed to prefer pictures 
which emphasize line more than color. Kathleen Morrison says that Frost 
was color blind.' An inability to distinguish colors or an insensitivity to 
hues might have influenced his reliance on tone. Whatever Frost's physical 
visual condition, however, he used tonal contrast in an artistic and creative 
way which provides initial delight to the reader and establishes an avenue 
into experience from which wisdom later emerges. 

All of this is not to say that the reader never finds a reference to hue in 
Frost's imagery, but such references do not aid the poet in conveying the 
nuances of human experience in nearly as important a capacity as does 
tone. When Frost deals with hue, it is often in a stereotyped way as with the 
"universal blue" and "local green" of "The Middleness oftheRoad,"2orin 
a matter-of-fact way as in the phrase "a paste of pigment in our eyes" used 
to describe a rainbow in "Iris by Night." He sometimes ascribes color to 
ephemeral objects such as flowers or butterflies, and at least once he shows 
color to be only an illusion, when in "Blueberries" he demonstrates that the 
berries are not blue, but black. ^ "Fragmentary Blue" perhaps reveals most 
clearly his attitude toward hue. In this poem he discusses the color blue 
(and perhaps by implication also other vivid hues). He says that blue 
belongs to heaven, not earth, and that in flower or bird or butterbly our 
desire is whetted for more."* Hue, however, comes to man only in minuscule 
ways, lying really beyond his ability to understand or experience 
significantly in this life, and Frost does not delve very deeply into any 

•Associate Professor of English, Valdosta State College. 

'Kathleen Morrison, Robert Frost: A Pictorial Chronicle (New York: Holt, 1974), p. 34. 

■'Robert Frosl, Complete Poems of Robert Frost (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964, p. 547. 

Mbid., p. 78 

Mbid., p. 267. 


other. Hue, then, might help to mark the boundaries of man's sensations, 
but it does not enter into his experience in an integral way as does his 
awareness of tonal variations. 

For Frost, tonal extremes denote ultimates in man's experience. He 
sometimes uses tonal contrasts to portray permanent or constantly 
recurring elements. Dark and light or black and white and gradations of 
these tones are always with us. A sunset may or may not be brilliant red. 
but shades of gray are always there. Night and light are constants. Summer 
or winter human experience finds that tones remain and hues disappear. 
Night, is, of course, a recurring reality. For one living in New England, so 
also is snow. Frost often creates vivid tonal contrast by picturing night and 
snow together. In "The Onset" the contrast is underlined when "gathered 
snow lets down as white/ As may be in dark woods. "^ It should be noted 
that this contrast occurs always "on a fated night." The snowfall, then, is a 
predetermined fact in man's existence. 

"Desert Places" begins with the same two elements, "Snow ailing and 
night falling fast, oh, fast."^ Here, however, another consideration of tone, 
especially of tonal contrast, is important. Frost uses the extremes of tone, 
dark and white, in an almost contradictory way to signify the whole of 
man's experience. That is, he uses opposites to create unity. If one goes as 
far as his experience will allow in one direction and then the same in the 
opposite direction, he finds himself at the same point. Man's life is lived in 
the fluctuation between the extremes or in a consideration of them both at 
once as in the poem above. Here both night and snow represent loneliness: 
"And lonely as it is that lonliness/ Will be more lonely ere it will be less/ A 
blanker whiteness of benighted snow/ With no expression, nothing to 
express."'' A blank whiteness is relatively the same as a blank darkness. It 
should be noted too that this is "benighted snow "( italics mine) and that the 
night and the snow both fall on man as if they emanated from a common 
place. In "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," these two elements 
appear again. Here, however, man's mood is somewhat different. Here 
"The woods are lovely, dark, and deep."^ The snow that is filling up the 
woods adds to their loveliness, and by contrast points up their darkness, 
but still the two elements unite to create their impression of loveliness, and 
an aesthetic unity pervades the scene. 

Light and dark function in a most interesting way to create a sense of 
unity also in two other Frost poems — "Come In" and "Take Something 
Like a Star." In the former poem, categories of light and dark are sharply 

'Ibid., p. 278. 
"Ibid., p. 386. 
'Ibid., p. 386. 
Mbid., p. 275. 


drawn in the image of an open starry sky on the one side and the dark 
woods on the other. The thrush's song from deep within the woods 
beckons to the poet to "come in/ To the dark and lament, "^ but he chooses 
the Hght of the stars instead. Here, then, the opposite symbolic natures of 
light and dark seem to be emphasized along with their counterparts in the 
moods of man. It appears that unity is lacking. Darkness symbolizes man's 
lamentation; light, his joy. But just as this dichotomy of symbolism seems 
to have worked itself out, an artistic ambiguity is noticed which destroys 
the simplicity of the apparent categories. The third stanza of the poem 
reads "The last of the light of the sun/ That had died in the west/ Still lived 
for one song more/ In a thrush's breast. "'<' The light of the sun, then, is j 
transmuted in the bird's breast to a song which "shines" out of the i 
darkness. It is light in the darkness of the woods just as the stars are light in 
the darkness of the night sky outside — a true unity since the parts of the 
dichotomy which seemed opposite are now found to be the same. Further 
ambiguity of the symbolism occurs also. If we consider the darkness to 
symbolize lamentation and light to symbolize joy, the "light" of the bird's 
song puzzles us because it is an invitation not to joy but to enter the dark 
and be sad. Light and dark are both important parts of man's sensation, 
but they are so melded in his experience that he cannot separate them so as 
to choose one and not the other. He chooses light only to find that he has 
also chosen darkness and that the darkness he has rejected contains light. 
A similar relationship occurs in "Take something Like A Star" in which 
Frost says to the star, "We grant your loftiness the right/ To some 
obscurity of cloud — /It will not do to say of night/ Since dark is what 
brings out your light."' ' Here the poet openly states the paradox: opposites 
do not cancel out each other, but each makes it possible for the other to 
exist — a converging of opposites into a unified experience. 

Besides the representation of permanence and unity, however, 
references to tonal extremes convey a sense of the supernatural. Such 
references are always vague in Frost. They lie, however, within the scope of 
man's experience and thoughts, if not within reach of his understanding. 
Images of this sort occur in three poems: "For Once, Then, Something," 
"A Loose Mountain" and "Design." In "For Once, Then, Something" an 
observer looking down a well sees a white substance beneath the water. He 
is puzzled as to whether it is truth, a pebble of quartz, or something else. He 
cannot discern its nature, and the reader is left with an impression that it 
lies beyond the observer's understanding. In "A Loose Mountain," the 
poet speasks of light coming from a night sky in the form of the star 

'Ibid., p. 446. 
'"Ibid., p. 575. 
"Ibid., p. 487. 

shower, Leonid. He interprets these "Hghts" as ammunition used by some 
mysterious, heartless and enormous power which he calls "Outer Black"'^ 
who holds sovereignty over night. This power pelts the lights at mankind 
because man has used artificial light to combat the darkness. The character 
of the "Outer Black," however, is never developed beyond vagueness. Thus 
white in one poem and black in the other symbolize the supernatural. In 
addition to these references one of Frost's most interesting images, comes 
in the poem "Design." Frost uses white in this image as a symbol of death in 
a way reminiscent of the use Melville made of white in "The Whiteness of 
the Whale" in Moby Dick. The reader is told explicitly that part of the 
white in this image is an abnormal white in that the "blue and innocent 
heal-all"'^ plant has turned white for some unknown reason. The scene is 
made up of three components — the heal-all, a snow-drop spider, and a 
white moth. The spider is on the heal-all holding the moth. Frost calls them 
all "characters of death and blight. "He then asks what brought them 
together, suggestmg that it was a "design of darkness." Again, however, 
this reference to a malevolent supernatural force is left vague. Although it 
functions at the center of man's experience and man observes it, he does 
not understand it. 

It is apparent, then, that although Frost emphasizes hue occasionally in 
his imagery, it suggests elements which are ephemeral, illusory, or 
unimportant to man's experience; and hue is often presented in a 
stereotyped or matter-of-fact way. On the other hand. Frost relies on tone 
and especially tonal contrast as material from which to create imagery 
which captures the reader's attention and leads him ultimately to the 
meaning of the poem. The image delights the reader with its realism and 
accuracy. He loses himself in the vision and gives attention totally to the 
elements of the image. These elements symbolize important qualities in 
man's experience. They remind him of factors which are permanent or 
which recur regularly to him; they give him a satisfying insight into an 
underlying unity in opposites; or they lead him through these real elements 
in his experience to the limits of his understanding, forcing him to leave his 
mind open to the existence to the limits of forces both within and beyond 
his experience. His delight in the image, then, leads him to the wisdom of 
the poem; and Frost relies largely on the tonal qualities of black and white 
to create that imagery. 

i^lbid., p, 396. 





by Daniel Brantley* 

"Charisma in Literature" is intended to present, within the brief space of 
an article, a concrete analysis of two novels, The Brothers Karamazov and 
1984. The significance of these works is that they provide insights 
regarding charisma. However, prior to the consideration of the two novels' 
portrayal of charismatic leadership, a brief general statement about the 
charismatic individual in literature is in order. 

The phenomenon of charisma is mentioned in many works of fiction, 
although the term "charisma" and "charismatic" are rarely applied to the 
characters and their relations with and among each other. 

In the Bible there is the charismatic leadership of the prophets, judges, 
God-anointed-kings, messiahs, and apostles. Ancient sources for 
charismatic tales are the recorded deeds of great heroes. There are, for 
instance, the epics of Homer (the Illiad and Odyssey), Vergil's Aeneid, 
Germanic sagas, Celtic tales, and poems by unknown poets such as 
Beowulf and Song of Roland. 

In the early history of charismatic literature, the most frequently 
repeated story is of a hero, usually a warrior, who is extraordinarily brave. 
Hercules is a prototype of this figure. A charismatic legend, as any legend 
or myth, relies little on authenticity for its effectiveness. The meaning of a 
legend is related to the core of a community's self-perception. It is the 
community's truth, a truth which at times is sacrilegious or fatal to 
question. The heroes one admires give forth myths spontaneously: 
Plutarch notes in his Noble Lives that without Achilles and the Illiad, 
Alexander the Great would not have undertaken the conquest of the East. 
Youth has always recognized the charismatic quality of certain fictional 
characters and some youths have adopted them as their models, and 
sometimes in maturity (for example, Alexander the Great and Napoleon 
Bonaparte) have had the inspiration to realize their dream of becoming 
heroes themselves. 

When myths — particularly of the hero variant — become spent and lose 
their efficacy, they often are written down and become literature. The 
process involves the collection of myths and legends and their 
classification as mythology. Poets shape mythology into sagas or epics, 
and priests incorporate its substance into holy books to nourish a religion. 
Where they are part of an oral tradition, they become the tales told by the 
elders, who introduce them into the realm of folklore. 

•Assistant Professor of Political Science, West Georgia College 


Here, the concern is with two fictional treatments of charisma. In the 
case of Dostoyevsky's Grand Inquisitor and Christ Jesus, the conflict is 
between revolutionary and institutionalized charisma. On the other hand, 
Orwell's Big Brother raises the issue of whether or not charisma can be 
artificially created. 

In The Brothers Karamazov, Fyodor Dostoyevsky presents the reader 
with two views of charisma — in the prisoner and the Inquisitor, 
respectively, the revolutionary charisma of the extraordinarily endowed 
individual with a mission and the individual who holds a charismatic 
office. ' 

"The Grand Inquisitor" is a story within a story. It is a parable told by 
Ivan Karamazov, the protagonist, who is an intellectual and atheist. Ivan is 
concerned with the answers to two questions: does humanity still need a 
savior? Can mankind still signify to it that which primarily makes a savior 
(charismatic leader) of him? Ivan beUeves the answers to both questions 
are no. And, he tells the tale of "The Grand Inquisitor" to his borther 
Alyosha, a priest, in order to convince him of the impossibility of 
revolutionary religious leadership in today's world. 

In Ivan Karamazov's vision of the resurrected Christ, the charismatic 
founder of Christianity is not allowed to speak, because the Inquisitor has 
told "Him He hasn't the right to add anything to what He has said of old. "^ 
Moreover, the Inquisitor, as the representative of established authority 
(political as well as religious), rejects Christ because Christ constitutes a 
threat to the status quo. Christ is told that he is no longer needed by 
humanity. Christ gave an example to mankind; this is what the church too 
has done. The difference between the two examples is that the church's 
example (its teaching about salvation) is more easily obtainable than 
Christ's. Therefore, the church by setting a new lower standard has made it 
possible for men and women to believe that they are able to obtain 
salvation if they would conform to its dogma. Thus, according to the 
Inquisitor, a majority of people are happy for the first time because the 
church places salvation within the reach of most people. This was not the 
case when Christ originally shared his inspiration. That inspiration, an 
ideal, succeeded in frustrating people. The Inquisitor makes clear to Christ 
that the church will not permit him to undo the good that it has achieved. 
Christ's insistance on salvation on the old terms would only disappoint and 
make unhappy a majority of humanity, and he will not find followers as 
readily as before. 

There is, of course, reason to challenge the judgment of the Inquisitor 
with respect to Christ's chances of generating a new charismatic leader- 

' Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The Brothers Karamazov , translated by Constance Garnett (New York: Random 
House, 1933). 

^Ibid., p. 260. 


follower authority relationship. The charismatic criterion was established 
by Max Weber, a major figure in modern sociological literature. Weber 
judged authority relationships by their source, that is, the power wielded 
by a charismatic leader is derived from a source of different from that of a 
traditional ruler, be he a tyrant or a king, and equally different from the 
power of a leader selected by means of leagal/ rational procedures. ^ Weber 
in his work recognizes that charismatic authority is a type of rulership 
resting on popular enthusiasm and acceptance of its existence. As such, it is 
fundamentally different from the other two types of authority deah with by 
Weber, namely, traditional and rational-legal. There are passages in "The 
Grand Inquisitor" which clearly point to the fact that people of the 
Inquisitor's time believe that they still need a savior or charismatic leader. 
Ivan's resurrected Christ, who comes softly and unobserved, is recognized 
as a charismatic figure. According to Ivan, the crowd's response is both 
charismatic and spontaneous: the people are irresistibly drawn to him, 
they welcome him with cries of hosanah, and they expect him to perform 
miracles, and he performs the miracle of raising a child from the dead.'* The 
charismatic response of the crowd is witnessed by the Inquisitor, who, in 
Ivan's own words, "sees everything. "^ 

Yet the inquisitor is not impressed with what he has seen. Indeed, he 
orders the arrest and imprisonment of the man who only moments before 
had awed the crowd, who has in a very short time (a matter of hours) 
turned a mob, which had gathered to watch the burning of heretics, into a 
charismatic following. Because of Christ's own silence the reader will never 
know why Christ allowed himself to be taken and made a prisoner. 
Perhaps this question is not important, at least not as important as the 
question which deals with why the crowd allowed its charismatic leader to 
be taken away from it. The answer to this question is suggested by the 
Inquisitor, "man was," according to the Inquisitor, "created a rebel; and 
how can rebels be happy?"* The Inquisitor believes he has the answer. He 

There are three powers, three powers alone able to conquer and hold 
captive for ever the conscience of these impotent rebels for their 
happiness — these forces are miracles, mystery and authority. Thou 
[addressing Christ] has rejected all three and hast set the example for 
doing so.^ 

And he points out to his prisoner that the church controls and uses all 
three. This is the reason the Inquisitor was able to take Christ, the crowd's 

'The theoretical framework for charisma is derived from Weber's general analysis of domination 
discussed in his book. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, translator not named (New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1947). 

^Dostoyevsky, The Brothers Karamazov, pp. 258-259. 


«Ibid., p. 260. 

^bid., p. 264. 


leader, without it rebelling, because to do so would involve an act of 
disobedience to authority. Authority is one of three forces represented by 
the Inquisitor as a spokesman of the church and state. 

There are several meanings of "The Grand Inquisitor." Two of these 
meanings are offered below: these are the psychological and conflict 

In psychological terms, James Downtown attempts an explanation of 
the story. Downton states: 

A charismatic relationship can develop when a leader exchanges 
affection, encouragement, and security for deference and affection. 
Here the charismatic leader is the 'comforter.' For example, 
Dostoyevsky's 'grand inquisitor' is a literary sketch of this type of 
charismatic leader. In such a relationship the leader reduces the 
distance between the follower's ego and ego-ideal by supporting his 

What is implied here is that the Inquisitor's charisma is related to his office. 
His mission, and that of the church, is to spread the charismatic inspiration 
of Christ. Jesus Christ, who is identified as the "ego-ideal," established too 
high an ideal for many (individual "egos") to obtain. As a consequence the 
church eliminated the frustration experienced by those who seek salvation 
by changing the teaching, emphasizing dogma and conformity to the 
church as "keys" to salvation. In the process of easing this frustration, the 
church's officials, like the Inquisitor, are seen as "comforters." 

As indicated by Downton's analysis, "The Grand Inquisitor" is a 
complex tale, which requires probing to arrive at the insights it has to offer 
to the concept of charisma and charismatic authority. Still another view is 
that the story is nothing more or less than a conflict between personal and 
institutional manifestations of charisma. The conflict perspective is the 
one preferred by the article's author. 

Like the psychological dimension described by Downton, the conflict of 
opposing types of charisma is not on the surface: one has to look for it. The 
story is a monologue. As previously stated, only one of the two characters 
speaks, and he is the Inquisitor. However, once the reader accepts tne 
prisoner and his jailer as representatives of two different kinds of charisma 
{viz., personal and institutionalized charisma), support for the conflict 
thesis is easy to find. A conflict exists by virtue of Christ's presence back on 
earth. His return means the end of both the church's spiritual mission and 
secular power. The Inquiaitor informs Christ that the church is not 
prepared to give up either, mission or power. This being the case, it might 
be argued that the InquisitOF is not motivated alone by the desire to see the 
church continue its role as "comforter." He wishes also to protect the status 

'James Downton, Jr., Rebel Leadership: Commitment and Charisma in the Revolutionary Process 
(New York: The Free Preu, 1973), p. 78. 


Christ has returned. Simply put, the point is that a conflice exists because 
the two types of charisma cannot peacefully co-exist, since they claim the 
same following. 

Having dealt with the presence of conflicting charismatic types in 
literature, the discussion now turns to a consideration of how a "staged 
personality" may be fostered on a people as a "charismatic" one. In 
Georgie Orwell's 1984, a charismatic leader. Big Brother, is described. Big 
Brother adds a new dimension to charisma in literature.' Big Brother's so- 
called charismatic qualities seem to be wholly artificial. A theme of the 
novel is that a leader's charisma may be the end-product of a manipulation 
of the psyches of the nation-state so subtle as to render the people 
programmed: a programmed population is analogous to the "continued" 
protagonist in 1984, who at the book's conclusion uncontrollably shrieks 
"long live Big Brother" even as he despises him. 

However, before one describes the "charisma" of Big Brother and the 
implication this has for Weber's charisma theory, a brief discussion of the 
novel is in order. The novel 1984 is a work of science fiction, although some 
critics have said it is not science fiction because of the lack of fictional 
extrapolation into the immediate future. For them the political and 
economic picture of 1984 resembles ideologies and conditions as they are. 
Yet every one who has read it would say that the novel has given to the year 
1984 a crucial significance it would not otherwise have. In commenting on 
this book, Orwell has stated: 

My novel 1984 is not intended as an attack on socialism, or on 
the British Labor Party, but as a show-up of the perversions to 
which a centralized economy is liable ... I do not believe that 
the kind of society I describe necessarily will arrive, but I 
believe . . . that something resembling it could arrive.'" 

According to the information the reader is given in the novel, the 
oligarchic system prevailing at the time of the story began as a popular 
movement, but developed into an oligarchy as a result of ideology and 
interests. There is no mention made of the role charisma may have had in 
the movement and the revolution that overthrew the English 
parliamentary system. The reader is told that a popular movement, 
INSOGOC or the English Socialist party, turned into an elitist hierarchical 
structure after it came to power. Because the party turned into a rigid 
bureaucracy, the evolution which occured in government itself occured in 
other social institutions. The political theory is asserted that effective 

'George Orwell, 1984 (New York: Signet Classic, 1961). 

'"Quoted in Samuel Hynes, ed.. Twentieth Century Interpretation of 1984: A Collection of Critical 
Esifl^-j (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hill, Inc., 1971), p. 45. 


power will always be in the hands of the few. This means that the leaders 
are an oligarchy, separated from the average citizen, and possess total 
political control. According to social policy in 1984, one of the Party's 
most important functions is perpetuating a hierarchical society in which 
less than two per cent of the population belong to the Inner party, thirteen 
per cent of the Outer Party, eighty-five per cent to the Proletariat. The 
story deals with the relationship between Smith, the protagonist and Outer 
Party member, and O'Brien, a high ranking Inner Party member. O'Brien 
is more clever and more cultures than Smith, and he is committed to the 
pursuit of power. In O'Brien's words, "Power is not a means, it is an end."' ' 

O'Brien and Smith's relationship resembles that between the Inquisitor 
and his prisoner in Dostoyevsky's "The Grand Inquisitor." In both stories 
the authority figure has imprisoned an mdividual whose "individualism" 
signifies threat to the status quo. The status quo itself is legitimated on the 
basis of charisma, and the powers-that-be value conformity above 
individual responsibility and action. In 1984 political conformism is 
objectified in the "conversion" of Smith in room 101 where he received 
electric shock treatment and in the philosophical and political 
conversations between Smith and O'Brien. In the end Smith is converted, 
that is, he loves Big Brother. The futility of human efforts is the theme of 
the "Grand Inquisitor" and 1984. In Dostoyevsky's tale the futility of 
human efforts explains the need for the routinization of charisma and why 
a charismatically inspires dogma might oppose a new manifestation of 
charisma. Orwell's view of the authoritarian state which has a charismatic 
symbol suggests that individual efforts — Smith's attempt to revolt against 
Big Brother — appear to deny man's hope of meaningful political 

Big Brother, a fictional figure, symbolizes the society of Oceanic in 1984. 
In appearance he is a man of about forty-five, with a heavy black mustache 
and ruggedly handsome features. His face is posted everywhere in Oceania: 
an enormous face a meter wide. His position is party leader. His image is 
shown at the conclusion of the daily Two Minute Hate, a propaganda 
movie which changes from day to day. The face of Big Brother, the symbol 
of authority and goodness, is juxtaposed with Emmanuel Goldstein, the 
enemy of the people. Orwell describes a typical follower's perception of 
and reaction to Big Brother's image during the showing of a Two Minute 

Big Brother seemed to tower up, an invincible, fearless 
protector, standing like a rock against the hordes of Asia . . . 

The face of Big Brother . . . full of power and mysterious 
claim . . . (his) words of encouragement . . . resorting confidence 
by the fact of being spoken. '^ 

nQrwell, 1984, p. 217. 
'2|bid., pp. 16-17. 


In the novel, there is evidence of charismatic response, such as, a woman 
calHng Big Brother, "My savior." The hero worship of Big Brother is 
evident by his image on coins, on stamps, on covers of books, on banners, 
on posters, and on the wrappings of cigarette packages — in short, 
everywhere. '3 

The above is evidence of charisma and the charismatic leadership of a 
state. Orwell writes that "Oceanic society rests uUimately on the belief that 
Big Brother is omnipotent and that the Party is infalliable. But since in 
reality Big Brother is not omnipotent and the Party is not infaUible, there is 
need for . . . moment-to-moment flexibility in the treatment of facts."''' 

There can be little doubt that the Party, the ruling elite, carefully 
manipulates the image of a charismatic leader in order to elicit maximum 
support from the citizenry for its political goals. But, the questions 
remains, is Big Brother a charismatic figure? There can, of course, be no 
conclusive answer to this question, since Max Weber did not divide 
charisma into two categories, false and real. Yet, obviously, the reader 
cannot call Big Brother's charisma a case of false charisma, because there is 
no such concept. But still, the reader must deal with the fact that Big 
Brother is not a real person. Rather, he is an image. 

This exchange between O'Brien and Smith makes the point that Big 
Brother does not exist, except as the projected image of the Party: 

Smith: "Does Big Brother exist?" 

O'Brien: "Of course he exists. The Party exists. Big Brother is the 
embodiment of the Party." 

Smith: "Does he exist in the same way as I exist?" 
O'Brien: "He exists." 
Smith: ''Will Big Brother ever die?" 
0'Brien:"Of course not. How could he die?"'^ 

Clearly, Big Brother can be no more than an image, since he can never die. 
That is, to the populace as a whole. Big Brother is a remote figure whose 
presence is experienced only in its symbolic-ideological dimension. Weber 
failed, this article contends, to foresee charisma-by-publicity. For Weber, 
charisma is defined as "an extraordinary quality of a person, "and it is clear 
from his definition that he had in mind a real person, not a symbol for a 
group. '^ 

'^Ibid., p. 26. 

"Ibid., p. 175. 

"Mbid., p. 214. 

'*Weber, Theory of Social and Economic Organization, p. 358. 


The writer suggests the following resolution of the issue of Big Brother's 
charismatic status. Big Brother is not charismatic because he is not a real 
person. To recognize him as charismatic would be an explicit rejection of a 
Weberian charisma criteria, which is to say, charisma as understood by 
Weber is a property of a real person. Big Brother is a product of the "cult of 
the personality" phenomenon. The "personality cult" is leadership that 
seeks expressions of its legitimacy from the citizenry based on their belief 
in qualities such as charisma, which in reality the leader does not possess. 
In effect, the Party, in the novel 1984, like modern totalitarian 
government, in Reinhart Bendix's words: 

. . . simulate (s) publicly all aspects of charismatic leadership — 
the manifestations of the leader's extraordinary gifts, the 
unconditional devotion of his disciples, and the awed 
veneration of his large following — saturating all channels of 
communication so that no one could escape the message.'^ 

In literature as in real political life, personality cult is often hard to 
distinguish from charisma because of the phenomenon charisma-by- 
publicity. Given the proper public climate, a faith in charisma can be 
derived from the operation of the "great lie" and the "will to believe. "'^ 
However, Bendix assures the reader that there are limitations to the 
psychological manipulation of a population, which creates a personality 
cult via charisma-by-publicity. He believes that the limitations are built-in, 
in the sense that people will invariably in time grow weary of having to 
listen to stories glorifying extraordinary feats of their leaders. In a 
democracy the people may turn off their television sets and radios. Yet, this 
may not in contemporary society (totalitarian and democratic) militate 
against the type of psychological manipulation Orwell describes in his 
novel, since news and information are, for a large part of any population, 
compatible withcredibility. That is, contemporary man is almost totally 
dependent on the news media for his information about politics. His 
political attitude and behavior are shaped largely by the information which 
comes from his government. The news media is increasingly controlled and 
manipulated by government for political goals. One such goal is always the 
fostering of the notion that prevelant political leaderhip is bold, heroic, 
and irreplaceable. 

This being the case, it can be argued that "Big Brotherism" is far more 
omnipresent and universal than has been read into Orwell's novel. 
Consider, could any leader, even in the United States, get along without 
some people to worship him? Mao recognized this phenomenon — the all 

"Quoted in Use Dronberger, The Political Thought of Max Weber: In Quest of Statesmanship (New 
York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1977), p. 307. 

1 81 bid. 


too human need to worship and to be worshipped. " A leader risks much by 
not having a cult, Mao explained, to one observer. He concluded that, 
"Probably Khrushchev fell because he had no cult of personality at all."2o 


The two novels, discussed in this paper, can enrich both a lay person's 
and a social scientist's understandmg of charisma. Several insights are 
suggested by a reading and an analysis of these two examples of charisma 
in literature. First, there is the insight that charisma may be divided into 
personal and institutional charisma. The former refers to the concrete 
individual who is reputed to possess an extraordinary quality. This type of 
charisma is revolutionary, since it undermines the lovalties the masses have 
for the state and/ or estabHshed institutions. Loyalty is removed from 
either a political regime or institutional structure (for instande, organized 
religion, bureaucracy, political party, pressure group) and given to an 
individual claiming charismatic legitimacy. However, charisma, in the 
sense of the aura of a hero, is unstable over time. The routinization of this 
charisma gives rise to institutionalized charisma. The charismatic 
inspiration of the personal charisma type is tied to political systems and 
institutional structures. Fron the "Grand Inquisitor" the reader gains an 
appreciation of the tension between "pure" (personal) charisma and 
charisma in its institutionalized form. A second insight is found in 1984. 
The parallelism between charismatic and personality cult types and the 
notion of charisma-by-publicity are introduced in Orwell's novel. 

■*Edgar Snow, The Long Revolution (New York: Atheneum Publisher, 1971), p. 170. 
»Ibid., p. 205. 









Grayce Sullivan Andersen (EdS, Middle Grades Education 
and Reading, August 1980) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if the number of reading 
groups a teacher teaches in a single self-contained classroom is a factor in 
the decline of reading achievement as measured by national standarized 

Twenty-one female and twenty-five male subjects in grades five through 
seven whose entire school experience had been in a self-contained 
classroom with intra -grouping practices were selected. Their average 
monthly gain in vocabulary, comprehension and total reading was 
computed. The subjects' actual grade placement was disregarded as they 
were divided among grades five through seven (inter-class grouping) 
according to their reading achievement levels in such a way that no teacher 
was responsible for more than two instructional groups in reading. At the 
end of a five month period their average monthly gain/ loss was again 

The data obtained from each subject was their achievement in total 
reading, vocabulary, reading comprehension, Intelligence Quotient, and 
their expected levels of achievement. 

Statistical analysis of the data revealed there was a significant 
correlation between expected achievement and actual achievement in both 
inter-class and intra-class grouping; although, higher gains resulted from 
the inter-class grouping pattern. 

When the subjects were analyzed as a group there was a positive 
significant difference in total reading, vocabulary, and comprehension but 
when the subjects were analyzed on the basis of sex alone a positive 
significant difference was shown only in the area of total reading. 

This study concluded that reducing the number of reading groups in the 
classroom does make a significant difference in reading achievement; that 


fewer instructional groups attain higher levels of achievement. The 
amount of time the teacher spends in instruction appeared to be the 
determining factor. This study further concluded that no significant sex 
differences existed among the learners at the upper elementary level as far 
as reading achievement is concerned; that both sexes profit equally from 
the inter-class grouping experience. 





Ernst M. Bierkerot (MA, Psychology, August, 1980) 

The thesis investigates the many different factors tha contributed to the 
personality development of the "slain civil rights leader, martin Luther 
King, Jr. In Chapter I his family background, and early experiences of 
racial discrimination are investigated. Chapter II covers his time at 
Morehouse College where his studies introduced him to the teaching of 
Thoreau. After finishing his undergraduate work he went to Crozer 
Theological Seminary for his ministerial training. When at Crozer he 
studied such diverse topics as the Social Gospel, Karl Marx and 
Communism, Nietzche and Gandhi, the American pacifist A.J. Musteand 
the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr. Chapter IV deals with his doctoral 
studies at Boston University where especically the study of Personalist 
philosophy and theology contributed to the formation of his personal life 
philosophy. While in Boston King also studied the philosophy of Hegel, 
and did the research for his doctoral dissertation on Tillich and Wieman. 




Frederick Raymond Blackwell (EdS, Counseling and 
Educational Psychology, December, 1981) 

This study investigates the effects of school mobility and number of 
parental figures within a residence in Reading, English, Science and 
Mathematics as measured on the California Test of Mental Maturity and 
the Metropolitan Achievement Tests. (Data was secured from the 
Cummulative Folders of 345 eighth grade students.) An analysis of the 
data obtained through use of the Chi square formula was made and, using 
the .05 level of significance, no appreciable differences appeared between 
achievement of students who moved more often and students who 
remained more stable. 



Edward L. Boye (MA, Psychology, June, 1981) 

This booklet is a companion manual to the video tape "Divorce Group 

The booklet is for a person or persons who wish to have a basic 
understanding of the problems and needs of someone going through 
separation and divorce. It will also help in establishing a divorce support 
group in a church or community organization. 

The tape is very useful in showing the need for such groups. It can also be 
used as a tool to begin discussion of the issues and problems of divorced 
persons. I would also suggest its use for couples groups, i.e., those 
considering marriage and those already married. It can be instrumental in 
opening couples up to issues they may be struggling with in their 

The video tape can be obtained from the West Georgia Learning 
Resource Center on the Campus of West Georgia College in CarroUton, 
Georgia. Also, contact Reverend Edward L. Boye through the United 
Methodist Church of the North Georgia Conference, 159 Ralph McGill 
Boulevard, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Statement of Purpose 

"Single Again" is a divorce support group. It is established to help 
develop an extended family for sharing and mutual support in the crisis of 
separation and divorce. We are a group seeking the most creative means of 
growing and discovering as individuals and as a group. Reality is dealt with 
head on. Pain and loneliness is recognized as well as celebrative moments, 
but we do seek to avoid wallowing in those feelings and attitudes that 
hinder new life. We recognize that human beings are a community creature 
and that the sharing of a community formed as a result of broken 
relationships gives the strength and courage to grow and become. 





Richard C. Brooks and Paul S. Grim 
(Eds, Educational Administration, August, 1980) 

The problem was to formulate an accurate, effective procedure for 
computing the yearly cost of one educational unit or course. A ninth grade 
language arts class at Central High School m the Cqweta County, Georgia 
System was used as a model. 


A short review of related studies revealed a need for such a procedure 
since it had never been done in education but had proven effective in 
business and governmental sectors. 

Information was gathered from cost records for the 1978-79 school year. 
After the limitations of the study were set, all costs used in the 
computations were arranged into five cost categories. Each cost was 
labeled as per student, per program, or per unit. The actual costs were then 
totaled in each cost category to yield a total per program cost and total per 
unit cost for each of the five categories. Each of the five per program totals 
was then added together for a cumulative program cost for the ninth grade 
language arts program at Central High for 1978-79. The same procedure 
yielded a cumulative unit cost for a ninth grade arts class. This final figure 
was the objective of the study. 

The model herein illustrates the method for using cost data, the various 
operations necessary in arranging it, and the procedures for thus 
computing unit cost. The model can be considered an effective one for use 
in other systems for any program and unit cost estimation. 





Barbara Holmes Brown 
(Eds, Early Childhood Education, August, 1981) 

This study was conducted to find out whether there were significant 
differences on the performances on selected Piagetian tasks of 
conservation by kindergarten children who attended morning and 
afternoon kindergarten sessions at Hood Avenue School, Fayetteville, 
Georgia. This information will be made available for parents, 
administrators, and teachers who are involved in the scheduling of classes 
for kindergarten children in Fayette County, particularly Hood Avenue 
School, Fayetteville, Georgia. Forty-eight names were randomly selected 
from the six kindergarten classes; eight from each of the three morning 
classes and eight from each of the three afternoon classes. The interview 
technique was used for the five selected Piagetian conservation tasks which 
included: conservation of liquid, conservation of distance, and 
conservation of area-respresentational. The results were charted on 
frequency graphs and a total chart which showed mean, standard 
deviation, and the Fisher t test with level of significance set at .05. There 
was no significance difference on the performance on the selected 
Piagetian conservation tasks of the students interviewed representing the 
morning and afternoon kindergarten sessions. However, the students 
representing the afternoon session showed positive scores on all four of the 
selected Piagetian conservation tasks that were charted. The interview for 
conservation of substance was used as a relaxer and was not charted. 







Carol Caldwell (EdS, Early Childhood Education, August, 


The purpose of this study was to compare the scores of undergraduates 
at West Georgia College on two instruments, the National Teacher 
Examination in Early Childhood Education and the Early Childhood 
Education Department's criterion-referenced test in Early Childhood 

The hypothesis tested stated that there would be no correlation between 
the students' scores on the two examinations. The hypothesis was tested by 
employing the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Results 
showed that there was a significant correlation between the 
undergraduates' scores on the two instruments. 

A recommendation was made that more comparative studies, using 
other variables, be conducted. It was suggested that a comparison of 
students' scores on the criterion-referenced instrument with their scores on 
the National Teacher Common Examinations would be worthwhile. It was 
further suggested that a comparison of students' scores on the criterion- 
referenced test with their grade point averages would also be valuable. 






Grace Ollis Calhoun 

(Eds, Educational Administration, August, 1980) 

Is the actual role of elementary principals in Cobb County Schools in 
Marietta, Georgia congruent with the school system's prescribed roles? To 
determine this, a 10-item questionnaire of prescribed areas of 
responsibility, taken from the school systems position specifications 


manual, was distributed to the Cobb County School's forty-five 
elementary principals during the 1979-80 school year. The principals were 
asked to rank order from one to ten with one being the highest, each of the 
ten areas of responsibility according to importance within the role of the 
elementary principal. Then principals were also asked to rank the ten areas 
from one to ten with one representing the most time spent in the actual 
role. The questionnaire return rate was 78 ^percent. The usable returns 
represented 62 percent of the Cobb County Elementary principals. The 
study revealed that the roles were congruent or nearly congruent in most 
areas except in the area of improvement of instruction, the area of 
communication with students, teachers, central office, and parents, and 
the area of knowledge of elementary education. The review of the literature 
revealed that most elementary principals across the nation also felt that the 
most important role area for the elementary principal was that of 
instructional leader. The study prompted the recommendation of 
additional administrative and clerical assistance for the elementary 
principals of Cobb County Schools, the addition of .elementary 
counselors, and staff development programs for elementary principals in 
identified areas. 





Giles M. Chapman, Jr. 
(Eds, Educational Administration, August, 1980) 

The purpose of this study was to determine the service and program 
areas that the Northwest Georgia Cooperative Educational Service 
Agency (CESA) needed to improve. 

The study reports on 250 questionnaires submitted to 250 randomly 
selected, certificated personnel from systems served by CESA in a ten 
county, 14 school system area. 

Findings revealed that CESA should provide improved services in the 
areas of special education, general information about CESA, language 
arts, and community relations. 

The study concludes with fecommendations for each area and a time line 
to initiate or accomplish the recommendations needed to improve services. 



Barbara Ryan Church (MA, Psychology, March, 1981) 

Psi phenomena include telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and a 
related category, PK. A study of attitudes in the scientific community, 
especially the attitudes of behavioral scientists, toward these phenomena 
was conducted. The current status of psi research was examined. A review 
of the literature revealed a wide discrepancy in attitudes toward psi. It was 
discovered that parapsychologists, as a group, evidence the strongest belief 
in the existence of psi, and psychologists, as a group, the least belief in the 
existence of psi. Psi research exists in an atmosphere of controversy in the 
scientific community. Major criticisms of psi research methodology are 
examined. In an effort to draw similarities with hard science and thus gain 
acceptance for the existence of psi, many proponents of the paranormal 
turn to physics to find theories which appear to them to share common 
rules and conditions. Theoretical aspects of psi in relation to quantum 
mechanics, including Bohr's Principle of Complementarity and 
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle are surveyed. In order to study the 
effect of the therapist's attitude toward psi on the willingness and/ or 
ability of the client to disclose psi experience, an experiment studied the 
effects of accepting and open experimenter attitudes versus a rejecting 
experimenter attitude toward psi phenomena on the number of 
paranormal experiences subjects report. Thirty undergraduate 
psychology students were randomly assigned to either a positive 
experimenter attitude group, a negative experimenter attitude group, or an 
open (neutral) control condition. All subjects were first asked to complete 
a standard Rorschach test, revealing aspects of their personality to the 
investigator. Results of these tests were not evaluated. The Rorschach was 
used to simulate therapy conditions. Following completion of the 
Rorschach, the positive attitude group was instructed to complete a 
questionnaire reporting frequency of psi experience after hearing taped 
instructions demonstrating an accepting attitude toward paranormal 
experience. The negative attitude group was asked to complete this 
questionnaire after hearing taped instructions demonstrating a closed, 
rejecting attitude toward psi. The control group did not recieve taped 
instructions. This group was not exposed to positive or negative attitudes, 
creating a neutral, open environment. Group means for reported psi 
experience were calculated, and data analyzed using a t test. The 
hypothesis that subjects in the rejecting climate would report significantly 
fewer psi experiences than subjects in an open climate was supported, t ( 1 8) 
= 2.16, p <^ .05. In order to examine psi phenomena in a theoretical 
framework, LeShan's (1969, 1976) theory of alternate individual realities is 
presented, examining methods of obtaining information through the 
senses (the S-IR), and without sensory data, in the clairvoyant mode (the 
C-IR). Implications for psychotherapy are discussed, focusing on 
Jourard's (1971) emphasis on the importance of self -disclosure to mental 







Richard E. Clark 
Eds, Educational Administration, March, 1981) 

The experience while serving as a building principal dictated the 
necessity of raising monies to supplement state and county maintenance 
and operation funds created a desire on the part of the writer to determine 
the extent of such activities within the twelve schools comprising the 
Catoosa County System. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the fund raising activities of 
each of the schools within the Catoosa County System to determine the 
extent of such activities, the types of fund raising activities, the amounts 
raised and the purpose for which the funds were expended. 

A review of current literature and research was conducted to determine 
the legal status of fund raising activities and practices in other geographic 

The conclusions reached were that a substantial sum of money was being 
raised at each school site to supplement the expense of maintenance and 
operation operations and that the principals were in favor of abolishing all 
fund raising activities provided the Board would increase the millage rate 
to supply the schools with the funds that are currently raised by each 
school. It was found that an additional levy of one and one-eighth mills 
(1.125) would make this possible. 

Although this study was limited to one relatively small school system 
and may not be relevant for other systems, a more thorough study should 
be conducted on a regional or state level to determine whether this problem 
is unique to Catoosa County or a concern of principals over a wider 
geographic area. 


Susan Baker Coker (EdS, Special Education, August, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference 
existed between handwritten and typewritten spelling performance in 
learning disabled children. 


students at Oak Grove Elementary School. During the initial five weeks of 
the study, students used handwriting to complete spelling exercises and 
weekly spelling tests from he Spell Correctly textbook. Typewriting was 
used as the means of complet: cihng exercises and tests during the 

subsequent five week period. 

The t-test for related measures was used to statistically analyze 
differences between spelling test scores resulting from handwritten efforts 
and those resulting from the typewritten method. Analysis of data 
indicated no significant difference in the spelling performance of the 
learning disabled children whether responses were handwritten or 


Kenneth W. Danis (MA, Psychology, March, 1981) 

The experience of lucid dreaming (realizing one is dreaming while within 
the dream) is examined. A review of the Hterature, an exploration of the 
varieties of lucid dreams, speculations as to possible evolutionary origins 
of lucid dreams, and techniques of lucid dream induction are explored. 




Jacquelyn Dodson Davis 
(MA, History, December, 1981) 

The experiences of Richard II's early years and the weakened condition 
of the monarchy left to him by his grandfather, Edward III, and his own 
minority generated in him a deep concern. His introduction to affairs of 
state came dramatically with the Peasants Revolt of 1381. Richard, at 
fourteen, witnessed the paralysis of a government without authorized 

Richard's own complex personality has encouraged much psychological 
speculation. His father and grandfather before him were great military 
heros. This fact was pointed out to him time and again. They had 
maintained magnificent courts which could have overawed a sensitive, 
imaginative child. His half-brothers, the Hollands, were also men of 
action, glorified by chroniclers of chivalry. The fundamental obligation of 
the medieval king was to lead his army on the field of battle. Richard liked 
none of these traditional trappings of Knighthood. His tasts were more 


aesthetic than athletic. There is no proof that he ever failed to carry out his 
traditional role to the best of his ability. 

Historians have developed from this the picture of a young man with an 
acute inferiority complex which was appeased only by elaborate 
exhibitions of his power and in extravagant declarations of the "King's 
Majesty." These tendacies were accented by the humiliation he was forced 
to endure at the hands of his counselors. The results of these views is a king 
neurotically fascinated by absolutism and all it symbolized. 

This is an interesting analysis and presents a comprehensive explanation 
for everything Richard said or did. It appears, however, to be a 
simplification of the truth. Shakespeare's characterization in his play, 
Richard II, has done nothing to dispel this view. 

There is still no satisfactory history of the reign of Richard II. Most 
secondary works are colored by the traditional view of Richard as 
'madman' or by the drama of William Shakespeare. This thesis attempts a 
brief review of the abundant primary sources available from the late 
fourteenth century. From these a rational policy of royal absolutism can be 






Louise C. Davis (EdS, Middle Grades Education and 
Reading, August, 1981) 

This study proposed to ascertain whether reading habits related to 
certain general interest reading material and to 20 specific professional 
publications were related to the position, sex, age, and certification level of 
respondents. The purpose wastodiscoverand tabulate the degree to which 
these materials were utilized. Previous studies had indicated little reading 
by teachers and principals, particularly of professional materials. To see if 
this generalization concerning reading habits held true, the differences 
among the specific publications and each of the four independent 
variables, position, sex, age, and certification level were investigated. 

On the basis of information gathered from respondents in selected areas 
of Georgia, the posited null hypotheses was rejected. The first hypothesis 
was rejected as there was a significant difference in the reading practices 
reported by elementary school teachers and the reading practices reported 


by elementary school principals. The second hypothesis was rejected as 
there was a significant difference in the reading practices reported by males 
and the reading practices reported by females. The third hypothesis was 
rejected as there was significant difference in reading practices reported 
among the different age groupings. The fourth hypothesis was rejected as 
there was a significant difference in reading practices reported among the 
different certification levels. 

From the research conducted, it appears that the position of an educator 
is the major influence in the choice of reading materials followed by 
certification level, age, and sex. 








Kathryn M. Echols (EdS, Middle Grades Education and 

Reading, August, 1981) 

Since reading is such a fundamental component of the school 
curriculum, it has been the focus of many studies, projects, and fads. 
Teachers always want to determine the best methods for teaching the skills 
for all subject areas, but this is especially true in the area of reading due to 
its impact on all subject areas. 

The number of students who have problems with reading has always 
been a source of frustration for teachers. There are many students who 
graduate from high school with only minimal reading abilities. It is for this 
reason that the search for the best method of teaching reading continues. 

The purpose of this study was to determine if an electic approach of 
teaching reading would be as effective, or perhaps more effective, than the 
basal reading approach. 

The subjects for this study were some fourth grade students at Arbor 
Station Elementary School in Douglas County. The subjects were 
members of one of the fourth grade classes and, according to their school 
records, were considered to be the high achievers. Therefore, it was 
assumed to be a rather homogenous group with regard to reading abilities. 
The class was divided into two groups of sixteen. 


adopted basal reading series, with the teacher's manual as a guide for 
instruction. The experimental group received instruction through a variety 
of methods and materials, an eclectic approach. The study lasted three 

A pretest and posttest was given to acquire the data for a comparison of 
gains. The tests were divided into two sections, vocabulary and 
comprehension. The scores from each section and the total scores were 
compared, with the t-test as the instrument for comparison. 

The gain from the pretest to the posttest in the area of vocabulary was 
significant at the .05 level in favor of the experimental group. However, the 
gain in the area of comprehension or on the total test was not significant 
enough to support the hypothesis. 

It is recommended that this study be replicated with larger groups and 
also a different grade levels. 





Jim Forester (EdS, Educational Administration, June, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to find commonality or lack of 
commonality in the educational, experience and coaching backgrounds of 
Georgia high school principals. The survey was sent to all Georgia high 
school principals with a 95% rate of response. 

Bachelor of Science, Master of Education and Educational Specialist 
were the dominant degrees held by these principals. A negative correlation 
was found between coaching at a school and becoming a principal there. 
Slightly over 50% of the principals had coached at all. Georgia high school 
principals are a mobile group with almost all having worked in more than 
one school system. Most did not decide to become principals until they 
entered teaching. Their average age at their first high school principalship 
was 35. 



SUMMER, 1980 
Danelle Hughes Freeman (EdS, Early Childhood Education, 

June, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to compare the grade point averages and 
the scores of undergraduates at West Georgia College on four instruments; 
the National Teacher Common Examination, the National Teacher 
Examination in Early Childhood Education, the Georgia Criterion- 
Referenced Test for Teacher Certification and the Early Childhood 
Education Department's criterion-referenced test in Early Childhood 

The hypothesis tested stated that there would be no correlation between 
the students' grade point averages and their scores on the four 
examinations. The hypothesis was tested by employing a five variable 
coefficient analysis statistical formula to show correlations. Results 
showed that there was a significant correlation between the 
undergraduates' grade point average and their scores on the four 

A recomendation was made that more comparative studies, using other 
variables, be conducted. It was suggested that a comparison of students' 
grade point averages and their scores on the National Teacher 
Examinations, the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Test for Teacher 
Certification, the Early Childhood Education Department's criterion- 
referenced test in Early Childhood Education and the Georgia Teacher 
Performance Assessment Instruments would be worthwhile. 


Marion L. Foreman (MA, English, March, 1981) 

William Faulkner often illuminated basic human truths in his work 
through the use of myths. This thesis presents six Faulkner novels, written 
at various points in his long career, and attempts to delineate some of the 
myths found in each one. The myths are divided into three categories — 


myth and nature, myth and heroic adventure, and myth and the American 

In The Hamlet, the Demeter-Persephone myth provides the basis for a 
modern story of greed and despair in which an evil villain overcomes the 
inhabitants of a rural area. In Sanctuary, an ancient fertility rite is the focal 
point for a contemporary gangster story. The elements of the rite, however, 
have been twisted by Faulkner in order to illustrate the way in which 
modern life has become perverted. 

The heroic adventure myth is used as a pattern in Go Down, Moses, but 
Faulkner changes the ending of his tale from that of the normal mythic 
adventure. The modern hero refuses to accept his task in the world and 
relinquishes his duty in order to obtain peace of mind and tranquility for 
himself. The heroic myth pattern is used again in The Reivers to trace a 
young boy's journey from childhood to adulthood even though the 
youngster's adventures are far different from those of Aeneas and Jason in 
the ancient myths. 

Modern myths reflecting the peculiar essence of the American adventure 
are explored in Absalom, Absalom! and The Sound and the Fury. In these 
novels, Faulkner follows the puritan and cavaUer philosophies of the new 
world through many of his characters, and he also depicts the new 
American hero, who worships science and wealth while demonstrating 
little love for his fellow man. 

Faulkner uses myth in his stories in order to remind us that we are a part 
of the total mass of humanity which has existed for eons, and he invites is 
to note how much modern man is changing from his ancestors and to 
examine these changes to decide whether or not our new ideals are 
sufficient replacements for the old. 



Larry W. Garmon (EdS, Educational Administration, 
August, 1980) 

The purpose of this study was to find ways to improve the overall 
cleanliness of the Roswell High School building, to help the custodians feel 
better about their jobs and themselves, and to raise the salaries of the 
custodial workers. It was hoped that the accomplishment of these goals 
would also lead to a decrease in absenteeism and employee turnover 
among custodial personnel. A lesser element of the study was a contrast 
between the use of traditional, full-time custodial employees and evening 
only, contract custodial labor. The study was conducted by the use of the 
following methods: a personal and private interview with the 10 custodians 
at Roswell High School, an analysis of the results of a questionnaire sent to 


42 high school custodial workers in north Fulton County, and an interview 
with the Supervisor of Custodial Services in north Fulton County. A 
summary of the results showed a general displeasure with salaries among 
workers, poor employee morale, an excessive number of days absent, 
especially among the Roswell workers, few employees with more than one 
to two years' service, few employees who would recommend the job to a 
friend, and few who planned to work until retirement. On the positive side, 
workers generally felt good about their benefits and about themselves. 
Their jobs did not appear to have a negative effect on their self-esteem as 
had been hypothesized. While contract labor has generally been found to 
be more economical, the sources of information contacted by this writer 
did not find it to be satisfactory in terms of the overall school program. 
Recommendations were made to increase custodial salaries by cutting 
personnel back to the State allocation. Only three workers would be used 
on the day shift — a male worker, a female worker, and a grounds man. 
Most of the cleaning would be done after school hours. Many of the 
advantages of contracting would be present without most of the 
disadvantages. Workers would also be paid for one-half their unused sick 
and personal days at the end of the year to discourage absenteeism. A 
recommendation for an extensive training program is also suggested. 


Rita Pruitt Gentry (EdS, Secondary Education, June, 1981) 

This study was undertaken to collect accurate historical data of the 
Depression in Carroll County, Georgia. It could also be used as a guide for 
the procedure of collecting oral history and should be of value to other 
teachers and students. 

The objectives were achieved by conducting an oral history project as an 
example of the methodology and procedures used in such projects. 
Research was limited to thirteen taped interviews of persons who lived in 
Carroll County, Georgia, during the Depression. Two of the interviews 
were transcribed, and the remaining eleven tapes were summarized. 

The literature examined stated the advantages and faults of oral history. 
Also, the reviewed literature gave the procedures and methods of 
collecting and producing an oral history project. 

This study supports the contention that oral history is a valuable tool for 
collecting accurate historical data and will serve as a guide for other 
students and teachers. 



Sylvia Swords Graham 
(Eds, Secondary Education, March, 1981) 

This paper is a study of the nationalistic armies of Southeast Asia during 
the Second World War. Emphasis has been placed on the three most 
significant Japanese-sponsored nationalistic armies and on the 
Hukbalahap army of the Philippines. The "eddy" wars were the small 
conflagrations in which these armies were engaged throughout the 
duration of the larger conflict of the Pacific War. Without a doubt, the 
Italian, Burmese and Indonesian National Armies hastened the process of 
independence for their individual countries. The Indonesians were the only 
group forced into actual combat with the returning colonial powers. The 
Hukbalahap were instrumental in bringing about many desperately 
needed reforms for the peasants in the Phillipines. 

The knowledge of these nationalistic armies has been mostly confied to 
the Pacific Area. It has become vital in today's world that the future leaders 
of the United States comprehend the hopes and dreams of these new 
nations that have been born since 1945. This study has endeavored to 
present the salient points a teacher, regardless of background, would need 
to prepare a teaching unit on the nationalistic armies. Suggestions on 
points to be stressed have been included. 

The countries of the West and the countries of Southeast Asia have need 
of each other. Therefore, the United States must make every effort to 
understand the complex problems, cultures, peoples and tensions that lie 
immediately under the surface of Southeast Asia. This paper has 
attempted to make a small step on that road to full understanding. 




Phillip L. Gunter (EdS, Special Education, August, 1981) 

This study was undertaken to determine if the development of a positive 
self-concept in trainable mentally retarded adolescents could be 
heightened by participation in a jogging program. 

Ten students were selected from a class of twenty intermediate TMR's at 
the Whitfield County Special Education Center in Varnell, Georgia. The 
only criterion for selection was a signed physical indicating that the 
student's medical condition was such that jogging would be beneficial. The 
students were randomly divided into two groups, one treatment and one 
control. Both groups were administered a Harvard Step Test and Primary 
Self-Concept Inventory. 


The treatment group completed a structured ten-week running program 
culminating in competition in races of 4.5, 5, and 6.2 miles. The control 
group continued in their regularly scheduled activities. 

The data presented were a tabulation and comparison of the physical 
fitness gain scores and the self-concept gain scores. 

The null hypothesis for increased self-concept of the treatment group 
was accepted at the .05 level of confidence. Even though there was a 
substantial increase in self-concept of the treatment group, it was not 
statistically significant at this level. 

The second null hypothesis was also accepted at the .05 level of 
confidence. There was no statistically significant gain of the treatment 
group in one self-concept domain over another. These domains were, 
personal-self, social-self, and intellectual self. 

Recommendations for further study were included because larger 
groups over a longer period of time may have produced different results. 


Amy Claire Hall (EdS, Middle Grades Education and 
Reading, August, 1981) 

This study was designed to determine if there was a significant gain in 
reading and mathematic scores during the retained year and to compare 
reading and mathematic gain scores between a retained group and a 
promoted group. 

Students used in this study were fifty-two students in grades one through 
four. A group of twenty-six retained students composed of experimental 
group. The control group was composed of twenty-six promoted students. 
The subjects of both groups were similar in age, grade in school, and 
reading scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. 

The pretest and posttest used for this study was the Iowa Test of Basic 
Skills. The pretest was administered in April, 1979, and the posttest was 
given April, 1980. 

The t test was used to analyze the data and the null hypotheses were 
rejected at the .05 level of significance with the exception of hypothesis 4 
which was not rejected. 

Results from the analyses showed that the experimental group showed a 
significant gain in reading and mathematics score during the retained year. 
The results favored the control group in reading, but there was no 
significant difference in gain scores in mathematics. These statistics imply 
that further research should be conducted with both the experimental and 
control groups to determine if the subjects' achievements gain was valid. 



Joe Ann A. Hanson (EdS, Secondary Education, 
August, 1980) 

This study was designed to determine if an incidental approach to the 
teaching of spelHng had an equally positive effect on spelling achievement 
as did the traditional approach. 

Subjects used in this study were four sections of seventh-grade students 
at Evans Junior High School, Newnan, Georgia. Two sections were 
considered basic in terms of ability and achievement, and two sections 
were considered advanced in terms of ability and achievement. During the 
twelve-week period between September 10, 1979 and December 12, 1979, 
the control groups of both basic and advanced students were taught 
spelling using the traditional approach. The experimental groups of both 
basic and advanced students were taught spelling incidentally as needed in 
writing. Subjects completing the experiment numbered 17 in the basic 
control group, 26 in the advanced control group, 22 in the basic 
experimental group, and 28 in the advanced experimental group giving a 
total of 93 participants completing the experiment. 

A pretest was designed and administered by the investigator. A posttest 
was designed and administered by the investigator at the end of the study. 
A delayed posttest was designed and administered by the investigator four 
weeks after the completion of the study. 

Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses 
were tested using the .05 level of significance. Results indicated no 
significant difference in achievement on the posttest nor on the delayed 
posttest. This would indicate that spelling instruction using the traditional 
approach had no more significant effect on spelling achievement than did 
the incidental method of teaching spelling. 

It is recommended that further studies be made in this area. 


Diane Hightower (EdS, Special Education, August, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference in 
self-concept existed between learning disabled and regular class 

The subjects were learning disabled and regular class students at Cass 
High School. A total of 47 students were involved in the study. Twenty- 
two learning disabled and 25 randomly selected regular class students took 


part. Self-concept was measured using the Piers-Harris Childeren's Self- 
Concept Scale. 

Analysis of data obtained showed a significant difference in self-concept 
between learning disabled and regular class students. 





Linda D. Hull (EdS, Middle Grades Education and 
Reading, December, 1981) 

In recent years educators have become increasingly aware of the 
importance of attitude on the part of the learner. Many times children 
learn or fail to learn, because of their attitude toward a subject. This has 
been particularly true of mathematics because mathematics has always 
been an abstract subject that elementary age children have difficulty 
understanding. Research has been done in mathematics in an effort to 
make the abstractness of mathematics more concrete for young learners. 
Concrete manipulatives have become an increasingly valued tool in 
primary age mathematics programs. 

This study was done with the purpose of determining the concrete 
manipulatives and a manipulative activity approach would make a 
significant positive difference in achievement in multiplication facts in 
comparison with a traditional approach. Two groups of children were 
chosen, at random, to participate in the study. One group experienced a 
manipulative activity approach to the teaching of multiplication, and one 
group experienced a traditional approach to the teaching of 
multiplication. Achievement was determined by compating raw scores 
achieved on a multiplication facts test designed by Cleveland Myers. This 
same test was used for a pretest, posttest and a delayed posttest. The pretest 
was administered before formal instruction began. The posttest was 
administered after six weeks of formal instruction, and the delayed 
posttest was administered three weeks after formal instruction ceased. A 
statistically significant difference was determined to be the .05 level. An 
analysis of variance treatment showed the differences in achievement were 
not significantly positive. The statistical difference between the groups on 
the posttest was .950. The statistical difference between the groups on the 
delayed posttest was .646. 


better using a manipulative activity approach, it did not prove that 
manipulatives had any adverse effect on the students. The students 
achieved regardless of the method employed. Therefore, manipulatives do 
have a place in the curriculum. They should be employed for use with any 
particular child that is operating on a concrete operational level to help 
him see mathematics in a more concrete and less abstract way. 





Belva Jean Ingle (EdS, Secondary Education, December, 


This study sought to determine if two selected methods of instruction 
(the lecture method and the contract method) made any significant 
difference in attitude toward and achievement in United States history of 
two classes of eleventh grade history students who attended Trion High 
School in Trion, Georgia. 

The two classes were given an attitude and achievement pretest. For a 
measure of attitude toward history, Remmers' A Scale to Measure 
Attitude Toward Any School Subject was administered at the beginning of 
the study. It was followed by Harper & Row's .4 People and A Nation Test 
Booklet A which was used to measure achievement in United States 
history. An experimental period of five weeks followed. 

The control group was taught by the traditional lecture-oriented 
approach. A contract was designed and given to students in the 
experimental group. Each student in the experimental group was 
permitted to select options resulting in earning points for the grade of his 

At the conclusion of the experimental period Remmer's Any School 
Subject Survey and the Harper and Row test were given as a posttest. 
Statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was no significant 
difference between the two groups in relation to attitude and /or 
achievement gain at the .05 level of significance. 







M. W. Irwin (EdS, Early Childhood Education, 

December, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to investigate and determine the 
correlation between the School Readiness Survey, the Metropolitan 
Readiness Test Scores and IQ scores of gifted kindergarten children and 
their reading achievement scores on the Addison-Wesley End-of-Level 

The study involved twenty identified gifted kindergarten children from 
the Euharlee Early Childhood Center in the Polk School District. The 
children received eight months of formal reading instruction using the 
Addison-Wesley Meet The Superkids. The School Readiness Survey, the 
Slosson Intelligence Test, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the 
Metropolitan Readiness Test were all administered before formal reading 
instruction began. At the end of the school year, the Addison-Wesley End- 
of-Level Test was administered. 

An analysis was made of these scores to determine if there were any 
significant correlation between readiness scores and reading achievement 
of the gifted kindergarten children and the IQ scores and the reading 
achievement of the gifted children. A correlation technique using the .05 
level of significance was used to determine the relationship of the variables. 






Dianne F. Isaacs (EdS, Early Childhood Education, 

December, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Early 
childhood Specialist in Education program at West Georgia College on 
fourteen graduates after they re-entered the teaching profession. 

The hypothesis stated in Chapter I was supported by the results shown in 
Tables 1 and II. There were positive evaluations reflected in the 
questionnaire responses concerning the effect of the Early Childhood 


Specialist in Education program at West Georgia College on graduates 
after re-entering the teaching profession. These responses were validated 
by the responses of graduates' supervisors. Comparative studies of the raw 
scores and the percentages both supported the hypothesis. Comparative 
studies of the means also indicated positive support of the hypothesis. 






Nancy Jordan (EdS, Elementary Education, March, 1981) 

Today's computerized society demands that we PLEASE PRINT. The 
purpose of this study was to determine if the elementary teachers in Carroll 
County favored cursive over manuscript writing in the classroom and as 
the preferred method of written communication at the adult level. 

A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes of selected 
teachers about cursive and manuscript writing, and to obtain current 
information about classroom handwriting practices. Seventy-eight 
questionnaires were tabulated. The results showed that teachers preferred 
the cursive handwriting style in the elementary classroom, and the 
majority also believed cursive more important than manuscript at the 
adult level. 

A recommendation was made that teachers be amde aware of the 
importance of manuscript writing at the adult level. 




James Richard Kerr (MS, Biology, August, 1980) 

Primary cultures of 5 day chick embryo spinal cord and 1 1 day chick 
embryo skeletal muscle were cultured in a newly developed chemically 
defined serum-free medium. The optimal serum-free medium consisted of 
Dulbecco's Modified, Eagle/ Ham's F-12, insulin, putrescine, and 
transferrin. The spinal cord cells grew and were maintained for 4-6 weeks. 
Interneuronal synapses frequently formed. The muscle cells differentiated, 
fused, and formed contractile "myo-strands" after approximately 10-12 
hours in culture and remained viable to the 4th day. Neuromuscular 
junction formation was studied by overlaying the monolayer muscle 
cultures with a dissociated neuronal cell suspension. Observations using 


light and scanning electron microscopy illustrate neuromuscular junctions 
forming soon after nerve-muscle interaction. The present in vitro study 
shows initial junctional motoneuron terminals in contact with muscle. All 
cultures were grown in a total serum-free environment without exposure to 
serum. Early events of the chick neuromuscular junction were also 


Ronald O. Kirk (MA, Psychology, August, 1980) 

This thesis proceeds in four distinct phases. In the first section we 
elucidate Hans Selye's definition of stress. We explore Selye's general 
adaptation syndrome and corroborate his findings with the fight or flight 
response brought to light by W. B. Cannon. We delineate the effects of 
Cortisol and the adrenalines upon the physiological mechanisms of the 
human body. In conclusion we look at signs and symptons of excessive 
stress and describe endogenous stress. 

In the second section of this thesis we explore the relationship between 
stress and numerous disease syndromes. We delineate the manners in 
which stress may predispose individuals to hypertension, arteriosclerosis, 
heart disease, cancer, arthritis. After exploring ways in which stress 
disrupts immune mechanisms, we view Rahe's documentation of the 
relationship between stressful events and illness. 

In the third section of this thesis, we explore ways in which meditation, 
autosuggestion, visualization, placebo and positive motivation are being 
used to disrupt stress mechanisms. We survey Benson's westernized 
version of Transcendental Meditation and delineate central themes in 
meditative processes from the East and West. We examine O. Carl 
Simonton's program for rehabilitation of terminally-ill cancer patients, 
concentrating on his visualization techniques. In conclusion we review the 
dramatic recovery of Norman Cousins from progressive paralysis through 
laughter therapy. 

In the final section of this thesis, we explore Simonton's mind/ body 
model of recovery. We elucidate data relative to the means by which 
brainstem nuclei may be involved in controlling autonomic functions 
during meditation. We delve into the relationship between meditation, 
suggestion, placebo and the endorphin-mediated inhibition of painful 
stimuli. We bring to light the correlation between the effects of endogenous 
opiates and the observed physiological effects of meditation. In 
conclusion, we offer a model for describing the physiological effects of 
placebo in recovery from illness. 








Arefeh Langkilde (EdS, Middle Grades Education and 

Reading, August, 1981) 

This study was conducted to compare the achievement and the behavior 
of students who were on a diet containing sugar, bleached flour, and food 
additives to that of students who were on a diet free from sugar, bleached 
flour, and food additives. 

The subjects of this study were 29 students, grade two, four, and five, 
from the schools in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The subjects were 
divided into two groups, the experimental group and the control group, on 
the basis of their answers to the diet questionnaire. The experimental 
group had a diet free from sugar, bleached flour, and food additives. The 
control group had a diet containing sugar, bleached flour, and food 
additives. The subjects on the experimental group were on their special diet 
for at least six months before the administration of tests. 

The Wide Range Achievement Test was administered to both groups to 
determine their achievement level. All the subjects in both groups were on 
rated on the Burk's Behavior Rating Scales by their classroom teacher yp 
ptovide a basis for the comparison of their behavior. The data obtained 
from this study was treated by the analysis of variance procedure. 

Results indicated that there was a significant difference, in the areas of 
mathematics and reading, in favor of the experimental group. The 
comparison of the spelling achievement scores showed a mean difference 
of 4.82 in favor of the experimental group, but this difference was not 
statiscally significant. The comparison of the behavior scores indicated no 
significant difference between the experimental and the control group. 


Ann Laster (EdS, Middle Grades Education and Reading, 

August, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if emphasis given the print or 
non-print approach would made a significant difference in teaching social 
studies. The unit on westward expansion was taught to the control and 
experimental groups. The control group used the textbook, workbook, 
and other print materials. The experimental group used media and 
concrete manipulatives. 


The subjects were from fifth year students at Argyle Elementary School 
in Cobb County, Georgia. There were 59 subjects who completed the 

The students were given 75 items on teacher made pretest and posttest. 
The statistical analysis used was the Analysis of Covariance. The pretest 
was the covariate and the posttest was the dependent variable. The level of 
significance was established as .05. \ 

This study provided for the support or rejection of the following null 

There will be no significance difference on the posttest scores between 
groups of students exposed to either print or non-print content 

The null hypothesis was not rejected in this study because the level of 
significance was above .05. Recommendations suggest further studies need 
to be conducted. 


John David Lenihan 
(EdS, Educational Administration, August, 1980) 

This study was conducted to identify those criteria which the principals 
of Cobb County Georgia view as being the most important in the teacher 
selection process. With an adequate supply of teachers available coupled 
with the passage of the Fair Dismissal Law by the 1973 Georgia 
Legislature, the need for improvements in the teacher selection process is 

A review of the literature related to the teacher selection process was 
conducted. The questionnaire used by May and Doerge in Louisiana 
(1972) served as a model for this study. The modified questionnaire was 
administered to all principals within the Cobb County School System and 
to central office personnel from the level of director to superintendent. The 
mean for each item on the questionnaire was calculated and the means 
were ranked from highest to lowest for each group of principals. 

An analysis of the data collected indicated the principals surveyed 
considered seven criteria to be essential to the teacher selection process. 
They are: (1) cooperative attitude, (2) classroom discipline, (3) compatible 
instructional methods in position applied for, (4) health, (5) pleasant 
personality, (6) verbal ability, and (7) expressed educational philosophy. 

The following recommendations were then made. The recruitment 
program must continue and possibly be expanded. An updated 
application form should be completed and sent to the system office. The 
application form would be reviewed and reference verifications conducted. 


An administrator from the Personnel Department would then conduct the 
first interview. All information collected, which is related to the most 
important criteria, should be recorded on a rating system. The next step 
would be for the principal to interview applicants, as vacancies occur. A 
third interview may be conducted by the teachers with whom the candidate 
would be working. The principal should then make a recommendation to 
hire or not to hire the candidate. 



SCHOOLS: 1977-1979 

Jerry Locke (EdS, Educational Administration, August, 


This study was conducted during 1980 at Marietta, Georgia. 
Applications for employment with Marietta City Schools were examined 
for the years 1977, 1978, and 1979. Applicants were divided into two 
groups for the study. One group was composed of those who were not 
employed by the school system, and the other group was composed of 
those who were employed by the Marietta City Schools. The purpose of 
the study was to identify factors which were different between the two 
groups and which may have been significant in eventual employment with 
Marietta City Schools. 

Considered in the Study was the importance of such factors as subject 
area, certification. National Teacher Examination scores, race, sex, 
residence, geographic distribution, college degrees, number of years of 
prior experience, age, marital status, college placement files, and college 
honors. Data was collected for each of the factors that were thought to be 
important to employment. Analysis of the data indicated whether the 
factor had been decisive in the employment process. 

It was found that some factors did relate to employment with the school 
system. Residents of the Atlanta area were most often hired. Teachers who 
had a minimum of one to three years of prior experience were favored over 
those without experience. Successful teacher candidates tended to be 
somewhat older than the unsuccessful candidates though there was not a 
great number of years of difference. Those applicants who were married 
were employed more often than single applicants, but the marital factor 
was possibly a coincidental factor related to age. In summary, some 
different characteristics were found for the two sets of teacher candidates. 





Robert R. Long (EdS, Special Education, August, 1980) 

The purpose of this study was to develop an approach to a defensible, 
nondiscriminatory identification model for the gifted program of Rome 
City Schools. 

A self study of the gifted program of Rome Cit_, Schools revealed a 
disproportionately small number of minority and disadvantaged students 
in the gifted program; and a need for a more equitable method of 
identifying those minority and disadvantaged students who are gifted. 

Most gifted programs rely very heavily on group intelligence and group 
achievement test scores as part of their identification procedures. As a 
result, many disadvantaged children that are truly gifted, remain 
unidentified because they cannot be adequately measured. 

Group tests that are presently in use have been validated on white, 
middle class, suburban subjects. Because group tests stress verbal ability, 
certain disadvantaged groups are penalized. 

Researchers agree that an individual intelligence test is the most effective 
means of identification of the gifted. However, very few school systems 
have the resources with which to employ enough psychologists and 
psychometrists to administer and to interpret the results of individual tests 
in order to identify gifted students. 

Because of the lack of resources, group tests must be used by school 
systems as part of their identification procedures. It is the contention of 
this study, that group intelligence and achievement tests can be used 
effectively tests can be used effectively and fairly to identify the gifted if 
local norms aredeveloped for various groups. 

This study divided the school population of Rome City Schools into 
four groups: White Advantaged, White Disadvantaged, Black 
Advantaged, and Black Disadvantaged. Advantaged is defined by this 
study, as referring to those children who are not eligible to receive free of 
reduced school lunches according to the guidelines set by the U.S.D.A. 
Disadvantaged refers to those children who are eligible to receive free or 
reduced school lunches according the the U.S.D.A. guidelines. 

The study develops the criteria to be used in the identification model and 
develops a rationale supporting the use of each criteria. Mean IQ scores on 
the Otil-Lennon Mental Ability test for fourth, fifth, and tenth grade 
students, were compared for each group using the analysis of variance 
procedure. A significant difference in the mean IQ score for each group 
was found to exist, thus lending support to the rationale for establishing 
and using local norms. 


A similar comparison was made for sixth, seventh, and tenth grade 
students: using the mean reading and math scores on the Iowa Test of Basic 
Skills. A significant difference in the mean reading and mean math scores 
was also found to exist between the four groups, lending additional 
support to the rationale for developing local norms to minimize the verbal 
bias of group intelligence and achievement tests. 

The study proposes an identification model consisting of six assessment 
items to be used in conjunction with the Baldwin Identification Matrix. 
The BIM pulls together all the assessment techniques used into a total 
score that can rank order students and allow selection according to the 
rank of the student. 





Susan Saxon Lovvorn 
(Eds, Middle Grades Education, June, 1981) 

A study was conducted to develop a reliable measure of English 
competency at the fifth-grade level. A teacher-made test was administered 
to 133 fifth-grade students from Bowdon Elementary School. The Basic 
English Competency Test - Level 5 was administered as a pretest and again 
as the posttest. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was 
used to determine the correlation between pretest and posttest scores. The 
correlation coefficient of .90 indicated the reliability of the instrument. 





Faye C. McBrayer (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 


The purpose of this study was to identify those states requiring high 
school students to complete a private enterprise course in order to 
graduate and to determine commonalities among the mandates. 

Subproblems taken from the problem and introduced in the study were: 
1. To identify those states requiring high school students to complete a 

course in private enterprise/ economics/ personal finance prior to 



2. To determine if a year of implementation was established. 

3. To determine what titles had been given to the mandated course (s). 

4. To find where in the curriculum the course (s) was placed. 

5. To determine at what grade level (s) the course (s) was offered. 

6. To determine commonalities among the courses offered. 


Information necessary to the solution of the problem regarding the 
status of private enterprise/ economics/ personal finance in the public 
secondary schools was solicited through the use of a transmittal letter and 
an eight-question survey instrument mailed to the persons serving as State 
Supervisors of Business Education in the fifty United States in August, 

A follow-up letter, along with an additional copy of the original 
questionnaire, was mailed to each of the thirteen supervisors who had not 
responded by October 5, 1979. 

The completed questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed with regard 
to specific subproblems and the results were reported through use of 

Data needed to solve the subproblem dealing with course commonalities 
were state-developed course guides for the required economics course (s). 
The guides were reviewed and analyzed for areas of similarity. Those 
commonalities deemed significantly to the study were pointed out in an 
attempt to obtain a more comprehensive view of economics education in 
the public secondary schools of the United States. 


Seventeen states reportedly do require an economics course as a 
prerequisite to graduation. Two of the seventeen states require a unit of 
study rather than a full course. 

Sixteen states reported years a mandate was passed and sixteen states 
reported established years for implementation of the mandate. 

The title "Free Enterprise" was the title used must often and 
"Economics" was second in use. 

Two states reported that the mandated course(s) must be placed in the 
Business curriculum. Four states placed the economics course in the Social 
Science curriculum. The remaining eleven states reported no specific area 
but a combination of two or more curriculums. 

Grade level placement varied among the seventeen states requiring an 
economics course prior to graduation. The majority left placement to local 
option or specified grades nine through twelve inclusively. 


Course guides were received from eight states. Included in the 
commonalities found were the areas of: economic concepts, broad 
objectives or goals, specific student objectives, course content, 
bibliography, glossary, evaluation techniques, suplementary materials, 
and developers of the course guides. 


Roxana Marie Matter 
(Eds, Secondary Education, March, 1981) 

Psychologists have looked at adolescene, the period of transition from 
childhood to adulthood, from different perspectives. Piaget's perspective 
demonstrates that adolescence corresponds with the onset of the final and 
most mature stage of cognitive development, that of formal thought. 
Elkind, expnading upon Piaget's perspective, notes new mental structures 
that appear at this time and contends that new capacities for combinatorial 
thought, introspection, and construction help to account for many 
characteristics typical of this stage. According to Elkind, prominent 
among these characteristics related to adolescent cognitive development is 
that of adloscent egocentrism. Specific manifestations of adolescent 
egocentrism can lead to problems both for the adolescent and for others in 
his life. Such problems, in turn, provide recurrent themes in the "new 
realism" of the adolescent novel. 

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the 
unique and typical behaviors of adolescent egocentrism are manifested by 
the major adolescent characters in the seven adolescent novels of M. E. 
Kerr. Two secondary purposes are to determine the extent to which these 
characters provide a realistic view of adolescent concerns in terms of 
Elkind's theory and to confront the question of their probable usefulness in 
seeking satisfactory solutions to real life problems. 

Seven adolescent novels are analysed in terms of the four specific 
characteristics of adolescent egocentrism-imaginary audience, personal 
fable, pseudostupidity, apparent hypocrisy — and additional indicators 
related to the development of adolescent egocentrism observed within the 
particular character. 

Because adolescent egocentrism consists only of typical behaviors, it is 
sometimes difficult to detail clearly. Nonetheless, of the fourteen 
characters analysed, none manifest imaginery audience constructs, seven 
demonstrate personal fables, one manifests imaginary audience hypocrisy, 
and none show pseudostupidity. Eight of these characters present 
additional indicators demonstrating that they have progresssed to the 
formal operational stage of cognitive development. Additional indicators 
are most frequently related to the ability to think about one's own thoughts 
and those of others as separate entities. 


Kerr's characters reveal manifestations of developmental characteristics 
and of egocentrism behaviors associated with cognitive progression into 
informal operational thought. These characters can provide teachers with 
increased insight into adolescent behavior and constitute a kind of 
classroom resource that will compel the attention of the learner. 

Eight specific suggestions for further study include an extension of the 
present study to include two forthcoming Kerr novels for adolescents. 





Glenda Meeks (EdS, Special Education, August, 1981) 

This study was designed to measure attitudes of students toward the 
gifted program in the Carroll County, Georgia, Enrichment Program. 
Attitudes were analyzed based on the sex, grade level, and school of the 

The subjects of this study were students in grades four through eight in 
the Carroll County Enrichment Program in the Spring, 1981. Two 
hundred twenty-two students participated in the study. 

An attitude survey developed by the Ferguson-Florissant, Missouri, 
School District's Gifted/ Talented Program was completed by the 
students. The survey measures these four factors: Factor 1 — Attitudes 
Toward the Gifted Program, Factor 2 — Student Perceptions of Peer 
Attitudes Toward the Gifted Program, Factor 3 — Improved Self- 
Awareness, and Factor 4 — Variety of Activities Available to Students. 
Each response was indicated on a scale of 1-5. A mean score was computed 
for each of the four factors and for the total score for each hypothesis. 

An analysis of variance was computed by the West Georgia computer 
center for each hypothesis on all four factors and the total scores of the 
attitude responses. A Duncan's Multiple Range Test was computed to 
locate the source of any factors showing a significant difference. 

Hypothesis one stated that there would be no significant difference 
between attitudes of males and females toward the gifted program. This 
hypothesis was accepted for Factor 2 (student perceptions of peer attitudes 
toward the gifted program), Factor 3 (improved self-awareness), and 
Factor 4 (variety of activities available to students.) Factor I (student 
attitudes toward the gifted program) revealed a significant difference (p= 
.046). The attitude scores of females was again higher than those of males. 

Hypothesis two stated that there would be no significant difference in 
the measured attitudes of different school populations. This hypothesis 


was accepted for Factor 1 (attitude toward the gifted program), Factor 3 
(improved self-awareness), Factor 4 (variety of activities available to 
students), and the total score. The Factor 2 (student perceptions of peer 
attitudes toward the gifted program) ratio was significant at a level of .002. 
A Duncan's Multiple Range Test revealed that school 7, Whitesburg, was 
significantly lower than the other schools. 

Hypothesis three stated that there would be no significant differences on 
attitude scores by grade in school. Factor 1 (attitude toward the gifted 
program) was rejected (p = .0018). Grade 8 was significantly higher than 
the other grades. Factor 3 (improved self-awareness) revealed that grade 8 
was again significantly different from and lower than the other grades (p - 
.0088). The hypothesis was accepted for factor 4 (variety of activities 
available to students) and the total score. 

It appears that attitudes toward the gifted program were affected by sex 
and grade level of the students. The only factor affected by the different 
schools in the population was student perceptions of peer attitudes toward 
the gifted program. The grade level of the students caused a significant 
difference in the area of improved self-awareness, with grade 8 having a 
lower score. The total score of attitude by sex also revealed a significant 
difference in the attitudes of males and females toward the gifted program. 




Phillip L. Mengel (EdS, Counseling and Educational 
Psychology, March, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to assess increased listening accuracy as a 
result of training in an interviewing skills workshop for the State of 
Georgia, Division of Family and Children Services eligibility interviewers. 

Forms A and B of the Jones-Mohr Listening Test were used in that order 
to pretest and posttest participants before and after training in listening 

A chi square analysis of the frequency distribution of scores revealed 
that no significant change occured in listening accuracy at the .05 level. 
However, a t test comparison of experimental group pretest and posttest 
means indicated significant change occured at the .0001 level, while a 
control group showed no change. 



Clara Kay Nielsen 
(Eds, Early Childhood Education, June, 1981) 

This study was conducted to review programs for the preschool 
handicapped that would serve as models for use in the State of Georgia. It 
was the intent of the study to look at programs that could demonstrate 
success through follow-up in later years. 

A visitation was made to the Frank Porter Graham Child Development 
Center at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. The purpose of 
the visit was to observe longitudinal programs in operation. An 
observation was also made of the preschool handicapped class operated in 
conjunction with the Chapel Hill Public School System. The current status 
of programs was discussed with researchers in the field. 

The study concluded that handicapped children enrolled in preschool 
programs demonstrate better social, emotional, and educational 
adjustment in later years than children wh do not attend preschool. 

Implementation of programming was discussed looking at 
identification and assessment, curriculum models, and parent 

The conclusions reached were that early intervention results in 
improvement in achievement and IQ scores, reduction in special education 
placement, reduction in grade retention, and better adjustment to home 
and community. 

The study was limited due to the fact that many of the programs in 
progress have not been going on long enough for the research to validate 
sufficient progress. The strategies, models, and plans may not be suitable 
for every school system or demonstration center, and therefore should not 
be generalized. However, it is felt that due to the recent trends in the 
education of the handicapped, the study has significance in presenting 
models that might be adopted in implementing programs for the preschool 







Jacqueline Owen 

(EdS, Middle Grades Education and Reading, August, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to determine if the reading 
achievement of students using the language experience approach showed a 
significant difference when compared to the reading achievement of 
students using a basal reader approach. Secondly, included in this study 
was a reading attitude scale to determine if students using the language 
experience approach showed a significant difference in reading attitude 
when compared to students using a basal reader approach. The purposes 
were the bases for the 2 null hypotheses. The experimental group and the 
control group were each composed of 20 fifth-grade students housed at 
Rosemont Elementary School in Troup County, Georgia. In the absence 
of random sampling, it was assumed that the 2 groups were equivalent. 

The study consisted of an experiment for 1 1 actual weeks wherein the 
experimental group was taught reading skills through the language 
experience approach using an interview type learning situation. The 
control group was taught reading skills through the use of a basal reader 

A reading achievement test and a reading attitude scale were given at the 
beginning and the end of the experiment as a pre-test and as a post-test. 
The Analysis of Covariance was used to accept or reject the hypotheses. 
The covariant was the pre-test scores of each testing instrument and the 
dependent variable was the post-test scores of each testing instrument. The 
level at which the hypotheses were accepted or rejected was the .05 level of 

In this class centered action study, the findings indicated that the 
language experience approach for teaching reading skills did not result in 
any significant differences in either reading achievement or reading 
attitude when compared with a basal reader curriculum. However, the 
students taught reading skills through the language experience approach 
did show improvement by writing longer stories, using longer and more 
varied sentences, using better punctuation, and acquiring note-taking and 
outlining skills. 

Based on the findings, observations, and conclusions of this study, the 
researcher submits the following recommendations: 

1. This study should be replicated in this present design using 
random sampling for the selection of the experimental and control 


2. This study should be conducted over a longer period of time. 

3. This study should be conducted using samples from other grades 
to see if they would benefit from the language experience approach. 

4. This study should be conducted again to test for paragraph 
construction, organization of material, grammar improvements, 
letter writing, speUing and length of stories. 




Cathy L. Pruitt (EdS, Middle Grades Education and 
Reading, August, 1981) 

This study was designed to determine what effect, if any, spiral teaching 
would have on the mathematical achievement of sixth-grade students. 

Subjects used in this study were sixth-grade mathematics groups from 
two successive school years at Purks Elementary School, Cedartown, 
Polk County, Georgia. The two groups were assumed to be equivalent in 
regard to race, sex, age, socio-economic background, and previous 
mathematics experience and ability. During the 1979-1980 school year, 
the 32 students who comprised the control group received instruction for 
75 minute class periods for 32 weeks using the traditional approach to 
teaching. During the 1980-1981 school year, the 26 students who 
comprised the experimental group received instruction for 55 minute 
class periods for 32 weeks using the spiral appraoch to teaching. 

A pre- and posttest evaluation designed by the Polk County 
mathematics curriculum committee was administered to both groups by 
the investigator who conducted the experiment. 

The analysis of variance of the gains was used to analyze the data. The 
null hypotheses were tested using the .05 level of significance. No 
significant gains were shown in the areas of fractions, per cent, graphing, 
measurement, geometry, and probability and statistics. A significant gain 
was shown favoring the control group in the area of ratio and proportion. 
Significant gains in the areas of whole numbers, decimals, and composite 
test scores were above favoring the experimental group. This would 
indicate that spiral teaching in mathematics within the purposes and 
limitations of this study does increase selective achievement in 
mathematics, specifically in the areas of whole numbers and decimals. 

Although results indicated no significant differences in some 
comparisons, the mean gains in the areas of fractions, measurement, and 
geometry did favor the experimental group. It is recommended that 
further studies be made in this area to determine if these same findings 
hold true under different circumstances. 



Delores Hightower Ruff 
(Eds, Elementary Education, March, 1981) 

This writer related the history of Due West Elementary School for two 
primary reasons. One, because there was not a written record that this 
writer was able to find and second, because it will be one of the schools so 
dramatically affected by the completion of the 1 20 loop. Just as East Cobb 
grew in the 1970's so West Cobb is going to grow in the 1980's. 

This writer's plan was to talk to as many long-time residents as possible 
and the writer was successful in obtaining a list of over twenty people whb 
went to Due West before it moved. Secondly, the plan was to tell what 
ocurred at Due West until the present, going all the way back in people's 
memory. A description of the old school is available. This description was 
made by the lead teacher in 1928, Miss Hansard. 77?^ First One Hundred 
Years, by Sarah Gober Temple is the most accurate book that this writer 
has seen and Mrs. Temple shows records of the school as far back as 
1891. Mrs. Temple does not even imply that that was the school's first 
year. When the school first began was in 1841, this writer thinks, but at 
that time it was known as Gilgal. In 1864 the name was changed to the 
present one. 

There are records and long-time residents who are still around who 
remember the tornado which did a great deal of damage to the school. 
Whether there were two tornadoes or whether people's memories have 
failed them could not be determined. However, this writer suspects the 
former. Either way, there were two according to information received. 

This writer's beliefs were that because the school has been so rural it 
would not have some of the problems that other schools have faced. 
However, in the past five years, and into the 1980's, this writer believes 
that a dramatic change will take place in numbers and kinds of problems. 
This writer can only make suppositions about the future, but can certainly 
check the years since it reopened on its present site, 1958-1959. Upon 
completing the research this writer found that the suppositions are not 
true but the concepts do reveal themselves in middle and high school. 
Charts and graphs included are attendance, lists of staff and testing. 


Gary Edward Simmers (MA, English, August, 1980) 

In a literary climate predominated by the cynical and fatalistic viewpoint 
that denies the possibility of individual heroic affirmation, John Gardner 
emerges as an advocate for heroic literature. Gardner believes that a 
writer is obligated to tell a story that produces a positive moral response in 


the reader, that promotes "the movement of humanity toward 

In The Resurrection, a dying philosophy professor affirms Ufe by 
learning to accept the "buzzing, blooming confusion" of life itself. In 
Nickel Mountain, a simple man, changed by love, grows to believe in the 
basic goodness of existence, the "holiness of things." The protagonist of 
October Light, a man who understands "life's gravity." discovers the 
"waste" of a fatalistic life and finally accpets life's "goodness." The 
protagonist of The Sunlight Dialogues learns that everything in life offers 
something of value and redeems his life by giving a "blessing" to all 
mankind. In Grendel, a monster's struggles with the universe change him 
from a fatalistic, half-human caricature of man's darker nature to a poet 
whose art offers mankind redemption. Finally, the Wreckage of Agathon 
offers a character whose very existence is an example of the affirmative 
potential inherent in the lives of all. 


Janice G. Sims (EdS, Special Education, August, 1981) 

This study was devised to monitor the effects of a teacher's internship 
on her students' academic achievement. Fifty-three third, fourth, seventh 
and eighth grade students attending schools in several north Georgia 
counties qualified for the research. The children had been identified as 
learning disabled and were receiving services through resource rooms. 
They had been taught by the same teacher for at least two years. 

Pretest and posttest scores from the Wide Range Achievement Test 
were obtained on each subject for the school years 1979-80 and 1980-81. 
The grade level scores were used to determine gains in reading, spelling, 
and arithmetic for both years. A t-test analysis on the gain scores was 

Results from the analysis showed that there had been no significant 
increase in gain scores during the year of internship as opposed to the 
previous year. The data indicate that a teacher's internship does not made 
a difference in the academic achievement gain of the student. 


Claire Lennard Stewart 

(Eds, Secondary Education, March, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to determine whether risk-taking in eight 

selected adolescent novels was presented as a positive or a negative value. 

Twelve protagonists, ranging in age from twelve years to middle age, were 


analyzed in order to determine their motivation for risk-taking, the effect I 
of the risk-taking on themselves, and their moral maturity levels before ; 
and after the risks. The overall effect of the risk-taking was then analyzed 
to determine whether risk-taking was presented in a positive or negative 
light. Conclusions were drawn concerning patterns that existed among 
these novels with respect to risk-taking. 

An analysis indicated that there was no similarity of background on 
character type among the protagonists, nor was there a consistent initial 
moral maturity level. Although there was a difference in the intensity off 
risks taken, three patterns which emerged concerning the type of risk 
taken by protagonists involved social disapproval, disruption of a family 
or social relationship, or life. 

The effect of the risk-taking on the protagonists was found to be positive 
in every instance when the risk-taking was motivated by concern with the 
welfare of another character or, in one case, by a desire for personal 
growth. The personal effect of the risk on these protagonists was positive 
in that all these characters achieved an inner freedom despite the fact that 
the immediate consequences of their risks were not pleasant except in 
one instance. 

The protagonists whose risks had negative outcomes were motivated 
by selfish interests, or they acted without regard for the harmful 
consequences to others. For these protagonists the immediate 
consequences were either highly undesirable, or they were perceived to 
be desirable by the protagonists who lacked awareness of what they had 
risked. When the risk-taking was positive, the moral maturity levels of the 
protagonists progresses to the highest level or descended to a lower one. 

The overall effect of the risk-taking in each novel correlated with its 
effect on the protagonist: when results of risk-taking were undesirable for 
the protagonists, the entire novel discouraged risk-taking; when positive 
outcomes resulted for protagonists, risk-taking as a whole was portrayed 
as a positive venture. 

Implications for classroom use involve the use of adolescent novels 
such as these to develop adolescent perception of risk-taking. By 
examining the outcome of responsible, selfless risk-taking as opposed to 
selfish or misguided risk-taking, adolescents can clarify their own values. 


John H. Stuhrman (MA, Psychology, March, 1981) 

Understanding the creative process within oneself is most important in 
understanding this thesis. What I have found to be an interesting problem 
in my own life, is shared by many others today in attempting to blend the 
spiritual and the scientific. The field in science that best meets with the 
mystical is of course, psychology. There is still a deep split between 


scientific and mystical thought, and few personaHties accomplish these 
diverse ways of understanding life. We can find within ourselves from one 
time to another leanings to either of these ways, and it is the relationship 
between these two that can lead to the development of creativity. 

I have written this thesis as an exercise to follow rather than having it be 
something that has the answers. I would hope for it to evoke more 
questions than answers because there is little creativity when we have 
only the answers. It will be the affect this thesis has on the reader that I am 
concerned with, and to bring this about I have used a blend of language 
that is not always easily accepted. This is because I am trying to speak to 
two antagonistic parts within ourselves. One part is confined to our 
senses in which we weigh and measure our lives, and the other points to 
what is beyond what we can sense. To point beyond what we can sense is 
represented in such words as infinite, permanent, and perfection. These 
words can give an impression to the senses without giving any meaning 
beyond this, what they represent however, has much more value to us 
than what they merely give as sense impressions. It is the value of 
something that has us notice it as having a creative quality. 

In the confines of our sensory experience we desire to express all that 
we perceive so that it is communicated just as we experience it. Different 
ways of seeing and experiencing have led to different ways of expression. 
As language evolves new ways of expressing new experiences are sought 
out to avoid being bogged down in language that our senses are all too 
familiar with, and do not allow us to see any deeper meaning. In spite of 
this we must remember that there is an audience we are addressing, and it 
would be helpful to them if we spoke their language. This thesis addresses 
a relatively new blend of people, those who have mixed psychology and 
mysticism in an attempt to give their lives and the lives of others a fuller 

I see this blending as being fundamental in a creative process in human 
relationships both within and externally. There has been very little 
success in evolving a language which can deal with this problem 
consistently in the English tongue, and I have tried to cope as best with this 
problem as I can. In a thesis such as this, mixing the language of the 
scientist with the language of the mystic leads to an affect within the reader 
that needs further exploration to bring out and evolve the problems of 
integration. Yet, I have not written this to explain anything precisely when 
I cannot do this, nor to totally leave it as all mystifying when it does not 
have to be. 





Christopher Joseph Tully 
(EdS, Educational Administration, August, 1980) 

This project compared two school system's lunch programs. South 
Cobb High School in Cobb County, Georgia utilized the program as 
dictated by federal and state guidelines when subsidies and aid are 
received, and Benton High School in Benton, Arkansas, whose program is 
composed of an outside vendor in combination with a variety of vending 
machines. The only state aid permitted and received by the latter system 
is the subsidation of the milk program. 

Most of the observation and data collection were done in one visit to 
Benton High School. The remainder of the data used for Benton was from 
information furnished by the principal of Benton High School and the 
Chamber of Commerce. Data for the South Cobb High School was 
collected in one day; however, observations were made over a period of 
eight years. Very Uttle written material was available relating to the Benton 
plan and material relating to government subsidized and regulated 
programs was limited to government pamphlets, bulletins and research 
papers. Reference was made to a research paper on a program similar to 
Benton's plan in Clarke County, Nevada. Analytical comparisons were 
made on the two schools in areas outside the lunch program, but do affect 
the programs. 

Benton has practically scrapped the lunch program involving federal 
and state aid. It still receives state aid in the milk program. It is felt by all 
concerned that the current program is far superior to the former method 
of depending wholly on state and federal aid. However, South Cobb is not 
faced with the same problem that Benton had when it made its decision to 
change from very low participation and a money losing proposition. South 
Cobb did make alterations to broaden its accommodations and the trend 
has continued toward a program which serves meals similar to those of a 
program like Benton's. 

Benton's plan should not be scoffed at and ridiculed as contributing to 
improper and insufficient diets. It feeds a larger percentage of the students 
some food and waste has practically been eliminated. Alterations of the 
federal and state regulated lunch program are in order and programs 
similar to the one in Benton High School are good ones to observe for 






Angle Carolyn White Turner 

(Eds, Early Childhood Education, June, 1981) 

The purpose of this study was to determine the results of an evaluation 

questionnaire concerning the effects of the early childhood education 

program at West Georgia College on undergraduates after entering the 

teaching profession with a validation from their supervisors. 

Seventy-three questionnaire results were tabulated. The results 
showed that the early childhood education program at West Georgia 
College had a positive effect on undergraduates after entering the 
teaching profession with a validation by their supervisors. 




Anne Johnson Weaver (EdS, Middle Grades Education, 

June, 1981) 

This study determined any increase in spelling achievement among fifth 
grade students at Canton Elementary School that resulted from the 
implementation of the Rand McNally Spelling Program. 

The subjects of this study were two heterogeneous groups of fifth grade 
students at Canton Elementary School in Cherokee County, Canton, 
Georgia. The two groups were considered to be of equivalent ability, age, 
and sex. They were also considered representative of the total fifth grade 

Seventy-three students participated in the study. Thirty-seven were 
members of the control group, and thirty-six were members of 
the experimental group. 

The study was conducted during the first semester of the 1980-1981 
school year from August 25, 1980 to January 15, 1981. Each treatment 
period was fifteen minutes daily for the experimental group and control 
group. Both groups were instructed by the same teacher. 

The experimental group was instructed by the teaching manual of the 
Rand McNally Spelling Program. The control group was instructed by the 
teaching manual of the Silver Burdett Spell Correctly Series which was 
formerly used in this school. 

The WRAT (Wide Range Achievement Test) Spelling Subtest, Level I 
was used as the pretest and posttest. The raw data were analyzed by the 
West Georgia College Computer Center in Carrollton, Georgia. 


and two comparing pretest scores with posttest scores in th^ 
experimental and control groups. Both null hypotheses were rejected 
since both the experimental and control group gained significantly at the 
.05 level of significance. 

The Analysis of Covariance was used to test hypothesis three which 
compared the gain scores of the experimental group and the control 
group. I.Q. scores were used as the covariate. The data indicated that 
although the mean gain of the experimental group was slightly higher than 
the meaii gain of the control group, this gain was not significant at the .05 
level of significance. Therefore, the null hypothesis was not rejected. 





Barbara Rose West/all 
(EdS, Secondary Education, August, 1980) 

This study delves into how the Soviets use education as an 
instrument in weaving a tighter Communist society. It points out the 
many diversities of cultures within that nation, gives an insight into the 
type of educational system that preceded the Revolution of 1917, and 
focuses on the specific needs for the development of the school 
internat, the Soviet boarding school. In 1956, Premier Khrushchev 
instigated a return to educating the masses in internats as the elite had 
been educated during the Tsarist regimes. To understand the ultimate 
goal designed for these school internats, the framework of the study 
involved a documented review of literature in American and Soviet 

Data showed that although the school internat is still in use, the 
projected aims of massive internment of the Soviet children has not 
been realized. Due to economic reasons and a changing society, the 
role of the school internat in Soviet education has diminished. There is 
documented evidence that the schools currently in operation do 
influence the concept of the "new man" in the USSR. 

Since 1961 the emphasis on the school internats has been negated. 
Relatively little or no research has involved this program. 

Contemporary Soviet education has centered around neighborhood 
schools which have extended hours. The underlying rationale for these is 
that they are not only lower in cost to operate but achieve the same goals 
that were projected for the school internats. Accordingly, these Soviet 


students develop to their fullest potential while, simultaneously, are 
being indoctrinated with the Marxist-Leninist ideology. Furthermore, 
these prolonged day schools relieve the parents for productive labor during 
the work day. 






Vivian Goodson Westmoreland 
(Eds, Early Childhood Education, August, 1981) 

A study was conducted to determine how different groups of 
students view the faculty and administration in relation to racism and 
sexism and to obtain the students' view in relation to racism and 
sexism in the Early Childhood Education Department during the 
winter quarter of the 1980-81 academic year. 

This study provided a basis to support or reject the hypothesis that 
the opinionaire responses of the sixth-year students will be keyed 
numerically lower than those of the fifth-year graduate students and 
the undergraduate students with respect to their: 

a. own sexual attitudes 

b. own racial attitudes 

c. opinions of sexual attitudes of the college faculty and 

d. opinions of racial attitudes of the college faculty and 

An opinionnaire was provided for each student in the Early 
Childhood Education Department to complete, during the winter 
quarter, 1980-81. The multifactor ANOVA was used in comparing the 
opinions of undergraduates, fifth-year students, and sixth-year 
students about sexism and racism with the students' opinions of the 
racial and sexual attitudes of the college faculty and administration. 
The results showed a significant difference for students on sexism and 
racism but none on students' perception of faculty's attitudes. The 
correlation coefficient was significantly positive for all students and 
how they perceive faculty as feeling about sexism and racism. There 
was nothing significant about how undergraduates feel about sexism 
and racism and how they perceive faculty feels. There is a significant 
difference between opinions of fifth-year and sixth-year students 
about sexism and racism and fifth-year and sixth-year students' 
opinions of racial and sexual attitudes of the college faculty and 


administration. Each opinionnaire was scored for a total. The mean for 
each group of students showed undergraduates scored lowest; fifth- 
year students next; and sixth-year students highest. 

The hypothesis stated that the opinionnaire responses of the sixth- 
year students will be keyed numerically lower than those of the fifth- 
year graduate students and the undergraduate students with respect 
to their: 

a. own sexual attitudes 

b. own racial attitudes 

c. opinions of sexual attitudes of the college faculty and 

d. opinions of racial attitudes of the college faculty and 

This hypothesis was refuted. 

A recommendation was made for further studies using a larger 





Wanda Pritchett Williams 
(Eds, Early Childhood Education, December, 1981) 

This study was an attempt to determine any differences in achievement 
between two groups of subjects, who were taught beginning multiplication 
and division by two different methods. 

The subjects for this study were two third-grade classes at Westside 
Elementary School in Rocky Face, Georgia. The subjects were placed in 
each classroom without regard to socio-economic background, academic 
achievement, or mental ability. 

The control group, a class of nineteen students, was taught beginning 
multiplication and division using only the traditional method. The 
experimental group, a class of nineteen students, was taught 
multiplication using the small group manipulative appraoch to teaching 
beginning multiplication and division facts. At the beginning of this study 
a multiplication and division pretest was administered to both groups. The 
instruction period lasted six weeks, at the end of which time a posttest was 
administered to both groups. A delayed posttest was given four weeks after 
the study had ended. 

Since there were only two groups to compare, the t-test was employed on 
the data from each of the comparisons: the results at the end of the 
treatment perios and the results at the time of the delayed posttest. The 
results of the tests at the end of the posttest and the delayed posttest did not 


reveal a significant difference at .05 level between the experimental and 
traditional groups. 

It is recommended that similiar studies of a longer duration be 
conducted with students from different schools to see if the results are 




(Barbara A. Wood, EdS, Special Education, March, 1981) 

Identification of the gifted child is often a neglected task even in the 
modern day classroom. A lack of teacher awareness, which can be 
attributed to a lack of interest but most probably to a lack of training, is the 
major obstacle facing a successful gifted student education program. For 
without proper identification, worthwhile education for the gifted cannot 
possibly be offered. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is to 
study the ways in which gifted students have been identified and educated 
throughout educational history. A study of past and current methods 
reveals a degree of success in this worthwhile endeavor, but such a study 
also points out the extent of progress yet to be made. Through such a 
study, a new instrument can be developed to improve present methods of 

A comprehensive search of literature related to the needs of gifted 
children offers, in addition to specific recounts of educational information 
concerning the gifted, an overview ot what an educator might learn to 
expect of most gifted students. An awareness of common traits provides 
basic background material which, if coupled with training, can be valuable 
to any educator. The testing procedures used today to specifically identify 
students who are suspected to be gifted are quite successful. But the tests 
are not given to all students, so the basic problem is to identify those 
students who must be tested. 

Taking into consideration the personality traits and classroom behavior 
generally exhibited by students whom educators know from previous 
testing to be gifted, an instrument to be used by the classroom teacher to 
identify other such students can be assembled. The instrument presented in 
this research paper is the result of the findings of many authors writing on 
the subject of giftedness — findings which form the basis for the knowledge 
currently held by educators concerning the gifted. Personal experience 
with gifted students in the classroom lends further background to the 
formation of questions for the instrument 


The obvious conclusion to a valid identification program for the gifted is 
a comprehensive program for the gifted students' special learning 
requirements. The education systems in the United States must prepare to 
provide qualified teachers for the gifted. The teachers, in addition to being 
able to identify the gifted students, must be traineed to teach them and 
channel their interests into avenues worthy of their gifted talents. 



Brantley, Daniel 
Paper Reading 

"Communication Theory and the Georgia Legislature." Paper read at the 
Georgia Political Science Association, February 1981. 


"Community Power Studies," University of Maryland, College Park, 
Maryland, November 8-9, 1979 and ,arch 17-18, 1980, sponsored by the 
National Science Foundation. 

"Parties, Politics, and Government in the United States, 1850 to the 
Present," Center for Political Studies at the University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, June 23-August 15, 1980, sponsored by the National 
Endowment for the Humanities 1980 Summer Seminar. 

"Elections: Presidential and Congressional," University of Georgia, 
Athens, Georgia, November 12-14, 1980 and March 18-20, 1981, 
sponsored by the National Science Foundation. 


Review of Marx's Politics: Communists and Citizens by Alan Gilbert. 
Perspective, Volume 10, No. 9 (November 1981), 157-158. 

Review of Democratic Centralism in Romania: A Study of Local 
Communist Politics by Daniel N. Nelson. Perspective, Volume 10, No. 2 
(March 1981), 46. 

Review of The Other Pareto by Placido Bucolo. Perspective, Volume 10, 
No. 1 (January/ February 1981), 3-4. 

Dr. Jonathan Goldstein 

Publications: Books 

Goldstein, Jonathan. Philadelphia and the China Trade, 1682-1846. 
Commercial Cultural, and Attitudinal Effects. University Park and 
London: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. The China Trade from Philadelphia, 1682-1846: A 
Study of Interregional Commerce and Cultural Interaction. Ann Arbor: 
University Microfilms, 1974. 

Goldstein, Jonathan, ed. Philadelphia's China Trade. Catalogue of Loan 
Exhibition, University Hospital antiques Show, Philadelphia, 1972. 

Goldstein, Jonathan: Conroy Hilary, et. al. American Images of China: 
Then and Now. Santa Barbara and Oxford: American Bibliograpical 
Center — Clio Press, forthcoming. 


Other Scholarly Publications 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "Early American Image of the Chinese Through 
Artifacts and Chinoiserie." Asian Culture Quarterly (Taipei), 9, No. 1 
(Spring, 1981), 1-5. Article abstracted in: Society for Historians of 
American Foreign Relations Newsletter, 11, No. 4 (December, 1980). 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "A Romantic Vision of Cathay: JJie Decorative Arts 
of the Old China Trade and Their Influence in America up to 1850. " 
American Studies (Academia Sinica, Taipei), 10, No. 3 (September, 1980), 
1-13. Article abstracted in: Society for Historians of American Foreign 
Relations Newsletter, 10, No. 1 (March, 1979), 43-44. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "The Decorative Arts of the Old China Trade and 
Their Influence in American up to IS50." Bulletin of the Chinese Historical 
Society of America, 14, No. 7 (September, 1979), 2-6. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "Resources on Early Sino-American Relations in 
Philadelphia's Stephen Girard Collection and the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania." Committee on East Asian Libraries Bulletin, No. 60 
(October, 1979), 16-23; Ch'ing-shih wen-t'i (Journal of the Society for 
Ch'ing Dynasty Studies), 4, No. 3 (June, 1980), 114-129. Article abstracted 
in: Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations Newsletter, 10, 
No. 4 (December, 1979), 23-24. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "The Continuing Romance of Old Cathay and Early 
America." New China, 4, No. 4 (Winter, 1979), 20-24. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "Chinese Art Comes to Washington." Korea Focus, 
4, No. 1 (March-April, 1975), 60-63. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "The China Trade From Philadelphia." £)/55er/fl//o« 
Abstracts International, 34, No. 12 (June, 1974), 7675. 

Goldstein, Jonathan. "The China Trade From Philadelphia," Ch'ing-shih 
wen-y'i (Journal of the Society for Ch'ing Dynasty Studies), 2, No. 10 
(November, 1973), 60-62. 

Pre-publication reviews of: Robert F. Oaks' Merchants and Politics: The 
Revolutionary Movement in Philadelphia, 1765-1776; Norman 
Pendered's Edward Teach- Master Pirate; and Donald Adams, Jr.'s 
Stephen Girard, Banker. 

Powell, Bobby 

"Combination of Third-Order Elastic constants of Aluminum," with M. J. 
Skove, Journal of Applied Physics 53 (January, 1982), 765. 

"Was Tecumseh's Arm of Fire" the Comet of 181 1?" Georiga Journal of 
Science 39 (April, 1981), 87. (Abstract). 

"Combinations of Third-Order Elastic Constants of Al and Bi,"with M.J. 
Skove, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 26 ( February, 1 98 1 ), 92. 





<^. >cu ^ 








Published by 


A Unit of the University System of Georgia 


Volume XV 

May, 1983 



Volume XV May, 1983 




Christianity and Science Fiction: 

An Analysis of the Religious Aspects of The Mote in God's Eye- 
William S. Doxey I 

New Directions in Rural Community Planning — 

Dick G. Winchell 6 

What is Phenomenological Psychology — 

Christopher M. Aanstoos 14 

Which John Gregory Discovered the First Lode of Gold in Colorado — 
Carole E. Scott 20 

What Kind of Leader was George Washington — 

Frank R. Hunsicker 29 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 37 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty 

as of January I, 1983 54 

Copyright © 1983, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 

Published by 


Maurice K. Townsend, President 
John T. Lewis, III, Vice President and Dean of Faculties 

Learning Resources Committee 
Daniel Juengst, Chairman 

Charles Beard 
Spencer Hamada 
Lynn Holmes 
Thomas Lightsey 
Paul Masters 

Robert Reynolds 

Richard Sanders 

Carole Scott 

J. B. Smith 

Burdette Wantland 

Jimmy C. Stokes, Editor 
Martha A. Saunders, Associate Editor 
Mark J. LaFountain, Assistant Editor 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for faculty 
research and to make available results of such activity. The Review. 
Published annually, accepts original scholarly work and creative writing. 
West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for contributors' views. 
The style guide is Kate L. Turabian's, A Manualfor Writers. Although the 
Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, 
other sources are invited. 

An annual Bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major recitals 
and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted are not 
listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and appears in 
the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all master's theses 
and educational specialist's projects written at West Georgia College are 
included as they are awarded. 


by William S. Doxey 
The idea for this brief discussion of Chriatianity and science fiction came 
in part from a recent investigation of mine regarding several authors' use of 
culture as an aspect of style. It seems to me that, consciously or not, writers 
employ culture in order to create life-like characters and scenes and also to 
develop conflict. For example, for his historical romances Sir Walter Scott 
chose moments in history when two cultures were in conflict and the 
outcome was in doubt. Scott used languages, social customs, technologies, 
religions— and so forth— for verisimilitude and for plot. Moreover, it 
would seem that the values of the books beyond entertainment are 
manifested in the things of culture. For instance, one gains some 
understanding of both conquerer and conquered as he experiences Scott's 
treatment of Norman and Saxon cultures in Ivanhoe. 

An anlaysis of Christianity in one science fiction novel is obviously 
limited; yet, since religion is an aspect of culture, and since culture is used 
by authors to develop character and plot, I think that such an analysis is 
profitable for several reasons. First, it may help us to understand the 
meaning of the novel better; second, it may, by offering a prediction of a 
future form of Christianity, help us to reflect more thoughtfully upon 
religion's present state; finally since more and more serious readers are 
turning to science fiction, an analysis of a single novel of that type may help 
us to identify the values that these readers are interested in having 
expressed, especually since most of science fiction deals with future 
societies dominated by technologies tending to dehumanize/ depersonalize 

That The Mote in God's Eye, by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, at 
least touches upon religion is suggested by its title, the source of which is 
Matthew 7:3, "And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's 
eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?" cited at the 
beginning of the novel.' Changing "thy brother-s eye" to "God's eye" is 
necessary for artistic considerations, as well as religious (which will be 
examined later), for the setting of the story is a region of space far from our 

* Professor of English. West Georgia College 

I Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, The Mote in God's Eye (New York: Pocket Books, 1974); 
references to this source are by page numbers in parentheses. 

solar system which is obscured by a dense "nebular mass of dust and gas" 
called by Earth astronomers "The Coal Sack"and by the inhabitants of the 
Earth colony New Scotland "The Face of God," since from their vantage 
the nebular resembles a gigantic "hooded man" whose face is marked by a 
great red star known as "God's Eye" and by a dim companion star called 
"The Mote" (p. 47). 

The existence of a colony so distant from Earth is made plausible by a 
prefatory chronology spahhing 1048 years, from Neil Armstrong's moon- 
walk of 1969 to first contact with aliens in 3017. We learn that deep space 
colonization is possible because, first, in 1990 the U.S. and U.S.S.R. 
formed a "CoDominium", and, second, in 2008 the Alderson interstellar 
drive system (making instantaneous travel via "tramways" between stars 
possible) was perfected, along with the Langston Field (which protected 
ships and travelers from stellar heat). 

By 2020 the first colonies were established and Earth gradually lessened 
in importance to human life. The CoDominium ended in 20 1 3 and, after a 
period of strife, was replaced by the "Empire of Man" under the direction 
of Leonidas I in 2250. Peace and tranquility lasted until 2603, when 
"Secession Wars" began which continued through a period of so-called 
"Dark Ages" until 2930, when Leonidas IV established the "Second 
Empire of Man" governed by an hereditary ruler and titled nobleman and 
supported by an Imperial Church, space traders, and scientists. 

The central conflict of The Mote in God's Eye concerns what is to be 
done about the alien beings known as "Moties" who inhabit a planet of the 
star Mote. Religion, especially Christianity, plays an important part in 
both the development and the resolution of this conflict. 

Although there is an "official" church associated with the Empire, 
everyone seems to be free to worship as he pleases. The four religions 
evident in the novel are Islam, The Church of Him, the Motie belief, and 
the Imperial Church. Each persuasion is associated with a character or 

That receiving the least attention is Islam, the religion of a single 
character. His Excellency Horace Hussein Bury, a somewhat villainous 
space trader of enormous wealth who makes frequent mention of the will 
of Allah, and whose solution to the Motie problem is to exterminate the 
aliens. It would seem that Bury's religion serves more to characterize him 
as a shady fellow of the Levantine merchant sort than to develop any 
values that are significant to the total novel. 

An amazing astronomical event led to the creation of The Church of 
Him. When Mote, the dim companion to God's Eye on The Face of God, 
suddenly blazed brilliantly, a colonist of New Scotland named Howard 

Grote Littlemead proclaimed that God had awakened and divinely 
inspired him to form The Church of Him. When the Hght from Mote 
abruptly ceased some years later, Littlemead's reaction was to announce 
that God had gone back to sleep and to take an overdose of sleeping pills to 
be with Him. The Himmist church continued, however, at least partly 
because of the presence of thegreat hooded figure in the heavens. While no 
Himmist creed is set forth, several characters visit a sanctuary on New 
Scotland, and, after the advent of the aliens, the "Grand Deacon" of the 
church demands proof that the Moties are "angels", while a Himmist 
faction proclaims they are "devils" (p. 458). It is apparent that the Imperial 
Church would rather the Church of Him did not exist, for in response to 
the Deacon's plea the Cardinal wishes to make public "tapes of Moties life" 
to "finish off the Himmists once and for all" (p. 458). Such does not come 
to pass, however, and the Himmists are as much in evidence at the 
conclusion as in the beginning. 

The real significance of the dimming of Mote is discovered a hundred 
and fifteen years later, in 3017, when first contact is made with alien life. 
The sudden brilliance of the dim star was caused by batteries of laser 
cannons on its planet whose beams of coherent light propelled a small 
space capsule attached to an immense light sail towards New Scotland 
where it is intercepted by a space cruiser. The single Motie passenger is 

At this point it is necessary to reflect that the appearance of an alien life 
form would have much to do with the way in which humans might deal 
with it. For novelistic purposes, Moties must, therefore, be curiously 
different enough from humans to be recognizably alien, yet must not be so 
grotesquely strange and loathsome that Earthlings would be fatally 
insensitive to them. 

Moties are bipedal and bilaterally symmetrical — from the waist down; 
above the waist they are asymmetrical, having on one side a single large 
arm equipped with a powerful hand for gripping objects, and on the other 
side two slender arms, attached to two shoulders, fitted with smaller hands 
for performing delicate tasks. They have no necks, so must turn at the 
waist. Their faces have two eyes, a slit-like nose and lip-less mouth. They 
are covered with soft fur. Above all else, they are extremely intelligent, 
have an amazing linguistic facility, and are able to mimic human gestures 
so skillfully that in a short time humans forget they are aliens. 

As the story develops, we learn that the Moties have no religion based 
upon belief in a divine being, and that while some believe they have souls, 
"some don't" (p. 480). They do, however, worship their children and 
believe that through them they live after death. This "offspring worship" 
causes them to be extremely dangerous to themselves and to humans. 

The fact of the matter is that Moties are born male and change into 
females who must breed or die. Since children are sacred to them, and since 
death with no hope for after-life is the consequence of not breeding (except 
for certain sterile "mules" who serve as counselors for the leaders), the 
Motie society periodically becomes so overpopulated that decimating wars 
ensue. The culture of Mote is at least a million years old; the population 
cycles occur every thousand years; only the existence of technological 
"museums" enable the Moties to avoid returning to their own "stone age" 
again and again. Since they cannot and will not give up their religion of 
offspring worship, the Moties must discover a means of space travel that 
will enable them to escape from their planet. As a matter of fact it seems 
that some centuries before, one of them stumbled upon a typeof Alderson 
drive; however, he did not discover a protective field, so his first space trip 
was his last. The imperial scientists believe that it is only a matter of time, 
however, before the Moties develop such a system. Then they will populate 
the universe and by sheer numbers overwhelm all other forms of life. 

Confronting this problem is the Imperial Church as well as the 
government and scientists. While the Church, as represented throughout 
the novel by Chaplain Hardy of the navy and from time to time by 
Archbishop Randolph, its titular head, is willing to consider the Motie 
problem from many angles, it is absolutely inflexible on one point: the 
Moties must not be exterminated, for they "are neither angels or devils" 
but "intelligent beings much like us" who pose no "spiritual threat" to 
mankind (p. 466). The Church has not, however, assigned the Moties 
"their place" in theology (p. 466). 

The Imperial Church seems derived from the Anglican with a mixing of 
icon worship of Russian Orthodoxy, a holdover it would seem, from 
CoDominium days parralled by vestiges of Russian culture found amongst 
colonists from that area of Earth, and ironically mingled with the naming 
of a space cruiser after the atheist Lenin. The Book of Common Prayer, 
with a few futuristic changes, seems to be the handbook of the Church. On 
one occasion Archbishop Randolph blesses the ships by intoning, "Glory 
be to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, "concluding with, "As it was 
in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, worlds without end, amen" (p. 
93, italics mine). 

After some of the crew are killed in the region of Mote, Hardy and 
Chaplain George Alexis of the Lenin conduct a funeral service, part of 
which reads: "I am the Resurrection and the Life, saith the Lord. 
Whosoever believeth in Me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: and 
whosoever liveth and believeth in Me, shall never die" (p. 390). This is 
followed by: "I heard a voice from Heaven saying unto me, Write. From 
henceforth blessed are the dead who die in the Lord . . ."(p. 390). At this 
point a recording of the navy choir singing "Dies lrae"is played: "Day of 

wrath, and doom impending, David's words with Sybil's blending," with 
the futuristic modification "heavens and worlds" for "heaven and earth in 
ashes ending" (p. 390). 

At last a slightly modified version of the "Burial of the Dead at Sea" is 
read over the fallen as they are jettisoned from the cruiser and committed 
to "the deeps of space [rather than to the deep] ... in sure and certain hope 
of the resurrection unto eternal life, though our Lord Jesus Christ; at 
whose coming in glorious majesty to judge the Worlds [in place of world], 
the seas [in place of sea] shall yeild their dead" (p. 391). 

The above analysis indicates that while the offspring worship of the alien 
Moties indeed causes a dangerous problem for mankind, it is the Christian 
reverence for all life implicit in the Imperial Church's inflexible opposition 
to a "final solution" that elevates The Mote in God's Eye from the realm of 
space western to that of serious literature. If the aliens — that is: those who 
though "other" than us still exist as part of Creation — are not to be killed, 
what is to be done about them? For one thing, three Motie ambassadors 
are to live with the family of commander Blaine, the hero of the novel; they 
will interact with him and his wife and especially with their young children, 
who, at the conclusion, are beginning to learn the complex Motie 
language. Perhaps as they become acculturated they will discover a simple 
solution to the seemingly insoluable problem. For one thing, the Imperial 
Church is not idle either; Chaplain Hardy has been appointed the "first 
apostolic delegate to an alien race" (p. 545). Perhaps the Christianity that 
has endured transportation through the deeps of space as well as the rise 
and fall of empires will have a beneficial effect upon the alien Moties. 

Finally, let us reconsider the title of this novel. In the same chapter of 
Matthew which is its source we find Christ teaching us that "whatever you 
would have people do for you, do the same for them. "To apply this idea to 
an alien race is so astounding that, it seems to me, the thoughtful reader 
comes away from The Mote in God's Eye with a feeling that the future, 
whether distant or near, might be as much an occasion for hope as for 
despair. In view of today's world I find this to be no small accomplishment 
on the part of the authors. 


Dick G. Winchell* 

I. Introduction 

Planning in many rural communities has become identified as an 
intrusive, negative function of government. Much of the blame can be 
placed upon the planning discipline which has applied urban planning 
techniques to rural communities. This application has universally taken 
the form of standardized zoning regulations which control development 
within the built environment, and to a lesser extent comprehensive plan 
documents which set general land use policies. Planning is viewed as either 
a set of regulations which restrict business and community use of lands or 
as generalized reports which do not relate to critical problems. This paper 
will examine how this negative perception and application of planning has 
developed, will identify the current directions within the planning 
discipline, and will suggest a number of alternative directions to make 
rural planning an effective, positive function of local government. 

II. The Problem with Planning 

It is unfortunate that an understanding has evolved of planning as 
strictly a set of land use regulations. The origins of the problem lie with the 
first conceptualization of planning processes in local government in the 
Standard City Planning Enabling Act of 1 928 and other documents of that 
era. Although a comprehensive plan is essential to the development of a 
zoning code, such plans were not incorporated into planning processes at 
the local level. An effective plan must include both comprehensive 
concepts of future land uses, the comprehensive plan, and short term 
guidelines for development. Part of the problem is that the comprehensive 
plan is composed of general concepts of land use, is long range in scope, 
and has no legal impact upon land use. As such, comprehensive plans 
appear to be luxuries since they do not relate to critical day-to-day 
decisions in a specific manner which could be legally binding. Most cities 
adopted zoning acts in isolation, with no rationale for zoning districts, 
ignoring the need for a comprehensive plan to serve as a basis for zoning. 

The landmark decision of Euclid v. Ambler Realty' determined that a 
city could create and legally uphold a zoning ordinance. The decision in 
1926 influenced the drafters of the Standard City Planning Enabling Act in 
1928 and set the fate for planning in the United States. 

* Assistant Professor of Geography, West Georgia College 

'Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Company, 272 U.S. 365. 47 s. Ct. 1 14. 71 L ED. 303 

With the legaHty of zoning ordinances firmly estabHshed, forty-five 
states passed enabhng legislation to permit cities to adopt zoning 
ordinances by 1927, and by the end of 1930 zoning ordinance were in effect 
in 1 98 1 municipalities affecting 67 percent of the population. ^ Zoning was 
based upon existing land use and whatever reasonable, apparent, or 
expedient changes could be approved. Black suggests: 

As a result of this confusion and the growing interest in zoning, 
many communities prepared and adopted zoning ordinances 
without ever making the land use plan on which zoning should be 
based. This diverted attention from general, long-range policies to 
the controversial details which seem to dominate zoning 

Zoning was king, although the rationale for zoning, which was to be found 
in the comprehensive planning document, was generally absent. 

Comprehensive land use planning was not readily accepted, lacking the 
recognizable utility of zoning. Failures to establish enabling legislation in 
many states including Georgia mandated other forms of enactment. One 
stimulus for implementing comprehensive planning came through Model 
Cities and Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) 
programs requiring at least minimal comprehensive plan documents. 
Another stimulus was state legislation requiring comprehensive plans in a 
number of states, notably California and Oregon. 

The major Federal stimulus to local community efforts at 
comprehensive planning came through the HUD 701 Comprehensive 
Planning Program which provided federal funding to cities and counties to 
complete comprehensive plans. For the most part, products of these 
planning efforts did not directly relate to the need of the communities. 
Instead they produced voluminous documents of little value to local 
officials facing urgent problems. 

The history of land use planning in municipal governments has 
comprised two distinct aspects, one creating zoning and the other drafting 
esoteric comprehensive plans. Zoning has often resulted in community 
conflict while comprehensive planning documents have been used 
predominantly to hold down the shelves of government offices. 

III. Current Planning Efforts 

By the 1980s, these problems in planning indicated a bleak future for 
planners. First, following an analysis of federal expenditures, funds for 

-Z. Charles M. Haar. Land Use Planning: A Casebook on the Use, Misuse, and Re-Use of 
Urban Land. Third Edition (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1977). pp. 203-204. 

'Alan Balck, "The Comprehensive Plan," Principles and Practice of Urban Planning, ed. 
William I. Goodman (Washington, D.C.: The International Managers' Association. 1968). 
p. 353. 


comprehensive planning have been nearly eliminated through 
discontinuation of the HUD 701 programs and less emphasis on planning 
activities funded under the HUD Community Development Block Grant 
Programs. Increased costs which resulted in extensive comprehensive plan 
regulations at the state level such as those in California have generally been 
modified to be less restrictive. 

Second, a critical effort has been made to reduce zoning regulations and 
speed up the development process within city governments while 
maintaining some semblance of the initial zoning codes, in effect, this is the 
worst direction possible, maintaining but weakening zoning documents 
which were often ill-conceived in terms of comprehensive planning and 
local community values in the first place. These directions in the 80s fail to 
recognize the alternatives which exist within the planning discipline, in 
spite of zoning and comprehensive planning failures, the processes of 
directing future development or protecting public versus private interests 
are necessary functions of local government which someone carries out. 
Professional planners must explore alternative actions if they will be 
leaders in this effort. 

IV. Planning Alternatives 

Planning in its broadest sense can be defined as a decision-making 
process. This process has several steps: the collection of data or inventory 
of existing conditions; analysis of data; identification of alternative actions 
and recommendations. The process is generally applied to land use issues, 
and the results are presented to decision makers in the form of an 
evaluation of alternative actions. Such policy planning is a research effort 
made by city staff to help elected leaders make the decisions which best 
serve the public interest. Two features of this definition are important. 

First, as a process, planning is constantly creating and integrating new 
information for the analysis of alternative actions to be taken by 
government officials. In practice, planning has been seen as a static or one- 
time process, such as determining the zoning for a given parcel of land. As 
attitudes, economic conditions and political frameworks change, the 
assessment of alternative actions also changes. Because planning is a 
dynamic rather than static process, planning must begin to relate to some 
general values or guidelines which set the framework for community 
development, rather than become embroiled in specific issues u ithout any 
adequate relationship to the changing community. 

The second feature of planning is that it is a policy-oriented process. In 
effect, planners should not and do not make ultimate decisions. I o be most 
effective, they should study an issue by applying the planning process 
which identifies the alternative actions available and exaluales their 


expected outcomes. The final decisions are left to elected leaders, who are 
best able to represent the local community, since they are subject to recall 
and re-election based upon their actions. 

Perhaps the most creative new direction for planning lies in the area of 
policy analysis, where planners together with other social scientists focus 
on effective decision-making. Planning within such a decision-making or 
policy context does follow a process, rather than present a static 
description of issues. More importantly, such a planning effort leads to the 
analysis of issues in a context that local leaders can understand. Instead of 
the voluminous comprehensive planning documents typically handed 
decision-makers, a comprehensive assessmet of a particular issue or 
decision is provided. Because policy planning is comprehensive, it lists all 
alternatives and gives the decision-makers extensive information on 
specific issues. Because policy planning is a process, it provides a decision- 
making framework but leaves the ultimate decisions to elected leaders and 
the community. 

Another feature of policy planning is that it goes beyond the narrow 
restrictions of more traditional land use planning. In fact, all aspects of 
government and public sector development are impacted by planning 
processes, so planning needs to consider this wider range of municipal 
activities. Policy planning expands the roleof planners, while making their 
contributions more relevant to elected leaders, businessmen, and the 
public at large. 

V. Rural Community Development and Planning 

Perhaps at no other level are the problems of planning so great as in 
rural communities. For the most part, such communities have been 
dependent upon state enabling legislation and whatever technical 
assistance was available at state and regional levels to meet planning needs. 
With these constraints, few communities have progressed beyond the 
adoption of a zoning ordinance which may or may not be effective or the 
completion of a comprehensive plan which is often little understood by 
local community members. 

Such problems are finally being exposed by a number of studies which 
attempt to indicate new or better directions for planning in rural areas. 
Central to most of these studies is the fact that planning in rural areas 
is based upon urban planning principles. ■• As a result, only the same 
problems which exist with planning in urban areas can be resolved. Urban 
planning techniques including standard zoning ordinances and 
standardized comprehensive planning reports are inappropriate in many 

M icdciii-k Sargent. Rural liinironmi'm Plannini; (MoMpcUcr. Vermont: University of 
Vermont. 1976): and Judith Getzels and Charles Thurrow. eds. Rural and Small Town 
i'lannin^ (Washingtim. D.C: American Assoc. 1979), for example. 

rural communities. New efforts are needed to develop rural planning 
techniques which effectively consider rural planning issues. These efforts 
must include the full participation and understanding of local elected 
officials and citizens to be effective. 

Urban planning techniques such as zoning are appropriate for cities of 
over 50,000 people, but for smaller cities, rural planning techniques should 
also be developed.^ Rural planning techniques should be applied almost 
exclusively to communities under 10,000 people, but such rural planning 
techniques or processes are not well established. 

As noted, however, zoning ordinances and comprehensive plan 
documents have been directly applied to rural communities. This rural 
application of urban planning techniques has reduced the effectiveness of 
planning and may in some cases reduce successful community 

The growing body of literature on rural planning has several central 
themes. First, all rural planning needs to be completed within the context 
of the local resident values and knowledge of planning issues. This means 
increasing sensitivity to and participation of local residents in the planning 
process. Planning in this sense needs to focus on community education, 
helping local citizens become more informed and therefore better able to 
make effective decisions on land use and other planning issues. 

A number of strategies exist which can bring about effective planning. 
New planners in rural areas should first get to know the people and issues 
in an area by listening to their concerns and understanding their 
problems.^ They should then pick one issue or problem and solve it. Rural 
people are project-oriented, they want results from the work, not 
'planning.'^ Also, planning education is critical once these first two steps 
have been completed. This education should focus on the definitionof 
planning as a process within their community and on the importance of 
developing policies as part of effective planning. 

The urban context for problem solving has dominated issues ranging 
from economics to recreation in the United States during the 1960s and 
1970s. Few post-secondary institutions have concentrated upon rural 
community development and only the recent change in demographic 
patterns toward rural areas has renewed interest in small communities. 
One effort to link rural colleges and universities with the needs of rural 

'Sargent, p. 10. 

''Get/els and Ihurrow. pp. 2-17. 

'Get?els and Ihurrow, p. 10. 


communities demonstrates the potential of curriculum and applied 
community research which places an emphasis upon rural communities.^ 
Such efforts will certainly be expanded as the demand for appropriate 
planning and development guidelines for rural communities becomes 

VI. Rural Planning Problems and Opportunities 

The problem of rural planning can in part be traced to a dislike of 
planning and to the inappropriate application of urban planning 
techniques to rural communities and counties. Efforts to decentralize 
planning efforts through the establishment of Regional Planning Agencies 
to serve rural regions have been only partially successful. For the most part 
these agencies remain unable to establish a process of effective rural 
community development. At the same time, efforts to reindustrialize many 
counties have often been quite successful. Such development has led to 
conflicts between local values, the rights of individuals to develop, and 
efforts of planners to control everything. 

The outcome of land use trends in rural Georgia, for example, has been 
termed "a land speculation spiral that is economically ruinous to all but a 
few speculators. . ."^ Efforts to increase effective planning and establish 
more land use controls are needed, but are highly unlikely. The need for 
more planning to serve the public interest opposes the expressed attitudes 
of the public, which seem to support the premise that the "best" 
government is the "least" government. Although the 1 980s is a critical era 
in terms of rural land use and community development, there is clearly no 
movement toward "solutions from the top" such as the National Planning 
Act proposed during the 1970s or state legislation to expand municipal 
powers in planning, zoning and land-use restrictions. 

A new local initiative which creates and promotes rural planning for non- 
metropolitan regions is needed. One such system has already been 
suggested in a proposal for two types of zoning in rural areas: one for 
county seats, communities and roadways which would have some zoning 
regulations; and a second agricultural zone for the remaining land, with 
only minimal development regulations."^ Such an approach would bring 

■Rural Dcvelo/uiicni ami Hif;lier Eilucatian: The I.inkini; of Comnnmiiv and Methocl 
{Baltic Creek. Michigan: I he \V. K. Kellogg Foundation. I9SI). 

''Eugene Odum, "Opiimum Population and Environment: A Georgian Microcosm, " in 
(ieography and Contemporary Issues: Studies of Relevant Problems, ed. Melvin Albaum 
(New York: John Wiley and Sons. 197.^) pp. 454-460. 

"'Howard Shrettei. Zoning and Countryside: li hat's Hrong With It and An Alternative 
Approach (Athens: Institute ot Community and Area I)e\elopmcni, Dcpt. ol (ieography, 
Univ. of Georgia, 1977). 


"flexibility and workability to the control of rural land use without 
sacrificing the purposes of integrity of the planning processes."" 

Another alternative is to adopt a policy planning review process. Instead 
of developing extensive regulations or comprehensive planning 
documents, such a process would apply a comprehensive policy planning 
or issue-analysis study for each proposed development. This would 
provide a comprehensive examination of the issues and impacts of 
proposals, while supplying direct results in the form of technical input to 

Policy planning could establish local staff members with to 
study a wide range of issues using scientific techniques, presenting this 
information in a framework addressing specific issues or problems faced 
by local government. Policy planners could help elected leaders make 
more informed decisions while serving as a data collection center for 
information about the city. 

In addition to this public sector role, policy planners could also expand 
their role in private sector development within rural areas. Most city 
governments already support the local Chamber of Commerce 
organizations and provide information which is used to promote 
development. Government administrators often fail to involve planners 
in these processes even though policy planners may be well trained in 
economic development, in many federal programs, including HUD's 
Community Development Block Grant programs and Economic 
Development Administration programs, planners not only collect base 
data and conduct feasibility studies for business proposals, but actually 
package such proposals for lenders, in many rural areas small 
businessmen lack the skill, time, and financing to examine thoroughly 
business feasibility and potential. Policy planners could assist in 
identifying regions within rural communities in which development can be 
promoted, and in assisting private enterprise to create more effective 
development within the private sector. 

VII. Conclusions 

Rural regions of the country face critical development porblems in the 
future. Zoning regulations and comprehensive planning reports have 
provided little useful service to stimulate the local economy and enhance 
community development. There is a need for new techniques which 
enhance local values and which can directly and appropriately deal with 
local issues. Planning can be an effective tool to promote the positive 
relationship between local government and private development only by 
redefining its role within rural communities. New approaches to rural 

"Shretter. p. 31. 


zoning and implementing a policy planning process are two ways to en- 
hance local values in the day-to-day issues which face local governments. 

Planning in rural areas can no longer simply establish more land use 
regulations or meaningless reports. New efforts are needed by planners, 
businessmen, elected officials and local residents to form a partnership for 
community development. Planning within this context must be broad- 
based yet practical, assembling data in a comprehensive manner which 
directly relates to local problems. Community values and planning 
education must be emphasized. If its role in rural communities is changed, 
rural planning can contribute valuable techniques to aid local 
goxcrnmcnts. Whether an effective partnership will form between 
planning and rural communities is a critical challenge for the future which 
u ill determine the success of rural planning and the positive development 
o\ rural communities. 

/ would like to thank Dr. C. Gerald Sanders and Dr. James R. O 'Malley 
for their review and comments on an earlier version of this paper. 



by Christopher M. Aanstoos, Ph.D* 

A paradigmatic change is now occurring at the forward edge of 
psychology. This change involves the incorporation of phenomenology 
into the foundations of psychological theory and praxis. The wider 
academic community is only beginning to understand the significance of 
this shift.' The relative recency of these changes partially accounts for this 
unfamiliarity. However, it is also the essence of "state of the art"changes in 
any discipline to be some distance from that discipline's traditional 
mainstream. Such a gap is not a deficiency; it simply reveals the need for an 
overview perspective. The purpose of this article is to fill that need by 
introducing phenomenological psychology to those not well versed in it. 

The place of phenomenological psychology 

Perhaps the most succinct introduction possible is the maxim 
formulated by Husserl,^ the founder of phenomenology: "To the things 
themselves!" This expression indicates phenomenology's aim to describe 
and understand phenomena on their own terms rather than to seek ex- 
planation by going "behind" phenomena through the use of hypothetical 
constructs about them. Applied to psychology, such a project proposes to 
understand psychological experience as it is actually lived by the person. In 
other words, phenomenology aims to grasp the meaning of the experience 
in order to understand human presence as it is lived. 

At first glance, this goal seems so obvious it is surprising to find it at the 
forefront of contemporary psychology. Hasn't psychology always wanted 
to understand the meaningfulness of human experience? Implicity it has, 
but explicitly it founded itself within a conceptual and methodological 
approach that precluded it from doing so. Psychology forfeited the 
possibility of studying human meaning as the price of its commitment to 
imitate the model of the physical, or natural, sciences. Upon self- 
consciously separating from philosophy in the nineteenth century, 
psychology chose the conceptual foundations of the sciences of nature. It 
sought to establish itself as a "physics of the mind" or a "mental 
chemistry," without realizing that the uniqueness of the human, or 
social, sciences required their own original foundation. 

The history of psychology credits Wundt's experimental laboratory of 

♦Assistant Professor of Psychology. West Georgia College 

'The four Psychology Departments most notable for their work in this area include Duquesne 
University. Seattle University, the University of Dallas and West Georgia College. All four 
have Master's programs. At this time only Duquesne and Dallas have doctoral programs. 
^Husserl, Edmund. Ideas: General Introduction to pure Phenomenology, translated by W. R. 
B. Gibson (London: Collier, 1962. Originally published. 1913). 


1879 as having spawned psychology's institutionalization of experimental, 
natural science methodology. A deeper historical analysis, however, 
demonstrates that this approach was not the only alternative available to 
psychology. Comtemporaneously with Wundt, Brentano"* argued that 
psychology could better approach its own subject matter if it was a 
descriptive, rather than experimental, science. Shortly afterwards, 
Dilthey* distinguished the human sciences (those whose focus is the human 
world) from the natural sciences (those whose focus is the world of nature). 
This distinction was not meant to indicate that there are two worlds. 
Rather, it distinguished the study of the world as it is lived from the study 
of the world conceived independently of human presence. Dilthey pointed 
out a fundamental difference between the experienced world and the world 
conceived as an object independent of experience. The former, precisely 
because it is lived, presents itself as a constellation, or network, of 
meaning that is, as a structure to be understood and described as such. 
Ihc latter, on the other hand, does not. Lacking such an intrinsic nexus of 
significance, this objectified world can be comprehended only by 
establishing extrinsic, causal relations among its parts. This establishment 
of such extrinsic relations is thus the proper task of the natural sciences, 
but not of psychology as a human science. 

But psNchology in the late nineteenth century did not follow the lead 
proposed by Brentano and Dilthey. It chose to ignore their essential 
distinction and instead conceptualized its subject matter naturalistically, 
in order to proceed as an experimentally based positivistic science. H uman 
behavior was taken to be just as mechanistic and causally determined as 
the actions of molecules or machines, and those aspects of it that did not 
conform to this model were ruled "out of bounds" and ignored as not 
scientific, or worse, as not real. Such an approach is not unlike that of King 
Procrustes in Greek mythology, who fit his guests to his bed by cutting off 
their feet if they were too long or by stretching them if they were too short. 
Psychology made the same mistake by forcing its subject matter to 
conform to a pre-existing methodology rather than inventing methods 
adequate to its subject matter. In that way, psychology thwarted itself and 
so excluded the very possibility of being able to fulfill its own originary 

The current change in psychology is the re-awakening of this unfulfilled 
purpose, and a re-dedication to its achievement. Its precursors were 
phenomenlogy and existentialism in postwar Europe and humanistic 

'Brcntaiio. Fran/. Psychology J ram an empirical Stamipoint . translated by A. C Kancurello, 
1). B. Icrrcll & 1.. 1.. McAlistcr (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1973. Originally 
piiblisli.-d. IS74). 

^Dilthcv. Wilhclni. Descriptive Psychology and historical Understanding, translated by R. 
M. /ancr& K. !.. Heiges ( the Hague: Nijhoff. 1977. Originally published, 1894). 


psychology in the United States. In this country, the first reformist wave 
was more a protest than a program. In their dispute with traditional 
psychology, humanistic psychologists took one or the other of two paths. 
Some sought to add meaning back into psychology's agenda by bringing 
the same research methods to bear on neglected topics in psychology (such 
as love). Others rejected a scientific framework altogether and sought to re- 
establish psychology apart from science. While these early efforts were j, 
important in provoking later developments, they could not by themselves ' 
solve the root of psychology's problem. Those who took the first path 
failed to grasp the earlier stated point of the power of an inappropriate 
method to dictate to the phenomenon, thereby limiting the way it can be 
disclosed. For example, researchers who accumulate statistical 
correlations of operationally defined variables about love remain just as 
blind to the meaning of the experience as did those who used the same 
methods to study rote learning. Psychology's problem is more basic than a 
simple neglect of certain content areas. Rather, the approach itself is 
problematic. However, those psychologists who reject science altogether 
are no better off. The anti-intellectualism of the "touchy-feely" branch of 
humanistic psychology also fails to achieve a rigorously sound 
understanding of the human world. Although this understanding cannot 
be attained on the basis of the natural science foundation, it also cannot be 
achieved by completely abandoning science. Then one's results would so 
lack rigor that they could be nothing more than conjecture and dogmatic 

As humanistic psychology has matured, it has increasingly begun to turn 
to phenomenology for a solution to this dilemma. Thus, in the last two 
decades, an authentically phenomenological psychology has emerged. In 
addition to a journal begun in 1970 (Journal of Phenomenological 
Psychology) and a professional organization begun in 1982 (Human 
Science Research Association), a wide variety of texts on 
phenomenological psychology are now available. These include 
introductory books, ^ programmatic works, ^ collections of research,' and 

'Two examples are: Valle, Ron & King, Mark. Existeniial-phenomenological Alternatives 

for Psychology (New York: Oxford. 1978); and Kruger. Dreyer. An Introduction to 

Phenomenological Psychology (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1979). 

''Two examples are: Van Kaam, Adrian. Existential Foundations of Psychology (New York: 

Doubleday, 1 966): and Giorgi, Amedeo. Psychology as a Human Science (New York: Harper 

& Row, 1970). 

'An example is the series entitled Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology, a 

volume of which has been published every four years beginning in 1971. 

"An example is: Misiak, Henryk & Sexton, Virginia S. Phenomenological. Existential and 

Humanistic Psychologies: A historical Survey (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1973). 


In the remaining section of this article, only the barest outline can be 
presented. It will focus on two important issues: the articulation of 
psychological reality, and methodological procedures for empirical 

The task of phenomenological psychology 

For phenomenological psychology, the fundamental psychological 
reality is human being-in-the-world, a term indicative of an essential 
relation of person and world. "Comportment," "experience," 
"expression," "action," "behavior," "consciousness" — these are all 
different names for this relation. Likewise, all the usual processes that 
psychology studies — perception, memory, learning, thinking, emotion, 
motivation — are specific modes by which people relate to the world. 
Phenomenology 's most basic discovery is that this relation is lived as an 
intentional unity, a correlation of experiencer-experienced. Thus, 
psychologically speaking, a person is always "in relation to" or "directed 
toward" or "intending" something. Furthermore, by virtue of this 
intentional unity, that toward which the person is directed coheres, that is, 
it presents itself to experience as always already meaningful in some way. 

Methodologically, then, the research task of the phenomenological 
psychologist is to study that meaningful coherence of experience as it is 
lived. To do so, it must be attended to on its own terms (which was 
precisely the sense of Husserl's maxim "to the things themselves"). As has 
already been said, psychology traditionally conceived of its subject matter 
naturalistically. Along those lines, it viewed the subject's world as a randon 
heap of extrinsic, impinging stimuli, to which sense was subsequently 
somehow added by the person. But these are terms borrowed from the 
physical sciences; they are not the terms by which the world is ordinarily 
lived by people in their everyday experience. Psychologists can view the 
world in that way, but when such a theoretically derived viewpoint is 
posited as that lived by the subject, then a "category error" has been 
committed. The researcher's conception of the world has been put in the 
place of the subject's living of it. The world is not lived as something 
foreign to the person, but as a situation carved out by one's involvements. 
Perhaps a specific example would help clarify this point. Cognitive 
psychology has now constructed computer models of thought and has 
applied these models to areas that require thinking — such as chess. The 
program of such a computer chess player is then taken as a simulation of 
human thought. The computer proceeds by applying pre-determined 
heuristic search and evaluation rules. ^ But to mistake this conception of 

•^For a more complete critique of this model and the results of phenomenological research in 
this area, see: Aanstoos, Christopher M. A Phenomenological Study of Thinking as It Is 
Exemplified during Chess Playing (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1983). 


how chess can be played for an understanding of how people actually do 
think in chess is to commit the aforementioned category error, substituting { 
the researcher's knowledge for the subject's experience.'^ 

And how does phenomenology avoid this error? First by respecting the ; 
contextualized, or situated, character of experience. Phenomenological 
studies generally aim to discover the significance of any psychological 
phenomenon by studying its occurrence in actual, everyday experience. 
For example, if one's research interest was perceptual thematization, then 
it would be more illuminating to study it in the context of the subject's 
picking out groceries in a supermarket'" than it would be to have the 
subject detect randomly generated dots on an electronic screen in a 
laboratory. Meaning inheres in situations; stripping away the context is 
like throwing out the baby with the bath water. Second, phenomenological 
research remains faithful to experience by proceeding descriptively. It 
begins by obtaining naive descriptions from subjects. The data-generating 
questions are open-ended, designed to allow subjects to "tell their story" 
about specific situations in which they actually experienced the topic in 

Nor is this descriptive emphasis compromised by the imposition of 
hypothetical constructs at a later step. Rather, the researcher's aim is to 
reflectively determine and explicate the essential structure of the 
experience. That is achieved by making explicit the meaningful coherence 
that may have been lived only prethematically, and hence described only 
implicitly by the subject. In that way, phenomenological research is not 
caught by the same dilemmas that plagued introspectionism. It does not 
require that subjects grasp the essential structure of their experience, only 
that they describe their experience as they lived it. It is properly the task of 
the researcher to make this structure explicit. There are already well 
established procedures for teasing out that which is essentially invariant in 
subjects' descriptions." What is sought are not merely invariant facts, but 
instead the invariant structure within which the individual 
contingencies cohere. By analogy, one may picture the grasp of this 

'"Wert/, Frederick .1. A Dialog with the Sew Look: A historical Critique and a descriptive 
Approach to everyday perceptual Process (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms. 1982). 
"Articles and books specifying methodological procedures include the following; Colai//i, 
Paul F. Reflection and Research in Psycholo)^y (Dubuque. Kendall Hunt. 197.^); Giorgi. 
Amedeo. "Toward phenomenologically based Research in Psychology." Journal of 
Phenomenological Psychology. Fall 1970. pp. 75-98; Giorgi. Amedeo. "An Application of 
phenomenological Method in Psychology" in Duquesne Studies of Phenomenological 
Psychology Vol. II. edited by Amedeo Giorgi, Constance Fischer & Edward Murray 
(Pit'sburgh: Duquesne University Press. 1975); Wert/, Frederick. "From everyday to 
psychological Description; An Analysis of the Elements of a qualitative Data Analysis." 
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. Fall 1983, in press. 


structural invariance to be similar to the way that a theme in music is 
grasped as that which is common to all its variations. The final step is to 
provide a structural description of the essential psychological significance 
of the experience. And therein lies the true value of phenomenological 
psychology. It returns, as its gift back to the lived world, an explicit 
understanding of that which lies closest to human being: the meaningful 
coherence of experience. 



by Carole E. Scott* 

There was a time when saying a person was from Auraria, Georgia, was 
like saying today he has a degree from the Colorado School of Mines. 
Because Georgia was the site of the nation's first gold rush, our first gold 
mining experts were Georgians. Thus, early gold seekers in the West 
looked to Georgians for expertise and leadership. 

Georgians generally followed one of two major routes to the gold 
country of the West. If headed for California, they usually made their way 
to New Orleans, from where they sailed to the isthmus of Panama, crossed 
this jungle hell, and set sail again. Colorado and other mining areas in the 
eastern Rockies were reached by trekking across the hostile Indian- 
infested Great Plains. Many of these miners were unwilling to give up their 
homes in Georgia, so they spent only the mining season — the warmer 
months — in the West. Others, who were Cherokee Indians, were forced to 
give up their homes in Georgia. 

Georgians found both the first placer or drift and lode gold in Colorado. 
(Placer gold is gold found in streams which has been washed out of lodes in 
the mountains.) Both Denver, Colorado, and Helena, Montana, trace 
their beginnings to settlements started by Georgians. Traces of these early 
Georgia miners can be found today on detailed maps of the Rockies. Over 
a hundred years ago, however, the imprint of Georgia on Colorado was far 

Named after John Hamilton Gregory, a Georgia miner, were a point, a 
gulch, a street, a district, a hill, a creek, a canon, a hotel, three lodes, a 
diggings, and two mining companies. Gregory was king of the little 
kingdom of Gilpin, home of Central City — the richest square mile on 
Earth.' Today, due to the passage of time, the Civil War, and Gregory's 
dropping from sight at the height of his power, John H . Gregory has been 
almost forgotten. 

His memory lingers on, however, because he discovered the first lode 
gold found in the Pike's Peak Country and set off the Colorado gold rush. 
During the winter of 1859, Gregory prospected the icy, forbidding 
Rockies. He paid dearly for his decision to prospect during this season for 

•Professor of Economics, West Georgia College 

I Margaret Inman Meaders, "The Perplexing Case of John H. Gregory," Georgia Hisiurical 
Quarterly, Vol. XI, June 1956, p. 112. 


he almost lost his life in a snow storm.^ But the gamble paid off, for on May 
6, 1 859, Gregory discovered the gold lode he had tentatively located during 
the winter. 

Earlier, another Georgian, William Greenberry (Green) Russell, had 
discovered the first placer gold in Colorado. Green went home for the 
winter of 1859, leaving his brother. Dr. Levi J. Russell, a physician known 
as the founder of Denver, in the raw and rough town they had founded: 
Auraria, Colorado. (Auraria was later absorbed by upstart Denver.) 

A good bit is known about Green Russell and his brothers, Levi and 
Oliver, who mined with him, first in California and then in Colorado. The 
son of a man who left Pennsylvania to seek gold in South Carolina and 
then in Georgia, Green was just old enough to witness the gold rush in 
Georgia. As a youth, he helped his father mine gold in Georgia. He 
dreamed of growing up and making a fortune as a miner. 

As a teenager. Green was one of the soldiers who rounded up the 
Cherokees for eviction from Georgia. This experience made him 
sympathetic to Indians. Later he was to marry a woman who was part 
Cherokee and, on the basis of Cherokee reports of gold in the Rockies, was 
to travel with a group partly made up of Cherokees and half-breeds to 
Colorado to search for gold. 

Green was one of the first Georgians to head for California. He made 
several successful trips, taking some of his brothers with him. He invested 
his earnings in a Georgia plantation and farm land in Kansas. Their travels 
aren't the only thing that makes the Russells interesting. They also differed 
from the bulk of their peers by belonging to the Universalist Church in 
Dawson. The Russell men were known as free thinkers who did not 
subscribe to the conventional, dogmatic teachings of most of the local 
sects. They did not accept the fire-and-brimstone hell threatened by most 
frontier preachers of the day. In Texas, where he moved after the Civil 
War, Levi, out on a fake call, was beaten up for being a free thinker.^ 

Unlike Green Russell, John H. Gregory is a man of mystery. There is no 
known photograph of Gregory and only sketchy descriptions of him by 
some of those who met him. According to one Georgian who tried to track 
him down, as far as his history prior to his years in Colorado or his later life 
is concerned, "he might very well have ridden into the Territory on the tail 
of Donati's comet in 1 858 and ridden out again on the caboose of the Great 
Comet of 1864, for these years more than cover the certified record of the 

-Carl Ubbelohde, Maxine Benson, Duane A. Smith, A Colorado //k/o/'j' (Boulder, Col.: 
Pruett Publishing Co., 1972), p. 64. 

'Elma Dill Russell Spencer, Green Russell and CoW (Austin: The University of Texas, 


man." ^ What he did before he went to Colorado (except begin a Georgia 
miner) and where he went to after he left is a mystery. 

His record in Colorado indicated that experience and shrewdness, 
rather than luck, mainly accounted for his success. Decriptions of his as 
"white trash" seem a bit prejudiced. * In Gregory's day the Rocky 
Mountain News reported that he was from Gordon County, Georgia.*" 
Some claim he was born in Alabama, while others say it was in Georgia.^ 
He was literate, something many people in his day were not. On October 2, 
I860, he signed an agreement selling his interest in the Bates lode. A 
Colorado historian says his signature "is a large, dashing hand with the tail 
of the 'y' extending over two and a half inches."'* The editor of the Rocky 
Mountain News is said to have been impressed with a business-like 
statement Gregory wrote out as a contract with his hired men.** 

Although the Omaha Nebraskian reported on October, 17, I860'", that 
Gregory has passed through on his way to Georgia, the Rocky Mountain 
News reported on April 3, 1861, that "We had the pleasure of again taking 
by the hand our old frienc John H. Gregory, the discoverer of the Gregory 
mines. He has just returned from his home in Alabama to spend another 
season in our mines."" 

It has been said that he was forty years old in 1859.'- In Colorado he 
feuded with Green Russell, and it has been said that their conflict dated 
back to their days in Georgia." Yet, Dr. Levi Russell put Gregory up for 
the night before there were any Colorado conflicts between Gregory and 
Green Russell.''* 

Colorado histories say that all the Russells and Gregory were from 
Auraria, Georgia, site of the nation's first gold rush. Yet, while the Russells 
did live for awhile in Lumpkin County, the county in which Auraria was 
located, they never lived in Auraria.'-^ At the time they discovered gold in 
Colorado, Green resided on his plantation in Dawson County, which had 

■•Meeders, Op. Cii.. p. Il.'<. 

■^Robert L. Perkin, The First Hundred Years. An Informal Histor\ oj Denver and the 
Rocky Mountain News (New York: Doubleda> & Company. Inc.. 1959). p. 109. 

''Caroline Bancroft, "The Elusive Figure of .lohn H. Gregory. Discoverer ol the KirstCiold 
Lode in Colorado," The Colorado Maga/inc. Vol. XX. No. 4. .luly 194.1. p. 125. 

'Meaders, Op. Cii.. p. 120. 

"Bancroft, Op. Cii.. p. 1.1 1. 

"Caroline Bancroft, Gulch of Gold (Dcnwr: Sage Books. dl958). p. .IS. 

'"Bancroft, Op. Cit. (The Colorado Magazine), p. 131. 


'-Meaders, Op. Cit.. p. 12.1. 

"Bancroft, Op. Cit., (Gulch oJ Gold), p. 124. 

'"Spencer, Op. Cii.p. 110. 

"Ibid., p. 7 and p. 37. 


Figure 1 

jiiigi u «, . laup 

Stkovlaj Ui* boonilTlf (ahAdtd) tt \t* 


Figure 2 



been created partly out of Lumpkin.'^ (See Figure 1.) It was Levi who 
suggested Auraria as the name for the first settlement in Colorado. His 
other suggestion, Dahlonega, is the name of the Georgia town where the 
U.S. Mint was located that, using gold brought it by Green, coined the first 
Colorado gold.'^ 

Presumably, the Russells and, perhaps, Gregory did what many people 
do today when they are far from home. They say they are from the nearest 
town to where they live that the people they are among are familiar with. 
Someone from Gordon County interested in selling his services as a gold 
miner would be very tempted to say he was from Auraria. Then, too, 
people in Colorado might just assume any miner from Georgia was from 
Auraria. They might not know that gold was mined in many north Georgia 

When one examines the 1850 Census of Lumpkin County there is a 
strong temptation to conclude that John Gregory was actually from 
Auraria, for the Census shows a John ( no middle initial or name) Gregory, 
36, and his wife, Martha, 39, living in the Auraria District with their six 

This John Gregory is not shown in the 1860 Census of Lumpkin County, 
but Martha, 48, is, along with four ofthe six children listed in 1850. A new, 
seventh shild, Jesse, is also shown. In the 1 860 Census, Martha's real estate 
was valued at $100, not much even then. Thus, there is no sign of the 
thousands of dollars John is reported to have sent his wife from 

The 1870 Census of Auraria District shows Martha, 58, but fails to show 
John. Since Colorado's John is said to have shouted when he found his 
lode, "By God, now by wife can be a lady! My children can be schooled,"'"^ 
he doesn't seem like the type to desert his family. Since John would have 
been 56 in 1870, it seems unlikely he would have been out prospectingand, 
thus, not beenat home when the census taker came by. Even if he had been, 
it would appear that he'd still be listed. 

The 1 880 Census, which indicates a woman's status, shows that Martha, 
68, is a widow. The 1 880 Census includes a man named Jesse Gregory, who 
age indicates he is John and Martha's son, living nearby with his wife and 
son, James, I . James is probably the James Gregory contacted in 1937 by 
the Colorado Historical Society, which thought that his grandfather John 
might be Colorado's John.-" 

"•Ibid., and U.S. Census. 

"Ibid., p. 77 

'"Bandcroft, Op. Cil. (Gulch of Gold) 

"Perkin. Op. Cii.. p. 1 10 

-'"Meaders, Op. Cit.. pp. 121-122. 


Confederate records show that a George W. Gregory, private, Co. H, I st 
Regiment, Georgia Volunteer Infantry (Dahlonega Vols), Lumpkin 
County, was killed in Winchester, Virginia. The Census of 1 850 shows that 
John and Martha Gregory had a son named George old enough to have 
served in the Confederate Army. A Gregory family Bible obtained from 
James Gregory in 1937 by the Colorado Historical Society records the 
death of John's son George in Winchester, Virginia.-' Thus, the John 
discovered by the Colorado group must be the John recorded in the 

Three facts about this John Gregory seem to rule him out as the 
Colorado John. The Bible records his death on his way home from 
California in 1853.-- it also indicates that he would have been 45 in 1859-^ 
(This is yet another reason for believing he is the John listed in the 1850 
Census.) Thus, this John is five years older than the John in Colorado was 
thought to be. Letters obtained along with the Bible suggests that this John 
could not write, since someone else wrote his letters for him.-"* 

The fact that Jesse Gregory, the youngest child of John and Martha, was 
born in either 1851 or 1852 is consistent with John having died in 1853. 

Despite these conflicts, Margaret Inman Meaders, who grew up in the 
gold region of Georgia and researched the John Gregory mystery, 
concluded in a 1956 article in the Georgia Historical Quarterly that 
Auraria's John was Colorado's. She thought the report of his death might 
be wrong. She believed that since the family kept John's letters from 
California that they would also keep the one announcing his death, but no 
such letter was found. She also reported that a man who remembered Mrs. 
Gregory also remembered that his grandmother had told Mrs. Gregory of 
her husband's death after 1853. -^ 

While the name Gregory cannot be called a common name in Goergia in 
the 1 800 's, there were a number of people named Gregory in the State, and 
several were named John. The mountain region alone had more than one 
John, but there wasonly one John H. Gregory listed in the 1850 Census of 
Georgia. This John Gregory fits the known facts about Colorado's John 
Gregory better than does the Meaders' candidate. 

The 1 850 Census of Cherokee County (See Figure 1 .) shows a John H. 
Gregory, 29, living with his wife, Christina, 25, and two children: Frances, 
I , and Sis, 5 days. He was born in South Carolina; thus, in time and place 

-^'Ibid., p. 124. 

--Ibid., p. 122. 

-'Mbid., p. 123 

-^^Ibid., p. 125. 

^Mbid., p. 127. 


he was Green's contemporary, as Green was born there at about the same 
time. The value of his property was Hsted as $ 1 ,500. This data was collected 
on the lOth of August 1850; thus, this John would have been just one year 
short of 40 in 1859. Living nearby was a possible brother, William H. 
Gregory, 24, and his wife Emily, 17. Marriage records show that John 
married Christina Payne November 1 1, 1844, in Cherokee County. They 
show that William married Emily Waddell on January 2, 1848, in that 
county. An older man, Griffin Gregory is also shown in Cherokee County 
in 1850. 

Neither John H. nor his wife appear in the 1860 Census of either 
Cherokee or Gordon County. The same is true of William H. Since there is 
no index of the 1860 Census, it is not possible to determine if these people 
lived somewhere else in Georgia or Alabama in 1860. 

A Robert Gregory, 70, and his wife, Cynthia, 67, both born in North 
Carolina, appear in the Resaca District of Gordon County in 1 860. ( Many 
people their age living in Georgia at that time had emigrated from North 
Carolina, often via South Carolina.) Could these be the parents of the 
John H. in the Wildcat District of Cherokee County ten years earlier? 

Could John H. Gregory be related to the Lewis Gregory who obtained 
land in the Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832 which was located in what was 
to become Gordon County?-^ 

As can be seen in Figure 1, Dawson, Gordon, and Lumpkin counties 
were all carved out of the original Cherokee County. Lumpkin was one of 
the original counties carved out of Cherokee. Dawson and Gordon were 
not. Since Gordon County was not created until February 13, 1850, the 
best John H. could have done was to have been born in what became 
Gordon County. However, this is highly unlikely, as the northwestern part 
of Georgia was not settled until 1835, and he was born in 1820 or 1821. 
People his age born in Georgia were a real rarity in this part of Georgia in 
1850. Most were born in South or North Carolina. 

Figure 2 shows Cherokee County in 1932. Although its boundaries 
encompassed more territory in 1850, the 15th land district that John H. 
lived in had not changed. (Wildcat is the name of a militia district.) 

It appears that at least one adult member of the Russell clan can be 
placed in Cherokee County in 1860. Elma Dill Russell Spencer, 
granddaughter of Joseph Oliver Russell, reports that Oliver married Jane 
Robertson, who was born in 1838. Their first child, Harriet, was born in 
1856, and the second, her father, Richard, was born in 1858.^^ A Jane 

^''Burton J. Bell (editor), 1976 Bicentennial History of Gordon County Georgia (Calhoun, 
Georgia: The Gordon Co. Historical Society. Inc., 1976), p. 40. 
"Spencer, Op. Cit.. Appendix. 


Russell, 21, and her two children, Hariett (sic), 3, and Richard, 2, are 
shown in the 1860 Census of Cherokee County in the Ball Ground District. 
(See Figure 2.) Mrs. Spencer implies, however, that in 1860 Jane and her 
children lived on Green Russell's Plantation in the Savannah District, 
Dawson County. She seems to be mistaken in this view. 

This section of Georgia was thinly populated in John's day. Gordon 
County, for example, had only 5,984 people (828 Black) in 1850 and 10, 146 
in 1 860.2» Cherokee County had 1 2,800 in 1 850 and 1 1 ,29 1 in 1 860.^9 Thus, 
it does not appear too unlikely that John's path could have crossed a 
Russell's in Georgia. 

Because John is reported to have drafted many agreements himself, it 
seems likely that he had previous experience with legal documents. Thus 
somewhere in Georgia today there may be a document signed by the 
elusive John H. Gregory. 

Perhaps the most conclusive evidence that the John H. Gregory living in 
Cherokee County in 1850 was Colorado's Gregory lies in the person of 
Robert Reese, who lived nearby in Cherokee County in 1850. A Robert 
Reese married Emily Gregory December 19, 1844, in Cherokee County. E 
is the initial of the wife of the Robert Reese living near John H. Gregory. 
Colorado's John had a partner in a quartz mill on North Clear Creek 
named R. T. Reese. ^^ 

Some seekers of Gregory find his sudden and unexpected disappearance 
from Colorado mysterious. A Colorado historian considers his debts a 
possible motive, but she also notes that he left substantial assets and an 
unsettled suit against Green Russell.^' A more likely answer is that he was a 
Southerner in a Unionist territory during the, as he would have called it, 
War Between the States, and he was afraid to stay. 

As the Colorado historian Bancroft observes, "The Georgia miners, 
whose prestige had always been the highest because of their knowledge of 
gold, were shunned more and more, and Gregory and Russell were no 
longer venerated. Southerners, fearing attack, remained close to their 
claims and worked quietly or began to slip away from the mountatin 
towns, unannounced."^^ 

-'"Bell, Op. Cit.. p. 73. 

-''Lloyd G. Marlin, The History of Cherokee County (Allania: Walter E. Brown Publishing 
Co.. 1932). p. 181. 

^"Bancroft. Op. Cit. (Gulch of Gold), p. 55 and Meaders, Op. Cit., p. 125 (Meaders says it 
was R. T. or R. J). 

"Bancroft, Ibid., pp. 136-138. 

"Ibid., p. 120 ' 


Spencer says that "Southerners were persecuted and taunted. 
Frequently their property was threatened with damage. . . . Several times 

the Russells found that their water flumes had been cut at night "^^ They 

decided to get away in the "guise of prospectors, heading toward the 
mountains for Georgia Bar, where some recent gold activity had been 
going on. "3"* They didn't make it. Union soldiers captured them on the 
Canadian River. ^' Ultimately they were released because they agreed to 
take an oath of allegiance to the United States. ^^ Green and Oliver, 
however, didn't let this stop them from forming a company of Confederate 
troops when they finally got back home.^'' Ironically, one of the problems 
they faced when they got home was that northwest Georgia was a center of j 
Unionist sentiment! 

After the War, the three Russell brothers and a fourth brother, John, 
who had gone to California, but not to Colorado, moved west, as did many 
other Southerners discouraged by post war conditions. Only Green 
returned to Colorado. He died in Indian Territory, having moved there to 
live with his brother John.^** 

Did John H. Gregory, as some have suggested, go to Montana, or did 
he, like the Russells, return to Georgia? Culd he be the John Gregory who 
enlisted on September 18, 1863, at Dahlonega, Georgia, in a calvary unit 
organized for local defense? We may never know, as the tides of time have 
washed away most traces of that "slight, wiry red-haired and full- 
whiskered Georgian."^' 

"Spencer, iOp. Cit.. p. 158. 

'"Ibid., p. 159. 

"Ibid., p. 169. 

^Mbid., p. 175. 

^'Ibid., p. 182. 

'"Ibid., pp. 199-206. 

^'Henry Villard, quoted in Bancroft. Op. Cil. (The Colorado Magazine), p. 122. 



by Frank R. Hunsicker* 


If we measure the success of a leader by his accompUshments, the 
leadership success of George Washington is obvious to all but the more 
cynical. It is time we began to analyze leaders that history suggests as being 
successful and try to identify the factors which contributed to their success. 

For this inaugural effort, George Washington was selected because of 
his reputation. It is an initial effort to analyze the leadership ability of 
Washington in a rigorous fashion. It is a developmental attempt to 
identify techniques that will help analyze other successful leaders. This 
could be classified as an attempt to formalize histro-leadership analysis. 
Obviously, people have tried to analyze George Washington from many 
perspectives. No less an authority than Leonard White analyzed his 
administrative ability. ' Most efforts, although quite perceptive, did not use 
current concepts of leadership as a basis for analysis. Most studies are 
more descriptive than analytical. This study is hopefully an analytical 
approach to the leadership of George Washington. 


It is quite difficult to analyze the abilities of a person who has been 
deceased for over 180 years. We cannot administer tests to him, his peers, 
or his subordinates. Therefore, more abstract processes must be used. 
Opinions need to be sifted and balanced to ascertain characteristics. 
George Washington, himself, is of very little help, since his diaries are 
rather sterile statements of fact- and Martha destroyed most of their 
personal correspondence.' We have little of his own thoughts; therefore we 
must rely on opinions of others. This problem is compounded by some 
fantasized stories about "cherry trees" and "silver dollars," which mask 
the real George Washington." 

*Prolcssor of Business Administration, West Georgia College 

'White. Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study of Administrative History, New York: 
MacMillan (1965). pp. 97-115. 

-.lackson. Donald (Editor). 77?^ Diaries of George Washington. University of Virginia, Vol. 
I-VI (1978-1979). 

'Fit/patrick, John C. The Writings of George Washington, Vo]. 1, Washington, D.C. ( 1931), 
p. .XIX as reported in Flexner. .1.7. George Washington: The Forge of Experience. Little- 
Brown: Boston. Mass (1965), p. 230. 

■•Boorstin. J. "The Mythologizing of George Washington," The Americas: The National 
Experience. Random House, Inc. (1965). 

■^Stogdill, Ralph M. Handbook of Leadership. MacMillan Publishing Co. (1974), p. 426. 


The model by Ralph Stogdill was used as a basic structure for this 
analysis. 5 Leader, follower, group variables, and criterion measures are 
suggested as components of this model. The structure of the model tends to 
emphasize internal variables which might affect the leader's success and 
ignore external factors. Although the framework is crude and the variables 
must be limited for this initial effort, the possibility for future applications 
is intriguing. 

The analysis focused on George Washington's development through the 
Revolution to about 1 783. This excluded the latter period when he played a 
role in the Presidency. His abilities as a leader were primarily developed 
during the period researched. As stipulated in the opening sentences of this 
paper, it is assumed that he was successful as a leader because of results. In 
ihis effort, focus will be to analyze primarily (1) the characteristics of 
George Washington (GW), the individual, (2) briefly address 
characteristics of his followers, primarily military, and (3) group 


Characteristics of George Washington 

Several leader characteristic areas were analyzed in the quest for 
understanding the development of George Washington's leadership 
ability. They are discussed separately. 

Background. George Washington was born into a rather austere 
environment in the tidelands of Virginia, to the descendents of English 
immigrants. His mother was a rather domineering individual throughout 
much of his life. His education was limited, in comparison, to that of his 
peers. If one assumes three social and economic classifications in Virginia, 
he was born into the lower middle class and rose by his own achievements 
in surveying, military, and business, to the upper class. His brother, 
Lawrence, and the Fairfax family were his mentors.^ There is general 
agreement among leadership analysts that he had a high achievement and 
power orientation. 

Identifying Characteristics. His most identifiable characteristic was his 
size. In a time when people were averaging close to five feet, five inches, he 
stood out at over six feet, and probably close to six feet, four inches tall. He 
was athletic and quite strong. On one occasion, a soldier recalled, nearly 
one thousand of his troops were fighting among themselves when George 
walked into the eye of the fight and grabbed the two instigators by the 
necks, picked them up and shook them, while lecturing them on their 

"Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: The Forge of Experience. Little-Brown & Co 


behavior.^ He often suffered, as did many in that period, from such 
illnesses as smallpox, dysentery, and lung-related sicknesses. As a result, 
he was often forced to lead from a sickbed. There is little to suggest an 
extremely high level of intellectual interest, but there is evidence that he 
was quite intelligent with a pragmatic sense of balance and a very high level 
of tenacity.** The tenacity factor demonstrated by the above instances 
recurred numerous times in his career. 

Status. His status derived from his accomplishments. His family status, 
important in Virginia, was relatively low by comparison to families such as 
Lee, Carter, Randolph, and Fairfax. His accomplishments as a surveyor 
and in the Virginia military built his status. So, one might say that his 
status was self-made and earned.^ 

Personality. It is difficult to establish a realistic picture of his 
personality. He appears to have been quite personable and well-liked. He 
quickly earned the respect of such people as Governor Dinwiddie and 
General Braddock. From a leadership perspective, the repeated opinion 
that he was socially distant is a key factor. He appears to have had a few 
close relationships except with the Fairfax family."' He also appears to 
have kept his emotions under control, although he did have angry 

Values. This is a most critical area in this analysis. Gurth and Taguiri's 
work, using Spranger's classifications and definitions of theoretical, 
economic, religious, political, aesthetic, and social values, was most 
helpful.'- George Washington's value system and supporting evidence is 
profiled below in order of importance. 

( 1 ) Political — There is a slight difference in weight attached to economic 
and political values. George Washington placed a high value on power. 
This is cited by numerous biographers. In his younger days, he openly 
sought power. He actively sought a coveted commission in the regular 
English Army until he was 28. He was characterized as being "on the 

'Dann. John C. (Editor). 77if Revolution Remembers. Chicago, III.: University of Chicago 
Press (1980). p. 409. 

"Woodward W.E. George Washington: The Image and the Man. New York: Liveright 
Publishing Co. (1926). p. 295. 
'>lhid. pp. 59-206 

i"hay. Bernard. George Washington. Republican Aristocrat. New York: Houghton-MilTlin 
Co, (I9.'?2). p. II. I.t9. 

iiFlexner, Op. cit.. p. 26-.V^. 

i-Gurth. William and Taguiri. Renato. "Personal Values and Corporate Strategy." Harvard 

Business Review. Vol. 43. 45. (Sept. -Oct. 1965). pp. 123-132. 

I'Cunliffe. Marcus. George Wa.shington: Manand Monument. London: James Place (1959) 
p. 52. 


make."''' Others suggest that "he was vain, fond of adulation and power."'* 
He was the only member of the Second Continental Convention to appear 
in uniform.""' This was the convention that chose him as Commander of 
the Continental Army. Numerous other examples in the literature 
substantiate the findings that this was his most dominant value. Power 
dominated economic value. Given the choice on several occasions to stay 
or return to Mt. Vernon, his economic base, Washington opted for the 
positions of power. 

(2) Economic — This value appeared to dominate some of his earlier 
activities. Washington was born and raised in austere economic 
circumstances. His first major efforts as a surveyor provided a good source 
of income and opportunity to buy land, vital to economic success. His 
early efforts in the military were primarily due to economic concerns for 
land development by the Ohio Company. This absorbed much of his 
interest from the age of 16 to 22.'^ One suggested that he was "economic 
and moralistic," while Thomas Jefferson was "intellectual and spiritual."" 
It appears this value affected decisions less as he achieved higher levels of 
tangible wealth. Most biographers agree that he faced most decisions by 
'ieeking practical and useful alternatives. That approach characterizes 
what management theory classifies as the economic value of orientation. 

(3) Theoretical — There is a significant gap between the first two values 
and this one. According to most of the researchers, Washington was not an 
idealist or intellectual.-" He was much less educated than his peers, having i 
completed his education without attending American or European 
institutions of higher learning. Most would agree that he was intelligent, 
but not equal to such giants as Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, or 
Benjamin Franklin. Duringalongtenure in the Virginia Houseof Burgesses, 
he was not active in political debate and primarily handled local affairs. 
Yet, George Washington was quite observant, rational and logical.-' 

(4) Social— Again, there is a gap between the theoretical and social 
values, but it is not as extensive as the previous gap. As mentioned earlier, 
Washington was socially distant.-- One researcher characterized him by 

^^Ihkl.. p. 5.1 

''^Woodward, op. cit.. p. 454. 

'"Ihiil. p. 25H. 

I'h'nxnian. Doiii^las Soiiihall. Gcoit^c Washington: \olume One. Youn^ H'a.shingion. New 
York: .Sciibncr's Sons ( I94X). pp. 224-41 I. 

"•Woodward, op. cil.. p. 2 IS. 

<Vhic/.. p. 2X6. 

-"Cunliltc. p. 150-152. 

-'/hiJ.. p. 150. 

--/hic/.. p. 15.1. 


suggesting, "the inner significance of people and events was beyond his 
range. "2^ Comments by soldiers suggest that he was humane and fatherly. ^^ 
Placing social value this low in the value system seems to contradict much 
of our learning about Washington. This may be due to two factors. First, 
early biographers often came close to mythologizing him with stories 
about cherry trees and silver dollars. Second, his vital role in American 
history is almost larger than life, and it is difficult to separate him from the 
"American Way." 

(5) Religious— The church had an important role in early American 
society, serving religious and governance roles. Washington attended 
church about 25% of the time and wasa vestryman and warden in his home 
church. -5 Researchers comment on the lack of religious references in his 
correspondence or speeches. Authors typically suggest a low religious 
value, although one researcher suggests that he was a deist with strong 
religious values evidenced by his concern for religious freedom. ^^ Religion 
had an insignificant role in his decisions. 

(6) Aesthetic — The lowest value appears to be his view of form, 
harmony and art. There is little evidence of any concern for art, literature, 
and other aesthetics. He enjoyed plays, which were a major form of 
entertainment. His background as a surveyor and his concern for the 
design of Mt. Vernon suggests, at least, some interest in the aesthetics. 
Probably the strongest support for this low weight is lack of historical 
evidence for a higher level. 

Table I summarizes his value system with that of Gurth's and Taguiri's 

research on modern corporate managers' value system. 

Table 1 
Gurth and Taguiri-^ George Washington 

Economic Political 

Theoretical Economic 

Political Theoretical 

Religious Social 

Aesthetic Religious 

Social Aesthetic 

Follower Characteristics 

The second major group of characteristics in the leadership model is the 
follower. What kind of background education and motivation did the 

-'Woodward, op. cit.. p. 455. 

-■•Dann. op. cit.. p. 62. 

-'Woodward, op. cit.. p. 228. 

-'Boiler, Paul F. George M^fl.v/j/n^/o/;fl/it//?f//jf/ow. Dallas. Texas: Southern Methodist Press 


-"Ciurth, op. cit., p. 126. 


-"Freeman, op. cit.. p. 429. 

-''Palmer, Dave. The Way of the Fox. Wcstport, Conn.: Greenwood Press ( 1975) pp V-^O 
^ybid., p. 18 
^'/bid., pp. 11-12. 
"Flexner, op. cit., pp. 193-196. 
"Ibid., pp. XIII-XV. 

^^Sears, Robert. Piciorial History of the American Revolution. New York: Robert Sears 


leaders have? This study of Washington, which is Hmited to the period up 
to 1783, will focus on followers in his military activities. His plantations 
were primarily operated by tenants and slaves, and would be worthy of 
study, but Washington spent the major portion of his time from age 18 to 
43 in military-related endeavors. It is difficult to comprehend the 
magnitude of his challenges in getting followers to follow. He commented 
at one point in his early experiences that in the 1750s, with the Virginia ; 
Regiment, "he doubted that more than ten of his 150 men would follow if , 
orders came to march. "^^ ! 

In studying his followers, we shall also focus on the soldiers and leave the 1 
complexities of the officer corps for another effort. Several key factors j 
appear to characterize the American soldiers of 1750 to 1783. | 

(1) They were typically English-speaking with little education and very 
few economic resources.-^ i 

(2) They were unfamiliar with, nor interested in, military discipline 
which was a constant problem to Washington. Physical discipline was a 
major motivational tool.^" 

(3) In constrast to their European counterparts, they were quite familiar 
with weapons and required little or no training in basic skills.^' 

(4) They were pressured to serve in some form at the state 
or continental level. ^- 

(5) Patriotism was not as much a motivating factor as were grievances 
against England. Infringement on freedom was an issue in early years of 
the war, while mistreatment of people was a factor later. '^ 

(6) Bounties were used as economic motivation. Soldiers were recruited 
by paying from a $20 bounty up to 100 acres of land.-*-* 

It would be fair to describe the followers as un,skilled; poorly trained; 
mildly interested in the outcome of the conflict; concerned for their own 
lives; worried about their crops and homes; impressed with some of the 
bounties offered; poorly fed, clothed and armed. This brief discussion 
regarding Washington's followers emphasizes one point — complexity. It 
would be untenable to suggest that the Continental Army would have 
survived without leadership of a relatively high order. 

Group Characteristics 

Analysis of the group characteristics facing Washington, the leader, is 
primarily a deductive process since the literature seldom focuses on this 
perspective in a macro-sense. Even with comments in the literature about 
various status groups in the colonies, the status differences were much less 
apparent than in Europe." This may be due in part to the sparse 
population of the colonies. Very few cities exceeded ten thousand in 
population. English law and language were common. Dissatisfaction with 
treatment by England, for various reasons, was common. The Puritan 
ethic of community had an impact in the colonies. 

These facts suggest positive and negative group characteristics. First, 
there is an element of homogenity which encourages cohesion. This 
resulted from common laws, language and grievances. Second, the 
relatively small size of the groups encouraged cohesion. Third, the lack of a 
fixed status system provided an opportunity for military status systems 
based on merit rather than birth. Fourth, sense of community provided a 
basis for cohesion, particularly in militia units representing specific areas. 
Fifth, a common enemy, which individuals held in varying degrees of 
animosity, provided a major reason for cohesion. England's behavior 
helped enhance this cohesive variable. ^^ The evidence, although slim, 
suggests that group characteristics may have been vitally important in 
Washington's success. 

Other Factors 

Our analysis has stayed fairly close to the model suggested in the 
beginning of the paper. However, in carrying out the research, several 
factors did not completely fit the model and deserve specific attention. 

George Washington gained a significant level of experience preparing 
for his role in the Revolution. Experience is of limited value if it does not 
affect behavior. Freeman suggests that Washington learned the "ABC's of 
Leadership. "^^ He cites ten principle lessons learned in Washington's 
experiences with the Virginia Regiment and continuing deficiencies that 
would haunt him later. ^* Evidence reinforces the contention that 
Washington learned from his experiences and seldom repeated mistakes. 

Another factor which often appears in discussions of successful leaders 
is the theory that external factors explain failure or success of particular 

"Palmer, op. cit.. pp. 29-30. 
'"Ihiil.. pp. 34-50. 
'Freeman, op. cit., p. 369. 
'"//j/c/., p. 368-37«. 


individuals.^'^ Some suggest that lack of competent leaders and adequate! 
resources from England resulted in Washington's success. Sufficient! 
evidence is lacking to present a convincing argument for this position. 

Summary i 

This research suggests seven characteristics which contributed most toj 
George Washington's success. It is not practical to rank order these 
characteristics, although there may be intuitive feelings for one over! 
another. I 

(1) Tenacity — George Washington exhibited a strong, positive tenacity i 
that shows up continuously throughout his career. j 

(2) Power — The evidence is almost undeniable that he sought positions 
of power. 

(3) Personality— He appeared to be able to establish trusting! 
relationships with followers and superiors, while also remaining socially 
distant from them. 

(4) Experience — Washington was one of few who had experience and I 
learned from it. 

(5) Status — He gained status among his peers which evolved into a 
charisma, eventually affecting followers in all the colonies and in other 

(6) Practical Intelligence — George Washington knew his strengths and 
limitations and those of his forces, and made decisions accordingly. 

(7) Unity of Purpose — His followers felt, at least, some unity of purpose 
which helped create a basis for cohesion in groups. 

It would be inappropriate to suggest this is a definitive analysis of 
George Washington, the leader. As suggested in the beginning of this 
paper, it is an initial effort. However, it is an effort which we who study 
leadership should expand and continue until we develop a reasonably 
rigorous set of tools to analyze successful leaders. The obvious difficulty in 
this kind of research is the reliance on the opinions of others in arriving at 
findings and conclusions. Again, this should not deter us; rather, it should 
encourage us to sharpen our analysis. 

"Dorfman, Peter W. and Howell. Jon P. "Substitutes tor leadership: Test ol a Construct. 
Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 24, No. 4. ([)ec. 1981), pp. 714-728. 




Jimmy L. Agan (EdS, Middle Grades Education. December, 1982) 

This study was designed to compare two methods of instruction, peer 
tutoring versus no peer tutoring. This study attempted to determine if there 
would be a statistically significant difference between the mean gain score 
in subject matter knowledge between two heterogeneous seventh grade 
social studies classes. The experimental group used same-age peer tutors 
while the control group did not use peer tutors. The null hypothesis was 

A teacher-made diagnostic test was used in the study as both the pretest 
and the posttest. The pretest was given to both groups during the first week 
of the 1981-1982 academic school year. In addition to the Slosson Oral 
Reading Test was administered to each subject in both the experimental 
and the control groups. The experimental process lasted for the entire 
I98I-I982 academic year. During the last week of the academic year the 
posttest was given. At the end of the experiment, mean scores for the 
pretest and the posttest were computed for both groups. 

An analysis of covariance procedure was used to test for difference in 
mean gain scores between the experimental and control groups in subject 
matter knowledge. The null hypothesis was accepted. 

It was concluded in this study that the use of same-age peer tutoring made 
no significant difference in the gain of knowledge of subject matter as 
measured by test scores. 




Donald George Aiken (MS, Biology, March, 1983) 

Cytochemical procedures were used to determine the precise 
intrachloroplastic location of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in Chlorella 
vulgaris. Enzyme activity was localized by a cobalt capture reaction, 
visualized either by amplification of cobaltous ferricyanise with 3,3'- 
diamino-sulfide. Complete inhibition of staining was achieved in control 
reactions run either in the presence of 4M acetazolamide or with heat- 


treated cells. Inclusion of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1,1 -dimethyl urea 
(DCMU) in the ferricyanide solutions did not prevent staining. The 
reaction localized CA activity within the thylakoid space, contary to the 
stromal a-ssociation inferred from biochemical studies of this enzyme in C- ; 
3 plants. Considering the suggested role for the enzyme of concentrating 
molecular carbon dioxide at the site of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate ' 
carboxylase (RuBP Case) and the suspecyed close association of CA with 
RuBO Case, this direct localization suggests that at least the first reaction 
of the Calvin cycle takes place within the thylakoid space of the 
chloroplast in Chlorella vulgaris. 




Ronald D. Bailey (EdS, Middle Grades Education, August, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any 
significant differenced between males and females in relationship to their 
scores on the Career Development area of the Georgia Criterion- 
Referenced Test. 

Test scores on the Career Development area of the Georgia Criterion- 
Referenced Test of 735 eighth grade students attending the four middle 
schools of Douglas County, Georgia, were gathered. Chi-squares were 
computed for the scores of each of the twenty objectives of the test to 
determine whether there were any differences between males and females. 
The analysis of variance was computed to determine whether there were 
sex differences in each of the four categories of the test: Self- 
understanding, Education, Work and Occupation and Decision-making. 

On the following four objections of the test, the chi-square analysis 
revealed that there were significant differences: 

Objective 2: Recognizes how the ability to get along with people 
affects getting, keeping, and advancing on a job. 

Objective 7: Understands that one is responsible for one's own actions 
and decisions. 

Objective 19: Recognizes how a person's friends can influence one's 
personal decisions. 

Objective 20: Can identify important decisions and choices people 
must face when they plan their careers. 

In all four instances, girls had a higher knowledge on the objective than did 


On two of the categories — Self-understanding and Decision-making — 
significant differences were found. These differences indicated that girls 
had a greater knowledge of these two categories than did boys. 




Judy Guy Baker (EdS, Guidance and Counseling, August, 1982) 

This study was an attempt to determine the effects of two modes of test 
administration upon the performance of five-year old boys and girls on the 
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. The sixteen subjects used in this study 
were grouped into two equivalent samples with regard to age and sex. 
These groups were referred to as Group I and Group II. Each group was 
assigned to an examiner. Within each group two subgroups were identified 
in pairs by age and sex as Group A (Approval group) and Groub N 
(Neutral group). This enabled both examiners to administer the same 
treatments. Each examiner administered the test to both of her groups. 
The A Groups were given verbal and non-verbal approval. The N groups 
were given only neutral treatment. 

The treatments were given on the same day but the subgroups were 
alternated so that neither treatment would be limited to a certain time of 

The raw data from the test administration was analyzed by the West 
Georgia Computer Center using a two-way analysis of variance. The level 
of significance was set at .05. 

The results showed a significant difference at the .032 level between the 
mean numbers of correct responses of a group of five-year old boys and 
girls who received approval and a group that received neutral treatment on 
the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. There was no significant difference 
between the mean number of correct responses of a group of five-year old 
boys and girls who were tested by Examiner I and those who were tested by 
Examiner 11 on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. No significant 
difference was found between the mean number of completed items of a 
group of five-year old boys and girls who receive approval and a group that 
received neutral treatment on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. There 
was also no significant difference found between the mean number of 
completed items of a group of five-year old boys and girls who were tested 
by Examiner 1 and those who were tested by Examiner II on the Peabody 
Picture Vocabulary Test. The difference between the mean IQ scores of a 
group of five-year old boys and girls who received approval and those who 
received neutral treatment on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was 


significant at the .004 level of significance. There was no significant 
difference found between the mean IQ scores of a group of five-year old 
boys and girls who were tested by Examiner I and those who were tested by 
Examiner II on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. 

It is recommended that similar studies with larger samples and different 
ages be conducted to reinforce or refute the findings of this study. It is 
further recommended that similar studies using children from different 
child-rearing patterns and different social-cultural milieus be conducted. 




Evelyn Joyce Boat right (EdS, Early Childhood Education, June, 1982) 

This study was designed to determine what, if any, effects home status, 
sex, and the occupation of the head of household have on reading 

Seven schools were randomly sampled from a total of forty-three 
elementary schools in a large metropolitan county. Data were collected on 
all third grade students in these seven schools. 

A Multifactor Analysis of Variance was the statistical technique used. 
The .05 level of significance was used. Five null hypotheses were tested. 
Determination was made that home status, the interaction of home status 
and sex, and the interaction of home status and occupation of the head of 
household did not make a significant difference in the discrepancy between 
reading achievement and reading expectancy at the .05 level of 
significance. The results also showed that sex and occupation of the head 
of household both are significant effects on the discrepancy between 
reading achievement and reading expectancy at the .05 level of 





Susanne Corley (EdS, Early Childhood Education, August, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the 
scores of the undergraduates at West Georgia College on the National 
Teacher Examination in two areas: the common area of education and the 
specialization area of Early Childhood Education. 


The two hypotheses which were tested were: 

1. A significant and high correlation beyond .75 (.85) exists between the 
National Teacher Examination common scores and the Early 
Childhood Educaton area scores of West Georgia College under- 
graduates from November, 1973 through November, 1980. 

2. There will be a positive increase in the scores of the undergraduates 
from November, 1973 through November, 1980. 

Results of this study showed there was a high and significant correlation 
between the undergraduates' scores on the two instruments indicating 
acceptance of the first hypothesis. 

Further results of this study showed there was not a positive increase in 
the scores of the undergraduates on the two instruments from November, 
1973 through November, 1980. Therefore the second hypotheses is 




Lelia Christie Ewton (EdS, Early Childhood Education, August, 1982) 

This study was designed to isolate the job-related stress factors that 
elementary teachers in Whitfield County, Georgia, perceive as most 
detrimental to their professional and personal welfare. All regular 
classroom teachers in kindergarten through fifth grade were asked to fill 
out the Elementary School Teachers Stress Questionnaire, which was 
developed for this project. 

Seventy job-related stressors were assigned a value of one to five by each 
respondent, with one indicating the lowest amount of stress the factor has 
caused the teacher and five indicating the highest amount. A mean for each 
item was calculated after the questionnaires were tallied. Each item 
receiving a value of 3.00 or over was considered a high-stress factor. 

Each high-stress factor was further analyzed by tables showing the 
means in relation to professional factors such as the grade level taught, 
years of teaching experience, levels of certification, and pupil-teacher 
ratios. In addition, tables were shown which compared the means in 
relation to personal factors such as the teacher's age, sex, marital status, 
and whether or not he or she had dependent children at home. 

The Pearson Correlation Coefficient test was employed on the data, 
with the level at which each hypothesis was accepted or rejected being the 
.05 level of significance or below. 


No significant differences were found in the means of the high-stress 
factors when they were compared by grade level, years of teaching 
experience, levels of certification, pupil-teacher ration, marital status, and 
whether or not the teacher has dependent children at home. 

Significant differences were found in the means when the ratings of male 
and female teachers were compared. However, these differences were 
regarded as suspect because the small number of male respondents may 
have skewed the data. 

Significant differences were found in the ratings of the high-stress I 
factors by teachers of different ages. Teachers aged 2! to 30 perceived less 
stress from job-related factors on the questionaire than any age group. 
Teachers in the 31 to 40 age bracket perceived the most stress from the 
factors. Teachers aged 41 to 50 perceived less stress that those over 51. 




Paul E. Greene (EdS, Secondary Education, March, 1983) 

The question addressed in this study was whether male students 
performed differently from female students on recognition questions, 
association questions, and performance questions contained in subject 
matter tests in a college preparatory highs school biology course. The 
subjects of the study were 87 sophomores at Lithia Springs Comprehensive 
High School in Douglas County, Georgia. The 39 male and 48 female 
subjects were randomly assigned by computer scheduling into three 
Cellular Biology 4221 classes taught during the fall quarter of the 1982-83 
school year. These three classes were taught by the same male teacher, used 
the same textbooks, and received comparable laboratory activities. 

Each of the six content tests administered to the subjects during the time 
of the study contained, in addition to other questions, 5 recognition 
questions, 5 association questions, and 5 performance questions (Collette, 
1973). Student performance was measured by determining the number of 
correct responses on these three types of questions for each male and 
female subject. The Douglas County Cellular Biology 4221 pre-test was 
administered to each subject prior to the beginning of formal instruction. 
The pre-test scores were used to adjust the scores on the content tests for 
pre-knowledge of subject matter. 

The female subjects outperformed the male subjects on all three types of 
test questions with levels of significance of .007 on recognition questions, 
.026 on association questions, and .001 on performance questions. Both 


groups performed best on the test on Cell Reproduction and worst on the 
test on Modern Genetics. The levels of significance in each instance 
exceeded the .05 level established for the rejecting of three null hypotheses: 

1 . There is no significant difference in the level of performance of male and 
female students on recognition questions. 

2. There is no significant difference in level of performance of male and 
female students on association questions. 

3. There is no significant difference in the level of performance of male and 
female students on performance questions. 

All three hypotheses were, therefore, rejected. 


Diana Hixon (EdS, Early Childhood Education. August, 1982) 

This historical research was designed in two parts. One part is an indepth 
research paper on black historical information on the subject ofr teacher's 
utilization. The other part refers to a curriculum approach including 
student activities under the program of studies. The research segment was 
constructed in such a manner that elementary teachers could teach Black 
History to their students with confidence and have a resource guide 
convenient for them to retrieve information as they find it necessary. 




Jerry Wayne Mollis (EdS, Middle Grades Education, June, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if 40 students in two sixth 
grade language arts classes at Hiram Elementary School wrote more 
developed paragraphs when writing was based on standard materials read, 
studied, and discussed in class rather than when writing was based on 
extemporaneous topics assigned by the teacher without previous study or 

The students involved in this study wrote three paragraphs based on 
reading selections read, studied, and discussed in class before the actual 
writing. They also wrote three paragraphs based on extemporaneous 
topics assigned by the teacher without any previous discussion before the 
actual writing. 

The paragraphs were scored by the teacher and two independent judges, 
both teachers of language arts or English. Five dependent variables 


(organization, grammar, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation) 
contributed to the total score which served as the sixth dependent variable. 
Then, six t-tests were computed on the dependent variables and total 
scores for the guided paragraphs and the dependent variables and total 
scores for the extemporaneous paragraphs. The purpose of the t-tests was 
to determine whether there were or were not significant differences 
between the sub-scores (awarded for each dependent variable) and total 
scores for each of the two types of paragraphs. 

The results showed that there are significant differences between each 
dependent variable and the total scores for the guided paragraphs and each 
dependent variable and the total scores for the extemporaneous 
paragraphs. According to the results of this study, students in this study 
wrote more developed paragraphs when they wrote on standard material 
read, studied, and discussed in class before the actual writing. 

Based on the .05 level of significance, each hypothesis tested in this study 
was rejected. The hypotheses for the organization and grammar subscores 
and the total scores were significantly higher on the guided paragraphs 
than they were on the extemporaneous paragraphs. On the other hand, the 
hypotheses for spelling, capitalization, and punctuation subscores were 
significantly higher on the extemporaneous paragraphs than they were on 
the guided paragraphs. Recommendations suggest the need for further 
studies in this area. 




Patricia Cole Jennings, (EdS, Secondary Education, December, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in 
personality traits as measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor 
Questionnaire between ( 1 ) girls who elect high school chemistry and those 
girls of a similar academic background who do not elect high school 
chemistry and (2) girls who elect high school chemistry and boys who elect 
high school chemistry. The project was conducted at Carrollton High 
School, Carrollton, Georgia, during the fall of 1982. College bound 
eleventh grade students who elected chemistry as a school subject 
comprised the experimental group and a randomly sampled group of 
college bound eleventh grade girls who did not elect chemistry were used as 
the control group. 

The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire and a biographical 
questionnaire were administered to each student either in the chemistry 
classroom in large groups or during free school time in small groups. 


Percentages were calculated for the biographical information response 
items and means for each of the personality factors were computed. This 
information was inspected for apparent differences. The data were 
subjected to one-way analysis of variance at the West Georgia College 
Computer Center. 

The final analysis supported two conclusions. The eleventh grade 
academic girls who elected high school chemistry were more self-assured 
that the eleventh grade academic girls who did not elect chemistry. The 
eleventh grade academic boys who elected chemistry were more tough- 
minded and assertive than the eleventh grade academic girls who elected 
chemistry. The data indicated that students whose fathers had college or 
advanced degrees were more outgoing, more emotionally stable, more 
bold, and more relaxed than students whose fathers' education did not 
extend beyond high school. Students whose mothers had college or 
advanced degrees were more outgoing and more bold than students whose 
mothers' education did not extend beyond high school. Students who 
declared an expected college major of science were found to be more 
assertive than the group who declared other areas as expected college 




1981-1982 SCHOOL YEAR 

Beity Park Lanford (EdS, Early Childhood Education, August, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to compare the scores made on the 
Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test given to students at the beginning of 
the 1981-1982 school year to the scores made on the Cobb County 
Criterion Reference Test (Language Arts, Level Six) given to students at 
the end of the 198 1-1982 school year. Students enrolled in the first grade 
classes at the Sope Creek Elementary School in Marietta, Georgia during 
the 1981-1982 school term were used in the study. 

The hypothesis stated that there would be no significant correlation 
between the scores made on the reading portion of the Metropolitan 
Reading Readiness Test and the scores made on the Cobb County 
Critertion Reference Test (Language Arts, Level Six) at the .05 level. 
Results showed a positive correlation between the two tests at the .001 

A recommendation was made that more comparative studies between 
Reading Readiness Tests and Reading Achievement Tests be conducted. It 


was further recommended that more research be conducted to determine 
what factors determine a child's reading achievement. 



Bonnie Ann Lempke (EdS, Secondary Education, June, 1982) 

This research study was designed to report and compare the findings of a 
research study which was to investigate scientifically what differences, if 
any, would be found between an experimental group who were taught a 
concentrated ten hour map and globe skills unit, and a comparison group 
who were taught the same unit of map and globe skills in an intermittent 

Subjects used in the study were students oftwo sixth grade classes at Red 
Bud Junior High School with an IQ range of 61 to 118. The experimental 
group contained thirty-two students, while the comparison group 
contained twenty-three students. The subjects involved in the study were 
from two separate Social Studies classes at the same school which is 
located in a rural area. The subjects of both the experimental and 
comparison groups were similar in age, sex, and economic status. 

The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Forms 5 and 6, were used in the study as 
the pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest. A total test score of forty was 
possible with each correct response recieving one point. The same form of 
the test was used for the pretest and delayed posttest, while a different form 
was used for the posttest. 

The pretest ITBS, Form 60 over map and globe skills was given to all 
students involved in this study on March 19, 1982. A posttest (ITBS. Form 
5) was given to the experimental group on april 5, 1982 when they had 
completed the concentrated unit of map and globe skills. The comparison 
group was given the posttest (ITBS, Form 5) on April 30, 1982 when they 
had completed the intermittent unit of map and globe skills. Both groups 
were given the delayed posttest (ITBS, Form 6) on May 19. 1982. 

Two null hypothesis were tested by Analysis of Convariance 
(ANOCOVA). The two null hypotheses were not rejected at the .05 level of 
significance. Therefore, the amount of time spent on both the concentrated 
unit and the intermittent unit in this study was not a factor. 


Two conclusions were reached as a result of this study; (1) Immediate 
recall of map and globe skills did not appear to be affected by the method 
of instruction; and (2) Delayed recall of map and globe skills did not 
appear to be affected by the method of instruction. 




Thomas N. Mathis, Jr. (EdS, Educational Administration, June, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine administrators'and teachers' 
perceptions of the in-school suspension program used in the Cobb County 
Schools. A questionnaire, developed by the researcher, was sent to high 
school administrators and teachers in Cobb county. Specific data was 
analyzed by percentage comparisons using the responses of the 
administrators compared to the responses of the teachers. The study 
showed that there was a difference in the perceptions of administrators 
compared to teachers regarding in-school suspension. 




Jan Gadd Mitchell (EdS. Early Childhood Education, August, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to develop a total curriculum for four-year- 
old children enrolled in the First Baptist Church Kindergarten in Newnan, 
Georgia. The program was designed to meet the child's physical, social, 
and intellectual needs. 

A review of literature on child development and curriculum planning 
and implementation was conducted. An investigation into the needs of 
First Baptist Church Kindergarten was carried out with interviews being 
conducted with teachers, kindergarten administrators, and parents of 
children enrolled. 

A curriculum guide entitled A Big Book on Teaching Little People was 
initiated. It included an introduction to the teacher, developmental 
characteristics of the four-year-old child, a daily schedule, unit plans 
integrated with the Bridge-To- Reading program by Polly Greenberg, and 
an end-of-t he-year evaluation checklist. 

At the end of the year, teachers, kindergarten administrators, and 
parents will evaluate the program and if deemed worthwhile, a similar 
program will be instituted for three-year-old children. 







Berti Lu Reimers Nations (EdS, Special Education, August, J 982) 

This study compared the attitudes of vocational educators with Related 
Vocational Instruction Program support (RVIP) and vocational 
educators without Related Vocational Instruction Program support 
toward special needs students in the Griffin and West Georgia Cooperativei 
Educational Service Agency (CESA) Areas in Georgia. Data was collected 
over a four month period. One hundred forty-eight regular vocational 
teachers in twenty-two high schools were given the "Mainstreaming 
Attitude Scale" (MAS). One hundred and twelve vocational teachers 
responded for a return rate of seventy-five and six-tenths percent. Seventy- 
seven of these vocational teachers had RVIP support and thirty-five did 
not. A total score for each respondent was obtained from the "MAS. "At- 
test for independent variables was used to determine that the vocational 
teachers with RVIP support had a significantly higher mean score (P= 
.001) than the vocational teachers without RVIP support. The stud> 
concluded that there was a significant difference in the attitudes toward 
special needs students held by vocational educators that receive RVIP 
support as compared to the attitudes of vocational educators that do not 
receive RVIP support. 



Carolyn B. Nichols (EdS, Middle Grades Education, August, 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if mathematics problem- 
solving achievement with sixth-grade students using a four-step method 
showed a significant difference when compared to the mathematics 
problem-solving achievement of sixth-grade students using a traditional 
textbook approach. The experimental group and the control group were 
each composed of 16 sixth-grade students at Western Elementary School 
in Coweta County, Georgia. The randomly selected groups were assumed 
to be equivalent in regard to race, sex, age, socio-economic background, 
and initial mathematics achievement. 

The study consisted of an experiment for eight actual weeks wherein the 
experimental group was taught mathematics problem solving through the 
four-step method outlined as follows: ( 1 ) Getting to know the problem, (2) 


Choosing a plan of attack, (3) Carrying out the plan, and (4) Examining 
the solution. The control group was taught mathematics problem solving 
through the use of a traditional textbook approach. Both groups were 
taught by the researcher during the 1981-82 school year. 

Two standarized mathematics achievement tests were used in the 
pretest/ posttest arrangement. The analysis of variance of the gains was 
used to test the null hypotheses using the .05 level of significance. The 
findings indicated that the four-step method of teaching mathematics 
problem solving did not result in a significant difference when compared to 
a traditional textbook approach. However, there was a significant 
difference at the .05 level favoring the experimental group in the area of 
getting to know the problem. In addition, the mean gains on all of the 
pretest/ posttest comparisons were higher for the experimental group, 
suggesting that the four-step method may have a positive effect on 
mathematics problem-solving achievement even though the data in this 
study did not indicate statistical significance. 

Based on the findings, observations, and conclusions of this study, the 
researcher recommends that further studies be made in this area to 
determine if these same findings hold true under different circumstances. 


Pauline Hodges Peek (EdS, Early Childhood Education, August, 1982) 

This study was concerned with the development of a creative writing 
model for students of Eastside School in Calhoun, Georgia. To accomplish 
this end, recent related literature was reviewed to provide a background of 
understanding ans to establish a rationale for the development of the 
model. The values attained through creative expression were noted in the 
research of the related literature. 

The developed model provided guidelines and suggested activities for 
use in each of the grades beginning with kindergarten and progressing 
through grade four. The model recognized the value of creative oral and 
written expression, applied in many areas of learning, as a means of growth 
in self-concept and the skills of writing. 






Mary Walton Sandlin (EdS, Educational Administration, August, 1982^ 

This study was an attempt to determine if any differences existed in tht 
responses of stress factors among teachers in relation to sex, age, years ol 
experience, and grade level taught. 

The subjects for this study were 154 teachers employed by the Coweta 
County Board of Education. These subjects were from eight public schools 
in Newnan, Georgia, grades K-8. There were 21 males and 133 female 
teachers serving the 3,345 students. Eighty-five teachers returned the 
questionnaire, representing 55 percent of those surveyed. This study 
excluded the rural schools in the county. 

A questionnaire was sent to each regular classroom teacher in the eight 
public schools, grades K-8, in the City of Newnan via the school system's 
courier. A letter of explanation was included with each questionnaire. The 
respondents were instructed to complete the questionnaire within two 
weeks. A self-addressed envelope was included to ensure swift return. 

The respondents were to complete the questionnaire by ranking selected 
events in teaching by the categories (1) Non-Stressful, (2) Minimally 
Stressful, (3) Moderately Stressful, and (4) Highly Stressful. These events 
were categorized as Environmental Stressors, Interpersonal Stressors, and 
Intrapersonal Stressors. The nine stress-relating questions on the 
questionnaire were used to assess the percentage of teachers who fall into 
the categories of High Stress, Moderate Stress, and Low Stress. 

An analysis of variance was employed on the data to determine if 
significant differences existed among teachers' responses in relation to age, 
sex, grade levels, and years of experience. The results did not reveal a 
significant difference in the responses of stress factors among teachers in 
relation to these variables. Scores from the nine stress-related questions 
revealed the following: low stress category - 31%; moderate stress - 50%; 
high stress category - 19%. However, respondents in this study ranked the 
following events as highly stressful: 

1 . overcrowded classrooms 56.6% 

2. too much paper work 53.0% 

3. apathetic and disinterested students 41.2% 

4. inadequate salary 38.8% 


The events measured as low stressors were as follows: 

1. physical abuse 64.7% 

2. poor self-concept 57.6% 

3. locked into same grade 54.1% 

4. feelings of isolation 51.7% 




Paula Wilson Steed (EdS, Early Childhood Education, June. 1982) 

Schools are often criticized for not meeting the individual needs of 
students. With the removal of funds in education for teacher aids and other 
special teachers, classroom teachers find it difficult to meet the needs of 
students due to a lack of manpower. The purpose of this study was to 
determine if the elementary educators in Carroll County favor using 
volunteers and would support an organized volunteer program. 

A questionnaire was developed to determine the attitudes of the 
elementary educators in Carroll County concerning the use of volunteers 
in their schools. Three hundred and thirteen survey forms were distributed; 
two hundred nineteen survey forms were completed and returned. The 
results showed that educators favor using volunteers and would support an 
organized volunteer program for their school. 

A recommendation was made that the Carroll County Board of 
Education be made aware of the value of using volunteers and of the 
attitudes of the elementary educators in Carroll County, in hopes that 
some general policies would be developed for each school's use. It was 
further recommended that administrators and teachers form a committee 
in each school to organize such a program. 


Sherry S. Warren (EdS, Guidance and Counseling, August. 1982) 

This study was designed to determine what, if any, relationship exists 
between a person's image clarity and his IQ, sex, or race. The null 
hypotheses stated that there would be no significant difference in image 
clarity and each of the three factors: IQ, sex, and race. 

The subjects of this study were students in grades eight through 10 
enrolled in the Coweta County Summer School Program in the Summer of 
1982. Sixty students participated in the study: 29 were girls, and 31 were 
boys; 25 were black, and 35 were white; 16 were sixteen-years-old, 13 were 



fifteen-years-old, 15 were fourteen-years-old, and 16 were thirteen-years 

The subjects were given the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test t( 
determine their IQ scores. The IQ scores of the 60 subjects ranged from 5: 
to 138. Eighteen students scored in the low (below 90) group, 28 student .i e 
scored in the average (90-1 10) group, and 14 scored in the high (above 110 

To determine the clarity of each subject's imagery, they were given ar 
experimental test similar to Welsh's Differential Imagery Questionnaire 
The experimental test consisted of slides of five objects made using varying 
degrees of focus so that their clarity would correspond to the following 
scale: (a) not recognizable, (b) barely recognizable, (c) recognizable, and 
(d) clear and vivid. During the experimental test, subjects were shown an 
object and asked to form a "mental picture" of that object. They were then 
to select the slide from the series that was most like their "mental picture' 
in clarity and to circle the letter of that slide on their answer sheet. 

The data were then recorded on data processing coding forms and 
submitted to the computer center at West Georgia College to compute the 
Analysis of Variance. The level of significance at which the null hypotheses 
would be rejected was established at .05. 

None of the three factors tested attained the .05 level of significance. For 
this samp's, the perception of visual mental images is not directly related to 
the factors of IQ, sex, or race. Although none of the factors attained the 
established level of significance, the sex factor came close at .06. 

Based on the findings, observations, and conclusions of this study, the 
researcher submits the following recommendations: 

1 . This study should be replicated using a spacial test for imagery in place 
of the experimental test to see if there is a significant difference between 
males and females. 

2. The experimental test used in this study should be correlated with 
known tests of visual imagery to assure that it does measure the clarity 
of one's images. 

3. This study should be replicated using a younger sample to determine 
whether clarity of imagers is related to age. 


Cheryl Jones Winston (EdS, Middle Grades Education, August 1982) 

The purpose of this study was to determine if the Rand McNally Science 
Curriculum Improvement Study (SCI IS) Science Program has a 


significant effect on student achievement in science when compared with a 

basic textbook-oriented science program. Specifically, the study sought to 

'Idetermine differences between experimental and comparison groups on 

5 science achievement test scores after basic or alternative curriculum 

I jexperiences. The purpose was the basis for the three null hypotheses. The 

experimental groups and the comparison groups were each composed of 

50 sixth-grade students who attended Midway Elementary and Pepperell 

Middle School in Floyd County, Geogia. With the presence of random 

sampling, matched I.Q. and age, it was assumed that the four groups were 


The study consisted of an evaluation that spanned four years (1978- 
198 1), wherein the experimental groups were taught science by use of the 
I Rand McNally SCIIS program. The comparison groups were taught 
science by use of the basic textbook approach. 

A science achievement test, which was a subtest of the Comprehensive 
Tests of Basic Skills, was given at the end of each year (1978-1981). The 
Analysis of Variance was used to test the hypotheses. The level at which the 
hypotheses were rejected was .05 level of probability. 

In this evaluative study the findings indicated that the Rand McNally 
Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIIS) Science Program 
resulted in significant differences in science achievement when compared 
tothe basic textbook approach. The conclusion can be reached that the 
Rand McNally SCIIS science approach for teaching science has proven to 
be significantly superior to the basic textbook approach in increased 
science achievement as tested by the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills. 

Based upon the findings, observations, and conclusions of this study, the 
researcher submits the following recommendations: 

1. This study should be replicated in this present design using samples for 
the experimental and comparison groups, who have been in the 
respecti\e curriculums for a period of six consecutive years. 

2. 1 his study should be replicated using a larger sampling selection for the 
experimental and comparison groups. 

3. This study should be conducted again to test for correlation between 
increased science achievement and other subject areas. 

4. 7 his study should be conducted again using samples from other ends of 
the intellegence scale to see if they would benefit from the Rand 
McNally SCIIS science approach. 



Aanstoos, Christopher M. I 

Publications { 

"A Phenomenological Study of Thinking." Duquesne Studies ii 
Phenomenological Psychology: Volume IV hy Amedeo Giorgi, Anthon; 
Barton, and Charles Maes, co-editors. Pittsburgh: Duquesne Universit; 
Press, 1983. 

"The Think Aloud Method in Descriptive Research." Journal o 
Phenomenological Psychology. Volume 14, No. 2 (Fall, 1983), in press 

A Phenomenological Study of Thinking as It Is Exemplified during Ches. 
Playing (doctoral dissertation, Duquesne University, 1982). Ann Arbor 
University Microfilms, 1983. (abstracted in: Dissertation Abstract: 
International, Volume 43, No. 8, 1983) 

"Review of Thought and Choice in Chess by Adrian de Grooi."" Journal oj 
Phenomenological Psychology, Volume 12, No. 1 (Spring 1981), 131-139 

Technical Reports 

"On the Definition of Psychology: A Proposal for Revision of the 
Statute." Testimony read at the Georgia State Board of Examiners ol 
Psychologists. Public Hearing on the Definition of Psychology. State 
Capitol, Atlanta, April 1, 1983. 

(with Constance Fischer, Pam Olsen, and Barbara Hanusa). Evaluation oj 
Psychological Services to Pittsburgh Non-public Schools. Funded 
research technical report to the Pittsburgh-Mt. Oliver School District, 
October, 1979. 


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